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Phyllonorycter blancardella
(spotted tentiform leafminer)

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Datasheet

Phyllonorycter blancardella (spotted tentiform leafminer)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Phyllonorycter blancardella
  • Preferred Common Name
  • spotted tentiform leafminer
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Phyllonorycter blancardella (spotted tentiform leafminer); adults. Museum set specimens.
TitleAdults
CaptionPhyllonorycter blancardella (spotted tentiform leafminer); adults. Museum set specimens.
Copyright©David Agassiz
Phyllonorycter blancardella (spotted tentiform leafminer); adults. Museum set specimens.
AdultsPhyllonorycter blancardella (spotted tentiform leafminer); adults. Museum set specimens.©David Agassiz
Phyllonorycter blancardella (spotted tentiform leafminer); upper surface of apple leaf with larval mine.
TitleLarval leaf mine
CaptionPhyllonorycter blancardella (spotted tentiform leafminer); upper surface of apple leaf with larval mine.
CopyrightElisenda Olivella
Phyllonorycter blancardella (spotted tentiform leafminer); upper surface of apple leaf with larval mine.
Larval leaf minePhyllonorycter blancardella (spotted tentiform leafminer); upper surface of apple leaf with larval mine.Elisenda Olivella

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Phyllonorycter blancardella (Fabricius, 1781)

Preferred Common Name

  • spotted tentiform leafminer

Other Scientific Names

  • Lithocolletis blancardella Fabricius
  • Lithocolletis concomitella Bankes
  • Phyllonorycta blancardella auct. (a.o. Alford, 1984)
  • Phyllonorycter concomitella Bankes
  • Tinea blancardella Fabricius

International Common Names

  • French: mineuse marbré

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Faltenmotte, Apfel-; Motte, Apfelblattblueten-; Motte, Blattaschen-
  • Hungary: almalevél-aknázómoly
  • Italy: litocollete marmorizzata; minatrice marmorizzata
  • Netherlands: Appelvouwmijnmot
  • Turkey: yaprak galeri guvesi

EPPO code

  • LITHBL (Phyllonorycter blancardella)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Gracillariidae
  •                             Genus: Phyllonorycter
  •                                 Species: Phyllonorycter blancardella

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Asia

IranPresent, LocalizedEsmaili (1972)
IsraelPresent, LocalizedPlaut (1975); Oppenheim et al. (1997)
TurkeyPresentMedvedev (1990)

Europe

AlbaniaPresent, WidespreadIsufi and Myrta (1996)
BelgiumPresent, WidespreadPaternotte (1994); Paternotte (1997)
BulgariaPresentDimova (1988)
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresentDimić (1984); Krnjajić et al. (1993)
FinlandPresentPeltotalo and Tuovinen (1986)
FrancePresent, WidespreadCanson and Faucon (1992)
GermanyPresent, WidespreadBaufeld and Freier (1990)
HungaryPresent, WidespreadSeprős and Bakó (1989); Jenser et al. (1997)
ItalyPresentCiampolini et al. (1988); Pasqualini (1993)
LithuaniaPresent, WidespreadBuda and Adomavichyute (1992); Ivinskis (1993)
MoldovaPresent, WidespreadMedvedev (1990); Ishchenko et al. (1996)
NetherlandsPresent, WidespreadFrankenhuyzen (1983); Blommers and Waal (1996)
PolandPresent, WidespreadNiemczyk (1992); Maciesiak (1995)
RomaniaPresent, WidespreadMinoiu and Boaru (1989); Ghizdavu et al. (1990)
RussiaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-Central RussiaPresentMedvedev (1990)
-Southern RussiaPresent, WidespreadMedvedev (1990); CABI (Undated)
-Western SiberiaPresentMedvedev (1990)
SlovakiaPresent, WidespreadŠurina (1995)
SpainPresentOlivella (1997); Olivella (1997a)
SwitzerlandPresent, WidespreadCasas (1991)
UkrainePresentMedvedev (1990); CABI (Undated)
United KingdomPresentAlford (1984); Emmet et al. (1985)
-ScotlandPresent, LocalizedEmmet et al. (1985)

