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Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Phyllonorycter crataegella
(apple blotch leafminer)

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Datasheet

Phyllonorycter crataegella (apple blotch leafminer)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Phyllonorycter crataegella
  • Preferred Common Name
  • apple blotch leafminer
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Mating pair of the apple blotch leafminer, Phyllonorycter crataegella, in a laboratory cage. The length of the forewing is 2.5-4.3 mm.
TitleMating pair
CaptionMating pair of the apple blotch leafminer, Phyllonorycter crataegella, in a laboratory cage. The length of the forewing is 2.5-4.3 mm.
CopyrightChris Maier
Mating pair of the apple blotch leafminer, Phyllonorycter crataegella, in a laboratory cage. The length of the forewing is 2.5-4.3 mm.
Mating pairMating pair of the apple blotch leafminer, Phyllonorycter crataegella, in a laboratory cage. The length of the forewing is 2.5-4.3 mm.Chris Maier
Egg of the apple blotch leafminer, Phyllonorycter crataegella, on the underside of an apple leaf.
TitleEgg
CaptionEgg of the apple blotch leafminer, Phyllonorycter crataegella, on the underside of an apple leaf.
CopyrightChris Maier
Egg of the apple blotch leafminer, Phyllonorycter crataegella, on the underside of an apple leaf.
EggEgg of the apple blotch leafminer, Phyllonorycter crataegella, on the underside of an apple leaf.Chris Maier
Tentiform mine of the apple blotch leafminer, Phyllonorycter crataegella, on an apple leaf (viewed from above).
TitleTentiform mine on leaf
CaptionTentiform mine of the apple blotch leafminer, Phyllonorycter crataegella, on an apple leaf (viewed from above).
CopyrightChris Maier
Tentiform mine of the apple blotch leafminer, Phyllonorycter crataegella, on an apple leaf (viewed from above).
Tentiform mine on leafTentiform mine of the apple blotch leafminer, Phyllonorycter crataegella, on an apple leaf (viewed from above).Chris Maier
Adult female of Sympiesis marylandensis, the principal primary parasitoid of the apple blotch leafminer, Phyllonorycter crataegella.
TitleParasitoid of P. crataegella
CaptionAdult female of Sympiesis marylandensis, the principal primary parasitoid of the apple blotch leafminer, Phyllonorycter crataegella.
CopyrightChris Maier
Adult female of Sympiesis marylandensis, the principal primary parasitoid of the apple blotch leafminer, Phyllonorycter crataegella.
Parasitoid of P. crataegellaAdult female of Sympiesis marylandensis, the principal primary parasitoid of the apple blotch leafminer, Phyllonorycter crataegella.Chris Maier

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Phyllonorycter crataegella (Clemens)

Preferred Common Name

  • apple blotch leafminer

Other Scientific Names

  • Lithocolletis crataegella Clemens
  • Lithocolletis malimalifoliella Braun
  • Phyllonorycter malimalifoliella (Braun)

International Common Names

  • English: leafminer, apple blotch
  • French: mineuse-tache du pommier

Local Common Names

  • USA: spotted tentiform leafminer

EPPO code

  • LITHCR (Lithocolletis crataegella)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Gracillariidae
  •                             Genus: Phyllonorycter
  •                                 Species: Phyllonorycter crataegella

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Growth Stages

Top of page Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / premature drop
Fruit / reduced size
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / internal feeding

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Apanteles bourquini Parasite Larvae Connecticut apples
Holcothorax testaceipes Parasite Connecticut apples
Pholetesor ornigis Parasite Larvae USA; Connecticut apples
Sympiesis marylandensis Parasite Larvae USA; Connecticut apples

References

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Alm SR; Weires RW; Lamb RC; Nielsen RA; Vankirk JR, 1985. Susceptibility of Malus spp. to the apple blotch leafminer (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). Environmental Entomology, 14(3):228-230

Barrett BA, 1994. Within-tree distribution of Phyllonorycter blancardella (F.) and P. crataegella (Clemens) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) and associated levels of parasitism in commercial apple orchards. Biological Control, 4(1):74-79

Beckham CM; Hough WS; Hill CH, 1950. Biology and control of the spotted tentiform leaf miner on apple trees. Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin, 114:1-19.

