Phyllonorycter issikii (lime leafminer)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Growth Stages
- List of Symptoms/Signs
- Biology and Ecology
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Plant Trade
- Wood Packaging
- Environmental Impact
- Detection and Inspection
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Phyllonorycter issikii Kumata, 1963
Preferred Common Name
- lime leafminer
Other Scientific Names
- Lithocolletis issikii Kumata, 1963
International Common Names
- Russian: lipovaya mol-pestryanka
Local Common Names
- Czech Republic: klínenka lipová
- Finland: lehmusmiinajakoi
- Germany: Lindenminiermotte
- Hungary: hárslevél sátorosmoly
- Slovakia: ploskácik lipovy
- PRYCIS (Phyllonorycter issikii)
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Arthropoda
- Subphylum: Uniramia
- Class: Insecta
- Order: Lepidoptera
- Family: Gracillariidae
- Genus: Phyllonorycter
- Species: Phyllonorycter issikii
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
DescriptionTop of page
The morphology of the adult was addressed by Kumata (1963) and Kumata et al. (1983). The caterpillar chaetotaxy was described by Kumata (1993) and the morphology of the pupa was described by Gregor and Patocka (2001). The morphology of all the stages, including the larval chaetotaxy was studied by Sefrová (2002).
The egg is slightly elongated, ellipsoidal, and has a delicate pitting on the chorion surface. It is 0.32-0.37 mm by 0.23-0.27 mm. It is greenish-ochreous, which corresponds to the undersides of the leaves on the host plant.
The larval morphology corresponds to the morphology of other Phyllonorycter larvae. The larva is whitish-ochreous and is 4.0-5.6 mm long in the final instar. There are five larval instars. The first three instars are flat with reduced mouthparts and legs (sometimes called sap-feeding instars e.g. Kumata, 1978). The triangulate head capsule shows prognathy without spinneret, labial and maxillary palpi. There is a close group of stemmata on the head near the antennal base of these instars. The triangular mandibles with three curved cusps are moved horizontally between the huge flat labrum and the labium. The thoracic segments are strikingly dilated (especially in the first instar) compared with the abdominal segments. This characteristic decreases with the next instars. The final two instars (tissue-feeding instars) show the morphology of exophagous caterpillars. Their heads are more globular, semiprognathous and have complete mouthparts. The mandibles are more or less rectangular with five cusps on the frontal edge and they move vertically. The stemmata form a quadrangle. The thoracic legs, abdominal prolegs (on the third to fifth segments) and anal prolegs are normally shaped. The 23-38 claws of each proleg are positioned in multiple, usually irregular circles. The individual instars can be primarily distinguished according to the width of the head capsule: I: 0.14-0.16 mm; II: 0.18-0.21 mm; III: 0.25-0.28 mm; IV: 0.25-0.30 mm; and V: 0.31-0.40 mm.
The pupa is light brown to brownish-black and 3.2-4.0 mm long. Its frontal process is short and broad. It is in the shape of an equilateral triangle with distinct surface sculpture. Abdominal segments two to eight bear two pairs of rigid setae and their dorsal parts are covered with coarse thorns. The male genitalia only slightly protrude. The tenth abdominal segment is long, with a broad anal field. This has an elongate cremaster, which is round in ventral view, and elongate and strongly constricted in lateral view, with one pair of small hooked thorns at the end.
The wingspan is 6.3-8.3 mm. The adult exhibits distinct seasonal dimorphism. The aestival form has a whiteish-ochreous frons and labial palpus. The hair tuft on the head is ochreous with individual white scales. The antennae are greyish-white with black circles. The thorax is golden-ochreous, with three white lines. The forewing is golden-ochreous, with a long and narrow basal streak (occasionally indistinct), lacking a dark margin, or with individual dark scales only on its fore margin. The first (basal) transversal streaks are narrow and slope outwards. The dorsal streak is distinctly longer than the costal streak. The other three costal streaks are located close to each other before the apex. The second dorsal streak, which is before the tornus, occasionally fuses with a light tornal spot. The basal margins of all the streaks are more or less bordered with black scales. A distinct line of black scales divides the yellowish-white cilia. The hind wings and their cilia are pale grey.