North America

CanadaPresentLandry and Wagner (1995)
-British ColumbiaPresent, WidespreadLandry and Wagner (1995)
-Nova ScotiaPresent, WidespreadPottinger and LeRoux (1971); Gries et al. (1993)
-OntarioPresent, WidespreadTrimble (1986); Trimble (1986a); Thistlewood (1991); Villanueva and Harmsen (1996)
-QuebecPresent, WidespreadPottinger and LeRoux (1971); Vincent et al. (1986); Vincent et al. (1997)
United StatesPresent, WidespreadLandry and Wagner (1995)
-ConnecticutPresent, WidespreadMaier (1984)
-GeorgiaPresent, WidespreadWalgenbach et al. (1990)
-MassachusettsPresent, WidespreadGries et al. (1993); CABI (Undated)
-MichiganPresent, WidespreadDutcher and Howitt (1978); Rock et al. (1993)
-MissouriPresent, WidespreadBarrett (1992); CABI (Undated)
-New YorkPresent, WidespreadWeires et al. (1980); Lawson et al. (1994); Schmaedick and Nyrop (1995)
-North CarolinaPresent, WidespreadWalgenbach et al. (1990); Rock et al. (1993)
-OregonPresent, WidespreadLandry and Wagner (1995)
-PennsylvaniaPresent, WidespreadRock et al. (1993)
-South CarolinaPresent, WidespreadWalgenbach et al. (1990)
-WashingtonPresent, WidespreadLandry and Wagner (1995)
-West VirginiaPresent, WidespreadRock et al. (1993); Hogmire and Peterson (1997)
-WisconsinPresent, WidespreadRidgway and Mahr (1985)

Growth Stages

Top of page Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / premature drop
Leaves / internal feeding
Leaves / necrotic areas
Whole plant / internal feeding

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Achrysocharoides atys Parasite Larvae
Achrysocharoides niveipes Parasite
Apanteles bourquini Parasite Larvae Canada; Ontario apples
Atractotomus mali Predator
Cheiracanthium mildei Predator Canada; Ontario apples
Chrysocharis lyncus Parasite
Cirrospilus lyncus Parasite Yugoslavia apples
Cirrospilus vittatus Parasite Yugoslavia apples
Closterocerus trifasciatus Parasite
Dolichogenidea laevigata Parasite Larvae
Holcothorax testaceipes Parasite Larvae
Horismenus fraternus Parasite Bishop et al., 2001
Minotetrastichus frontalis Parasite Yugoslavia
Neochrysocharis formosa Parasite Yugoslavia
Orius minutus Predator
Paraleurocerus Parasite Bishop et al., 2001
Paraleurocerus bicoloripes Parasite Bishop et al., 2001
Pholetesor arisba Parasite Larvae
Pholetesor circumscriptus Parasite Larvae Canada apples
Pholetesor ornigis Parasite Larvae Canada; Ontario apples
Pholetesor ornigis Parasite Bishop et al., 2001
Pholetesor pedias Parasite Larvae
Pnigalio agraules Parasite
Pnigalio epilobii Parasite Bishop et al., 2001
Pnigalio flavipes Parasite
Pnigalio maculipes Parasite
Pnigalio pallipes Parasite Bishop et al., 2001
Pnigalio pectinicornis Parasite Sweden; Yugoslavia apples
Pnigalio soemius Parasite Yugoslavia apples
Scambus decorus Parasite
Stictopisthus flaviceps Parasite Bishop et al., 2001
Sympiesis acalle Parasite
Sympiesis dolichogaster Parasite
Sympiesis gordius Parasite Sweden; Yugoslavia apples
Sympiesis marylandensis Parasite Larvae
Sympiesis sericeicornis Parasite Sweden; Yugoslavia apples
Zagrammosoma multilineatum Parasite Larvae

References

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Alford DV, 1984. A Colour Atlas of Fruit Pests. Their Recognition, Biology and Control. London, UK: Wolfe Publishing Ltd, 320 pp.