Borden AD; Lange WH; Madsen HF, 1953. A spotted tentiform leaf miner outbreak in California orchards. Journal of Economic Entomology, 46:519.

Braun AF, 1908. New species of Lithocolletis. Entomological News, 19:99-107.

Braun AF, 1908. Revision of North American species of the genus Lithocolletis Hübner. Transactions of the American Entomological Society, 34:269-357.

Brown MW; Adler CRL; Weires RW, 1988. Insects associated with apple in the Mid Atlantic states. New York's Food and Life Sciences Bulletin, 124:1-31.

Clemens B, 1859. Contributions to American lepidopterology.-No. 2. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadephia, 1859:317-328.

Coli WM; Green TA; Hosmer TA; Prokopy RJ, 1985. Use of visual traps for monitoring insect pests in the Massachusetts apple IPM program. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 14(3/4):251-265.

Coli WM; Leahy K, 1994. Current and potential management tactics for leafminers (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in North American apple orchards. In: Maier CT, ed. Integrated Management of Tentiform Leafminers, Phyllonorycter spp. (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), in North American Apple Orchards. Lanham, Maryland: Thomas Say Publications in Entomology, Entomological Society of America, 67-82.

Driesche RG van; Clark JM; Brooks MW; Drummond FJ, 1985. Comparative toxicity of orchard insecticides to the apple blotch leafminer, Phyllonorycter cratpgella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), and its eulophid parasitoid, Sympiesis marylandensis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 78(4):926-932

Driesche RG van; Elkinton JS; Bellows TS, 1994. Potential use of life tables to evaluate the impact of parasitism on population growth of Phyllonorycter crataegella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). In: CT Maier ed. Integrated Management of Tentiform Leafminers, Phyllonorycter spp. (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), in North American apple orchards. Proceedings Thomas Say Publications in Entomology, Lanham MD, USA: Entomological Society of America. pp. 37-51.

Driesche RG van; Prokopy RJ; Christie M, 1994. Effect of second-stage IPM practices on parasitism of apple blotch leafminer (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) larvae in Massachusetts apple orchards. Environmental Entomology, 23(1):140-146

Driesche RG van; Taub G, 1983. Impact of parasitoids on Phyllonorycter leafminers infesting apple in Massachusetts, USA. Protection Ecology, 5(4):303-317

Driesche RGvan; Mason JL; Wright SE; Prokopy RJ, 1998. Effect of reduced insecticide and fungicide use on parasitism of leafminers (Phyllonorycter spp.) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in commercial apple orchards. Environmental Entomology, 27(3):578-582; 19 ref.

Drummond FA; Driesche RG van; Logan PA, 1985. Model for the temperature-dependent emergence of overwintering Phyllonorycter cratpgella (Clemens) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), and its parasitoid, Sympiesis marylandensis Girault (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). Environmental Entomology, 14(3):305-311

Ferrao P; Gries G; Wimalaratne PDC; Maier CT; Gries R; Slessor KN; Li JianXiong, 1998. Sex pheromone of apple blotch leafminer, Phyllonorycter crataegella, and its effect on P. mespilella pheromone communication. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 24(12):2059-2078; 32 ref.

Finnamore DB, 1958. Insects of the season 1957 in New Brunswick. Canadian Insect Pest Review, 36:105-107.

Gagne RS; Barrett BA, 1994. Seasonal occurrence and density of Phyllonorycter spp. (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) and major parasitoids in Missouri apple orchards. Environmental Entomology, 23(1):198-207

Gambino P; Sullivan DJ, 1982. Phenology of emergence of the spotted tentiform leafminer, Phyllonorycter cratpgella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) and its parasitoids in New York. Journal of the New York Entomological Society, 90(4):229-236

Green TA; Prokopy RJ, 1986. Visual monitoring trap for the apple blotch leafminer moth, Phyllonorycter cratpgella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). Environmental Entomology, 15(3):562-566

Green TA; Prokopy RJ, 1991. Oviposition behavior of the apple blotch leafminer, Phyllonorycter crataegella (Clemens) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). Journal of the New York Entomological Society, 99(4):654-663

Green TA; Prokopy RJ, 1998. Diurnal behavior of the apple blotch leafminer moth, Phyllonorycter crataegella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). Canadian Entomologist, 130(4):415-425; 12 ref.