The winter form (differences only) has a hair tuft on the head that is greyish-black or black with individual white scales, and is entirely white. The thorax is dark brown, and occasionally has white scales and white, indistinct lines. The forewing is grey, greyish-brown or greyish-black, mixed with white and brownish-black scales or spots. The ground colour of the winter form is very variable from pale grey to brownish-black. This striking habitual seasonal difference is possibly due to the fact that the hibernating individuals easily escape the attention of their predators in overwintering shelters. No sexual dimorphism has been observed.
DistributionTop of page
During the 1980s, P. issikii was found in Moscow and later in several other towns of Russia and Ukraine (Osipova, 1990; Kozlov, 1991; Mey, 1991; Orlinskij et al., 1991; Sefrová, 2002). It seems that the species was introduced from eastern Asia to Moscow or to other towns of the European part of the USSR. Anemochoric (air current) transportation from eastern Asia to Russia or a stepwise spontaneous spread through Siberia are not possible because its food plant, Tilia spp., shows no continuous distribution between eastern and western parts of the Palaearctic region (e.g. Dubatolov and Kosterin, 2000).
During the 1980s, P. issikii was also recorded in Kiev, and since that time it has spread to the west, via the north. It was first found in southeastern Poland in 1996, in Lithuania in 1997 (Noreika, 1998) and in Belorussia and Latvia in 1998, when it occupied a third of eastern Poland (Buszko et al., 2000; Buszko and Nowacki, 2000). In 1999, it had reached the eastern half of Poland. In 2000, the first mines were observed in the Czech and Slovak Republics (Sefrová et al., 2000; Tokár 2002), southern Austria and northern Hungary (Sefrová, 2002; Szabóky and Csóka, 2003). In 2001, the mines were observed in eastern Germany and Estonia, and in 2002, in Finland (Leinonen and Kaitila, 2003). The spread of this species continues in a west and southwest direction.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 12 May 2022
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Belarus||Present, Widespread||Introduced||1998||Invasive||Original citation: Buszko et al. (2000)|
|Latvia||Present, Widespread||Introduced||1998||Invasive||Original citation: Buszko et al. (2000)|
|Lithuania||Present, Few occurrences||Introduced||2001||Invasive|
|-Central Russia||Present, Localized||Introduced||2001||Invasive|
|-Russian Far East||Present, Localized||Native|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
HabitatTop of page
Habitat ListTop of page
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
|Tilia americana (basswood)||Tiliaceae||Unknown|
|Tilia amurensis (amur lime)||Tiliaceae||Main|
|Tilia cordata (small-leaf lime)||Tiliaceae||Main|
|Tilia mandshurica (mandchurian linden)||Tiliaceae||Main|
|Tilia platyphyllos (large-leaved lime)||Tiliaceae||Main|
|Tilia tomentosa (silver lime)||Tiliaceae||Other|
Growth StagesTop of page
SymptomsTop of page
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Leaves / abnormal forms|
|Leaves / internal feeding|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
Development of the summer generation is temperature-dependent and is usually completed in 4-7 weeks. In laboratory experiments at 25°C, the larvae develop in 13 days and the pupae develop in 6 days. At 20°C, the larva lasts 17 days and the pupa lasts 8 days. The development times of the individual larval instars are: I: 2-7 days; II: 2-8 days; III: 3-8 days; IV: 3-8 days; and V: 3-8 days.
The hibernating moths (dark winter forms) emerge after 10 August but generally only from the end of August and the beginning of September to 10 October. The pupae can also be recorded in the latter half of October. The complete development of this generation lasts 8-11 weeks. The leaf epidermis of Tilia spp. is very soft and thin so that it is easily disrupted and decays after the leaves drop. This is probably the main reason why the moths of this species hibernate after they emerge and before the leaves drop. The individuals of the summer and winter forms are dissimilar (cf. morphology).