Arn H; Tóth M; Priesner E, 1986. List of sex pheromones of Lepidoptera and related attractants. OILB-SROP, 123pp.

Askew RR; Shaw MR, 1974. An account of the Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera) parasitising leaf-mining insects of decidious trees in Britain. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 6:289-335.

Baggiolini M; Keller E; Milaire HG; Steiner H, 1975. Guida per i Rilievi Periodici dei Nemici del Melo. Controllo Visuale. OILB-SROP Brochure no. 2.

Balázs K, 1997. The importance of parasitoids in apple orchards. Biological Agriculture & Horticulture, 15(1-4):123-129.

Balázs K; Molnar M; Bujáki G; Gonda I; Karácsony D; Bartha J, 1997. Possibility and problems of organic apple growing in Hungary. Biological Agriculture & Horticulture, 15(1-4):223-232.

Barrett BA, 1992. Attractiveness of colored sticky traps to adult spotted tentiform leafminer, Phyllonorycter blancardella (F.) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). Journal of Agricultural Entomology, 9(3):211-216

Baufeld P; Freier B, 1990. On the damage of leaf miners in apple plantations and conclusions for control decisions. Nachrichtenblatt Pflanzenschutz, 44(8):173-177

Baumgartner J; Delucchi V; Genini M, 1981. Taxonomic characters and physiological responses to temperature and photoperiod of two Lithocolletis species mining apple leaves. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 54(3):245-255

Baumgartner J; Severini M, 1987. Microclimate and arthropod phenologies: the leaf miner Phyllonorycter blancardella F. (Lep.) as an example. Agrometeorology. 2nd International Cesena Agricultura Conference, Cesena, 8-9 October 1987 Cesena, Italy; Comune di Cesena, 225-243

Bellows TS Jr; Driesche RG van; Elkinton JS, 1992. Life-table construction and analysis in the evaluation of natural enemies. Annual Review of Entomology, No. 37:587-614

Bishop SD; Smith RF; Vincent C; Goulet H; Huber J; Gibson G; Sharkey M; Borden JH, 2001. Hymenopterous parasites associated with Phyllonorycter blancardella [Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae] in Nova Scotia and Quebec. Phytoprotection, 82(2):65-71.

Blackburn WJ, 1984. Use of models in apple pest management. Proceedings of the Thirty-first Annual Meeting, Canadian Pest Management Society, Winnipeg, Manitoba, 20-22 August, 1984 Canada; Canadian Pest Management Society, 144-149

Blommers L; Ziminski M; Vaal F, 1990. Preliminary observations on Holcothorax testaceipes, parasitoid of the apple leafminer Phyllonorycter blancardella. Proceedings of the Section Experimental and Applied Entomology of the Netherlands Entomological Society, No. 1:107-112

Blommers LHM, 1994. Integrated pest management in European apple orchards. Annual Review of Entomology, 39:213-241.

Blommers LHM; Waal FWNM, 1996. Natural control of tentiform leafminer Phyllonorycter blancardella in Dutch apple orchards. Bulletin OILB/SROP, 19(4):214-218; 10 ref.

Boucek Z; Askew RR, 1968. Index of entomophagous insects. Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea. Palaearctic Eulophidae. Le Francois, Paris, France.

Bradley JD; Jacobs NA; Tremewan WG, 1969. A key to the British and French species of Phyllonorycter Hübner (Lithocolletis Hübner) (Lep. Gracillariidae). Entomologist's Gazette, 20:3-33.

Buda V; Adomavichyute I, 1992. Search for an optimal mine distribution on host-plant leaves in three species within the genus Lithocolletis (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae). Acta Entomologica Lituanica, 10:36-45; 5 ref.