Hagley EAC; Pree DJ; Simpson CM; Hikichi A, 1981. Toxicity of insecticides to parasites of the spotted tentiform leafminer (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). Canadian Entomologist, 113(10):899-906

Koehler GW, 1998. New England Pest Management Guide. Cooperative Extension, Universities of Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont. Orono, Maine: University of Maine.

Landry JF; Wagner DL, 1995. Taxonomic review of apple-feeding species of Phyllonorycter Hnbner (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) in North America. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 97(3):603-625; 48 ref.

Legner EF; Oatman ER, 1962. Foliage feeding Lepidoptera on young non-bearing apple trees in Wisconsin. Journal of Economic Entomology, 55:552-554.

LeRoux EJ; Parent B, 1956. Note on the leafminer Lithocolletis malimalifoliella Braun (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) as an apple pest in Quebec. Canadian Entomologist, 88:515.

Maier CT, 1981. Seasonal occurrence, abundance, and leaf damage of the apple blotch leafminer, Phyllonorycter cratpgella, in Connecticut apple orchards. Environmental Entomology, 10(5):645-649

Maier CT, 1982. Parasitism of the apple blotch leafminer, Phyllonorycter cratpgella, on sprayed and unsprayed apple trees in Connecticut. Environmental Entomology, 11(3):603-610

Maier CT, 1983. Effect of the apple blotch leafminer (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) on apple leaf abscission. Journal of Economic Entomology, 76(6):1265-1268

Maier CT, 1983. Relative abundance of the spotted tentiform leafminer, Phyllonorycter blancardella (F.), and the apple blotch leafminer, P. cratpgella (Clemens) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), on sprayed and unsprayed apple trees in Connecticut. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 76(6):992-995

Maier CT, 1985. Rosaceous hosts of Phyllonorycter species (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in New England. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 78(6):826-830

Maier CT, 1988. Gracillariid hosts of Sympiesis marylandensis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in New England. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 81(5):728-732

Maier CT, 1988. Parasitoid fauna of two Phyllonorycter spp. (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) on wild cherries, and similarity to fauna of apple leafminers. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 81(3):460-466

Maier CT, 1990. Potential for the biological control of apple leafminers by parasitic wasps. Proceedings - Annual Meeting, Massachusetts Fruit Growers' Association Inc., 96:60-74

Maier CT, 1992. Seasonal development, flight activity, and density of Sympiesis marylandensis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a parasitoid of leaf-mining Phyllonorycter spp. (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), in Connecticut apple orchards and forests. Environmental Entomology, 21(1):164-172

Maier CT, 1993. Inoculative Release and Establishment of Holcothorax testacepies (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae), a Palaearctic agent for the biological control of Phyllonorycter spp. (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) in Connecticut Apple Orchards. Journal of Economic Entomology, 86(4):1069-1077.

Maier CT, 1994. Biology and impact of parasitoids of Phyllonorycter blancardella and P. crataegella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in northeastern North American apple orchards. In: Maier CT, ed. Integrated Management of Tentiform Leafminers, Phyllonorycter spp. (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), in North American Apple Orchards. Lanham, Maryland: Thomas Say Publications in Entomology, Entomological Society of America, 6-24.

Maier CT; Davis DR, 1989. Southern New England host and distributional records of lithocolletine Gracillariidae (Lepidoptera) with comparison of host specificity in temperate regions. Miscellaneous Publications of the Entomological Society of America, No. 70:v + 23 pp.