Natural enemiesTop of page
|Natural enemy||Type||Life stages||Specificity||References||Biological control in||Biological control on|
|Lecanicillium aphanocladii||Pathogen||Arthropods|Larvae||Peciulyte and Kacergius (2012)|
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
P. issikii mostly shows a scattered distribution. There is no distinct boundary to its forward progression of dispersal. Long-distance dispersal appears to be on air currents. The adults are nocturnal and only move over short distances of upto 1000 m.
Movement in Trade
As with many other Phyllonorycter species, the dispersal of pupae in fallen leaves is impossible because the adults always emerge before the leaves drop. The transportation of eggs, larvae and pupae with the host plants is very improbable because lime plants (seedlings) are not evergreen and they are transported without leaves. The eggs and larvae can only survive in fresh living leaves. The adults hibernate in various crevices and other shelters and their passive transportation during hibernation in containers, boxes etc. is both possible and probable (Sefrová, 2002, 2003).
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Bark||arthropods/adults||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Fruits (inc. pods)|
|Growing medium accompanying plants|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches|
|True seeds (inc. grain)|
Wood PackagingTop of page
|Wood Packaging liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Timber type||Used as packing|
|Loose wood packing material||various material with small crevices||No|
|Processed or treated wood||various material with small crevices||No|
|Solid wood packing material with bark||various material with small crevices||No|
|Solid wood packing material without bark||various material with small crevices||No|
|Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
ImpactTop of page
Environmental ImpactTop of page
DiagnosisTop of page
Detection and InspectionTop of page
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.It is possible that during the initial years of its spread, the population density of P. issikii may increase. However, the abiotic factors and the biotic antagonistic species, identical to those that regulate the densities of the related autochthonous taxa, may control this. This is demonstrated most efficiently by the fact that 10-20% parasitism of P. issikii, mostly by wasps of the superfamily Chalcidoidea, was observed during the first year of its discovery and up to 40% parasitism was observed in the following years. Chemical control or other control practices will probably be unnecessary.
ReferencesTop of page
Buszko J; Nowacki J, 2000. The Lepidoptera of Poland. A distributional checklist. Polish Entomological Monographs, 1:1-178.
Buszko J; Sefrová H; Lastuvka Z, 2000. Invasive species of Lithocolletinae in Europe and their spreading (Gracillariidae). In: XII European Congress of Lepidopterology SEL, Programme and Abstracts. Bialowieza, Poland, 29 May-2 June 2000, 22-23.
Deschka G, 1995. Schmetterlinge als Einwanderer. Stapfia 37, zugleich Kataloge des O+. Landesmuseum N. F., 84:77-128.
Dobrosavljević, J., Marković, Č., Stojanović, A., 2018. Contribution to the knowledge of Phyllonorycter issikii (Kumata, 1963) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in Serbia. Acta Entomologica Serbica, 23(1), 25-32. doi: 10.5281/zenodo.1213045
Dubatolov VV; Kosterin OE, 2000. Nemoral species of Lepidoptera (Insecta) in Siberia: a novel view on their history and the timing of their range disjunctions. Entomologica Fennica, 11:141-166.
EPPO, 2003. Phyllonorycter issikii. European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization, Paris, France. Retrieved September, 15, 2003 from http://www.eppo.org/QUARANTINE/Alert_List/Insects/phissikii.html.
EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm
Ermolaev VP, 1978. [A review of the fauna and ecology of miner-moth (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) of the Primorye Territory]. Proceedings of the Zoological Institute. Academy of Sciences of the USSR, 70:98-116 (in Russian).
Graf F; Leutsch H; Nuss M; Stübner A; Wauer S, 2002. Aktuelle Daten zur Kleinschmetterlingsfauna von Sachsen mit Hinweisen zu anderen BundeslSndern (Lep.) III. Entomologische Nachrichten und Berichte, 46:99-104.
Gregor F; Patocka J, 2001. Die Puppen der mitteleuropischen Lithocolletinae (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). Mitteilungen des Internationalen Entomologischen Vereins e. V. Frankfurt a. M., Suppl. 8:1-176.