Canson B de; Faucon M, 1992. Hexaflumuron. 'Insect growth regulator' on pear and apple trees. Phytoma, No. 444:83-85

Casas J, 1991. Density dependent parasitism and plant architecture. Redia, 74(3, Appendix):217-222

Celli G, 1971. Economic threshold and percentage of parasitism in relation to infestations by Microlepidopterous leaf-miners of apple. Bollettino dell'Istituto di Entomologia della Universita degli Studi di Bologna, 30:311-322

Celli G; Burchi C, 1984. Leaf-drop in relation to the intensity of infestation by two leaf-miners of apple (Leucoptera scitella Zell., Lep. Lyonetiidae; Lithocolletis blancardella F., Lep. Gracilariidae). Bollettino dell'Istituto di Entomologia della Universita degli Studi di Bologna, 38:25-36

Celli G; Burchi C, 1984. Leaf-drop in relation to the intensity of infestation by two leaf-miners of apple (Leucoptera scitella Zell., Lep. Lyonetiidae; Lithocolletis blancardella F., Lep. Gracilariidae). Bollettino dell'Istituto di Entomologia della Universita degli Studi di Bologna, 38:25-36

Ciampolini M; Suss L; Trematerra P, 1988. Phyllonorycter Hb. (Lepidoptera Gracillariidae) most frequent and injurious to Pomoidep and Prunoidep in Italy. Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura, 20:61-88

Corrigan JE; Bennett RG, 1987. Predation by Cheiracanthium mildei (Araneae, Clubionidae) on larval Phyllonorycter blancardella (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) in a greenhouse. Journal of Arachnology, 15(1):132-134; 6 ref.

D'Aguilar J; Celli D; Chambon JP, 1974. Parasites of leaf miners. Brochure, Section Regionale Ouest Palearctique, Organisation Internationale de Lutte Biologique contre les Animaux et les Plantes Nuisibles, No.3:71-79

Deschka G, 1988. Artanalyse zweier Phyllonorycter-blancardella-Pheromonfallen. Stapfia, 16:65-76.

Dimic N, 1984. Biotic and ecological factors as regulators of larval populations of Lithocolletis blancardella F. in the Sarajevo area. Radovi Poljoprivrednog Fakulteta Univerziteta u Sarajevu, 32(36):75-90

Dimova M, 1988. Synthetic sex pheromone for monitoring the flight dynamics of the apple leafminer (Lithocolletis blancardella). Rasteniev"dni Nauki, 25(5):106-110

Driesche RG van; Elkinton JS; Bellows TS, 1994. Potential use of life tables to evaluate the impact of parasitism on population growth of Phyllonorycter crataegella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). In: CT Maier ed. Integrated Management of Tentiform Leafminers, Phyllonorycter spp. (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), in North American apple orchards. Proceedings Thomas Say Publications in Entomology, Lanham MD, USA: Entomological Society of America. pp. 37-51.

Driesche RG van; Taub G, 1983. Impact of parasitoids on Phyllonorycter leafminers infesting apple in Massachusetts, USA. Protection Ecology, 5(4):303-317

Dutcher JD; Howitt AJ, 1978. Bionomics and control of Lithocolletis blancardella in Michigan. Journal of Economic Entomology, 71(5):736-738

Emmet AM; Watkinson IA; Wilson MR, 1985. Gracillariidae. In: Heath J, Emmet AM, eds. The Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland. Volume 2. Colchester, UK: Harley Books, 460pp.

Esmaili M, 1972. Four species of leaf miners attacking deciduous fruit trees in Iran's Central Province. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie, 69(4):407-415.

Frankenhuyzen A van, 1983. Zur Lebensweize und BekSmpfung der Apfelblattminiermotte, Phyllonorycter blancardella. Anz. SchSdlingsk. Pflanzensch. Umweltsch., 56:149-153.

Frankenhuyzen A van, 1992. Schadelijke en Nuttige Insekten en Mijten in Fruitgewassen. The Hague, The Netherlands: Nederlandse Fruittelers Organisatie.

Freier B; Gottwald R; Baufeld P; Karg W; Stephan S, 1992. Integrated plant protection in apple production - a manual. Mitteilungen aus der Biologischen Bundesanstalt fur Land- und Forstwirtschaft Berlin-Dahlem, No. 278:141 pp.