Maier CT; Weseloh RM, 1995. Spatial distribution of Sympiesis marylandensis Girault (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in apple orchards infested by its host, the apple blotch leafminer, Phyllonorycter crataegella (Clemens) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). Canadian Entomologist, 127(2):235-243

Oatman ER, 1985. Parasites associated with lepidopterous leaf miners on apple in northeastern Wisconsin. Journal of Economic Entomology, 78(5):1063-1066

Parent B, 1962. Observations sur trois nouveaux insectes nuisibles aux pommiers dans le Quebéc: Thamnosphecia scitula scitula Harris (LFpidoptéres: Aegeriidae), Lithocolletis crataegella Clem. (LFpidoptéres: Lithocolletidae), et Quadraspidiotus ostreaeformis Curtis (HomoptFres: Diaspididae). Annales de la Société Entomologique du Quebéc, 7:19-24.

Pottinger RP; LeRoux EJ, 1971. The biology and dynamics of Lithocolletis blancardella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). Memoirs Entomological Society of Canada, 77:1-437.

Pree DJ; Marshall DB; Whitty KJ; Archibald DE, 1994. Management of insecticide resistance in Phyllonorycter spp. (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) and effects on their parasitoids. In: CT Maier ed. Integrated Management of Tentiform Leafminers, Phyllonorycter spp. (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), in North American apple orchards. Proceedings Thomas Say Publications in Entomology, Lanham MD, USA: Entomological Society of America. pp. 53-66.

Prokopy RJ; Mason JL; Wright SE, 1997. Action thresholds for controlling Phyllonorycter crataegella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) leafminers based on pre-bloom captures of adults on visual traps. Journal of Agricultural Entomology, 14(2):163-169; 14 ref.

Reissig WH; Weires RW; Forshey CG, 1982. Effects of gracillariid leafminers on apple tree growth and production. Environmental Entomology, 11(4):958-963

Ridgway NM; Mahr DL, 1985. Natural enemies of the spotted tentiform leafminer, Phyllonorycter blancardella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), in sprayed and unsprayed apple orchards in Wisconsin. Environmental Entomology, 14(4):459-463

Ridgway NM; Mahr DL, 1989. Laboratory methods for rearing spotted tentiform leafminer (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) and two of its parasitoids. Journal of Economic Entomology, 82(1):319-321

Ridgway NM; Mahr DL, 1990. Reproduction, development, longevity, and host mortality of Sympiesis marylandensis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a parasitoid of spotted tentiform leafminer (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), in the laboratory. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 83(4):795-799

Stultz HT, 1964. Lithocolletis blancardella Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Gracilariidae [sic]) on apple in eastern North America with notes on other species occurring on Rosaceae. Canadian Entomologist, 96:1442-1449.

Trimble RM, 1994. Conservation of Pholetesor ornigis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of Phyllonorycter blancardella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in Ontario. In: CT Maier ed. Integrated Management of Tentiform Leafminers, Phyllonorycter spp. (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), in North American apple orchards. Proceedings Thomas Say Publications in Entomology, Lanham MD, USA: Entomological Society of America. pp. 25-36.

Trimble RM; Pree DJ; Vickers PM, 1990. Survey for insecticide resistance in some Ontario populations of the apple leafminer parasite, Pholetesor ornigis (Weed) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Canadian Entomologist, 122(9-10):969-973

Varela LG; Welter SC, 1992. Parasitoids of the leafminer, Phyllonorycter nr. elmaella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), on apple in California: abundance, impact on leafminer, and insecticide-induced mortality. Biological Control, 2(2):124-130

Weires RW, 1977. Control of Phyllonorycter cratpgella in eastern New York. Journal of Economic Entomology, 70(4):521-523

Weires RW; Davis DR; Leeper JR; Reissig WH, 1980. Distribution and parasitism of gracillariid leafminers on apple in the northeast. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 73(5):541-546

Weires RW; Leeper JR; Reissig WH; Lienk SE, 1982. Toxicity of several insecticides to the spotted tentiform leafminer (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) and its parasite, Apanteles ornigis. Journal of Economic Entomology, 75(4):680-684

Whitfield JB; Wagner DL, 1988. Patterns in host ranges within the Nearctic species of the parasitoid genus Pholetesor Mason (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Environmental Entomology, 17(3):608-615

Distribution Maps

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