Huisman KJ; Koster JC; Muus TST, 2013. Microlepidoptera in The Netherlands in 2007-2010. (Microlepidoptera in Nederland, vooral in 2007-2010: met een terugblik op 30 jaar faunistisch onderzoek.) Entomologische Berichten, 73(3):91-117. http://www.nev.nl
Kollár, J., Donoval, L'., 2013. Diversity of phyllophagous organisms on woody plants in the botanical garden in Nitra, Slovakia. Acta Entomologica Serbica, 18(1/2), 195-205. http://www.eds.org.rs/AES/Vol18/AES%2018%20-%20Kollar%20&%20Donoval.pdf
Kumata T, 1963. Taxonomic studies on the Lithocolletinae of Japan (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), I.-III. Insecta Matsumurana, 25:53-90, 26:1-48, 26:69-88.
Kumata T, 1978. A new stem-miner of alder in Japan, with a review of the larval transformation in the Gracillariidae (Lepidoptera). Insecta Matsumurana (NS), 13:1-27.
Kumata T, 1993. A contribution to the knowledge of the Malaysian Lithocolletinae (Gracillariidae, Lepidoptera), with a revision of Indian Cameraria associated with Leguminosae [Fabaceae]. Insecta Matsumurana, 48:85 pp.
Kuznetzov VI; Kozlov MV; Seksyaeva SV, 1988. To the systematics and phylogeny of mining moths Gracillariidae, Bucculatriciidae and Lyonetiidae (Lepidoptera) with consideration of functional and comparative morphology of male genitalia. Proceedings of the Zoological Institute. Academy of Sciences of the USSR, 176:52-71 (in Russian with English summary).
Leinonen R; Kaitila J, 2003. Keskilämpötilan nousu näkyy hyönteislajistossa - useiden lajien levinneisyysaule siirtynyt Suomessa satoja kilometrejlä pohjoisemmaksi. Retrieved September, 15, 2003 from http://www.vyh.fi/ajankoht/tiedote/kai/perhoset_03.htm.
Matosevic D, 2008. Newly discovered species of leaf miners of woody plants in Croatia and their danger. (Novounesene invazivne vrste lisnih minera drvenastog bilja u hrvatskoj i njihova stetnost.) Glasilo Biljne Zastite, 8(4):256-261.
Mey W, 1991. Über die Bedeutung autochthoner Parasitoidenkomplexe bei der rezenten Arealexpansion von vier Phyllonorycter-Arten in Europa (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera). Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin, 67:177-194.
Noreika R, 1998. Phyllonorycter issikii (Kumata) (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) in Lithuania. Acta Zoologica Lituanica, Entomologia, 8:34-37.
Osipova AS, 1990. Lepidoptera Gracillariidae and its role in the complex of phyllophages of lime trees in Prioksko-Terrasni biospheric reservation. In: Reservations in the USSR - their present and future. Novgorod, 107-109 (in Russian).
Sefrová H, 2002. Phyllonorycter issikii (Kumata, 1963) - bionomics, ecological impact and spread in Europe (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae). Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis, 50(3):99-104.
Sefrová H, 2003. Invasions of Lithocolletinae species in Europe - causes, kinds, limits and ecological impact (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae). Ekológia (Bratislava), 22:132-142.
Sefrová H; Lastuvka A; Petru M, 2000. Faunistic records from the Czech Republic - 122. Klapalekiana, 36:326.
Szabóky C; Csóka G, 2003. The occurrence of the leaf miner Phyllonorycter issikii Kumata, 1963 Lep. Gracillariidae in Hungary. Novenyvedelem, 39(1):23-24; 2 ref.
Tokár Z; Richter I; Pastorális G; Slamka F, 2002. New and interesting records of Lepidoptera of Slovakia from the years 1998-2001. Entomofauna Carpathica, 14:1-11.
Buszko J, Nowacki J, 2000. The Lepidoptera of Poland. A distributional checklist. In: Polish Entomological Monographs, 1 1-178.
CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Dobrosavljević J, Marković Č, Stojanović A, 2018. Contribution to the knowledge of Phyllonorycter issikii (Kumata, 1963) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in Serbia. Acta Entomologica Serbica. 23 (1), 25-32. DOI:10.5281/zenodo.1213045
Ermolaev VP, 1978. A review of the fauna and ecology of miner-moth (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) of the Primorye Territory. [Proceedings of the Zoological Institute], 70 Academy of Sciences of the USSR. 98-116.
Huisman K J, Koster J C, Muus T S T, 2013. Microlepidoptera in The Netherlands in 2007-2010. (Microlepidoptera in Nederland, vooral in 2007-2010: met een terugblik op 30 jaar faunistisch onderzoek.). Entomologische Berichten. 73 (3), 91-117. http://www.nev.nl
Kollár J, Donoval L', 2013. Diversity of phyllophagous organisms on woody plants in the botanical garden in Nitra, Slovakia. Acta Entomologica Serbica. 18 (1/2), 195-205. http://www.eds.org.rs/AES/Vol18/AES%2018%20-%20Kollar%20&%20Donoval.pdf
Kumata T, 1963. Taxonomic studies on the Lithocolletinae of Japan (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), I.-III. In: Insecta Matsumurana, 25:53-90, 26:1-48, 26:69-88,
Leinonen R, Kaitila J, 2003. (Keskilämpötilan nousu näkyy hyönteislajistossa - useiden lajien levinneisyysaule siirtynyt Suomessa satoja kilometrejlä pohjoisemmaksi)., http://www.vyh.fi/ajankoht/tiedote/kai/perhoset_03.htm
Matošević D, 2008. Newly discovered species of leaf miners of woody plants in Croatia and their danger. (Novounesene invazivne vrste lisnih minera drvenastog bilja u hrvatskoj i njihova stetnost.). Glasilo Biljne Zaštite. 8 (4), 256-261.
Mey W, 1991. (Über die Bedeutung autochthoner Parasitoidenkomplexe bei der rezenten Arealexpansion von vier Phyllonorycter-Arten in Europa (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera)). In: Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin, 67 177-194.
Noreika R, 1998. Phyllonorycter issikii (Kumata) (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) in Lithuania. In: Acta Zoologica Lituanica, Entomologia, 8 34-37.
Osipova AS, 1990. Lepidoptera Gracillariidae and its role in the complex of phyllophages of lime trees in Prioksko-Terrasni biospheric reservation. In: Reservations in the USSR - their present and future, Novgorod, 107-109.
Seebens H, Blackburn T M, Dyer E E, Genovesi P, Hulme P E, Jeschke J M, Pagad S, Pyšek P, Winter M, Arianoutsou M, Bacher S, Blasius B, Brundu G, Capinha C, Celesti-Grapow L, Dawson W, Dullinger S, Fuentes N, Jäger H, Kartesz J, Kenis M, Kreft H, Kühn I, Lenzner B, Liebhold A, Mosena A (et al), 2017. No saturation in the accumulation of alien species worldwide. Nature Communications. 8 (2), 14435. http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms14435
Šefrová H, 2002. Phyllonorycter issikii (Kumata, 1963) - bionomics, ecological impact and spread in Europe (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae). Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis. 50 (3), 99-104.
Sefrová H, Lastuvka A, Petru M, 2000. Faunistic records from the Czech Republic - 122. In: Klapalekiana, 36 326.
Szabóky C, Csóka G, 2003. The occurrence of the leaf miner Phyllonorycter issikii Kumata, 1963 Lep. Gracillariidae in Hungary. (A hárslevél sátorosmoly (Phyllonorycter issikii Kumata, 1963 Lep. Gracillariidae) előfordulása Magyarországon.). Növényvédelem. 39 (1), 23-24.
Tokár Z, Richter I, Pastorális G, Slamka F, 2002. New and interesting records of Lepidoptera of Slovakia from the years 1998-2001. In: Entomofauna Carpathica, 14 1-11.
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