Gagne RS; Barrett BA, 1994. Seasonal occurrence and density of Phyllonorycter spp. (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) and major parasitoids in Missouri apple orchards. Environmental Entomology, 23(1):198-207

Galli P; Höhn H, 1992. Visuelle Kontrollen im Apfelanbau (4th revised and enlarged edition). IOBC-WPRS.

Ghizdavu I; Oprean I; Bodis I, 1990. Results and comments on the use of pheromone traps against Phyllonorycter blancardella F. Analele Institutului de Cercetari pentru Protectia Plantelor, Academia de Stiinte Agricole si Silvice, 23:107-119

Ghizdavu I; Oprean I; Bods I; Ghizdavu L; Ginsca L, 1987. Investigations on the control of the spotted dentiform leaf moth, Phyllonorycter blancardella F., by mass-trapping with pheromone traps. Buletinul Institutului Agronomic Cluj-Napoca, Agricultura, No. 41:95-98

Gries G; McBrien HL; Gries R; Li JX; Judd GJR; Slessor KN; Borden JH; Smith RF; Christie M; Troubridge JT; Wimalaratne PDC; Underhill EW, 1993. (E4,E10)-Dodecadienyl acetate: novel sex pheromone component of tentiform leafminer, Phyllonorycter mespilella (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). Journal of Chemical Ecology, 19(8):1789-1798

Hansson C, 1985. Taxonomy and biology of the Palaearctic species of Chrysocharis Forster, 1856 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). Entomologica Scandinavica Supplement, 26:1-130.

Hering EM, 1951. Bestimmungstabellen der Blattminen von Europa. Band I-III. Gravenhage, Netherlands: Dr. W. Junk B.V.

Hogmire HW; Peterson DL, 1997. Pest control on dwarf apples with a tunnel sprayer. Crop Protection, 16(4):365-369; 7 ref.

Ishchenko RI; Kovalev BG; Kalyuzhnaya NB, 1996. Synthesis of dodec-10E-enyl acetate - the sex pheromone of Phyllonorycter blancardella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). Chemistry of Natural Compounds, 32(1):77-79.

Isufi E; Myrta A, 1996. The defence of fruit trees in Albania: problems and prospects. Informatore Fitopatologico, 46(1):33-36; 5 ref.

Ivinskis P, 1993. Trophic relations and distribution of Gracillariidae (Lepidoptera) in Lithuania. Acta Entomologica Lituanica, 11:73-76.

Jenser G; Balßzs K; ErdTlyi C; Haltrich A; Kozßr F; Mark= V; Rßcz V; Samu F, 1997. The effect of an integrated pest management program on the arthropod populations in a Hungarian apple orchard. Zahradnictvi^acute~, 24(2):63-76; 16 ref.

Kadubowski W, 1981. The parasite complex of the leaf-miner Lithocolletis blancardella (F.) (Lepidoptera, Gracilariidae) in western Poland. Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne, 51(4):493-499

Krnjajic S; Injac M; Peric P; Dulic K; Stamenov M; Graora D, 1993. Monitoring the flight of apple pests with pheromones. Zastita Bilja, 44(1):63-71

Laing JE; Heraty JM, 1981. Establishment in Canada of the parasite Apanteles pedias Nixon on the spotted tentiform leafminer, Phyllonorycter blancardella (Fabr.). Environmental Entomology, 10(6):933-935

Laing JE; Heraty JM; Corrigan JE, 1986. Leaf burial by the earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris (Oligochpta: Lumbricidae), as a major factor in the population dynamics of Phyllonorycter blancardella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) and its parasites. Environmental Entomology, 15(2):321-326

Laing JE; Heraty JM; Corrigan JE, 1986. Summer diapause in Phyllonorycter blancardella (Fabr.) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in Ontario. Canadian Entomologist, 118(1):17-28

Landry JF; Wagner DL, 1995. Taxonomic review of apple-feeding species of Phyllonorycter Hnbner (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) in North America. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 97(3):603-625; 48 ref.

Lawson DS; Reissig WH; Nyrop JP; Brown SK, 1994. Management of arthropods on columnar apple trees using exclusionary cages. Crop Protection, 13(5):346-356

Maciesiak A, 1995. Leaf mining moths of apple and their control. Materiay ogo^acute~lnopolskiej konferencji naukowej Nauka Praktyce Ogrodniczej z okazji XXV-lecia Wydziau Ogrodniczego Akademii Rolniczej w Lublinie., 351-354; 12 ref.

Maier CT, 1983. Relative abundance of the spotted tentiform leafminer, Phyllonorycter blancardella (F.), and the apple blotch leafminer, P. cratpgella (Clemens) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), on sprayed and unsprayed apple trees in Connecticut. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 76(6):992-995

Maier CT, 1984. Abundance and phenology of parasitoids of the spotted tentiform leafminer, Phyllonorycter blancardella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), in Connecticut. Canadian Entomologist, 116(3):443-449

Maier CT, 1993. Inoculative Release and Establishment of Holcothorax testacepies (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae), a Palaearctic agent for the biological control of Phyllonorycter spp. (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) in Connecticut Apple Orchards. Journal of Economic Entomology, 86(4):1069-1077.

Medvedev GS, 1990. Keys to the Insects of the European Part of the USSR. Vol. IV, Lepidoptera Part II. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill.

Mey W, 1988. Laboratory investigations on the influence of insecticides and acaricides on parasitoids of mining moths. Archiv fur Phytopathologie und Pflanzenschutz, 24(3):237-243

Minoiu N; Boaru M, 1989. Utilisation of some synthetic insect pheromones in orchards of north-eastern Transylvania. Probleme de Protectia Plantelor, 17(4):337-346

Niemczyk E, 1992. Integrated methods for pests and diseases control in Polish apple orchards. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica, 27(1-4 part II):491-495

Nyrop JP; Reissig WH; Agnello AM; Kovach J, 1990. Development and evaluation of a control decision rule for first-generation spotted tentiform leafminer (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in New York apple orchards. Environmental Entomology, 19(5):1624-1638

Olivella E, 1997. Estudi comparatiu de les espFcies de microlepid=pters minadores de fulles presents als conreus de pomera de la plana de Lleida (Lepidoptera: Gracillaridae, Lyonetiidae). Treballs de la Societat Catalana de Lepidopterologia, 14(1995-1996):7-25.

Olivella E, 1997. Phyllonorycter mespilella (Hübner, (1805)) new species for the Iberian fauna (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). SHILAP Revista de Lepidopterologia, 25(97):37-42.

Oppenheim D; Palevsky E; Horovitz I; Shaltiel L; Reuveny H; Aconis O, 1997. The influence of poison-free pest management on the fauna of arthropod pests and their natural enemies in an apple orchard at Havat Matityahu, Israel, during the seasons of 1994-96. Alon Hanotea, 51(8):346-356; 16 ref.

Pasqualini E, 1993. Evolution of pest populations in Emilia-Romagna and methods of their control. Informatore Agrario, 49(Supplement No. 14):11-14.

Paternotte E, 1994. Plant protection tips for the summer period. Fruitteelt-nieuws, 7(11):23-25

Paternotte E, 1997. Summer pests of apple and pear trees. Fruitteelt-nieuws, 10(14):35-36.

Peltotalo P; Tuovinen T, 1986. Specificity of pheromone preparates for lepidopterous pests. Annales Agriculturae Fenniae, 25(2):139-146

Plaut HN, 1975. Overwintering in Israel of Lithocolletis blancardella Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) and some of its parasites (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae) on apple (1972/73 and 1974/75). Alon Hanote'a, 29(11):525-529

Pottinger RP; LeRoux EJ, 1971. The biology and dynamics of Lithocolletis blancardella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). Memoirs Entomological Society of Canada, 77:1-437.

Pree DJ; Archibald DE; Cole KJ, 1990. Insecticide resistance in spotted tentiform leafminer (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae): Mechanisms and management. Journal of Economic Entomology, 83(3):678-685

Pree DJ; Hagley EAC; Simpson CM; Hikichi A, 1980. Resistance of the spotted tentiform leafminer, Phyllonorycter blancardella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), to organophosphorus insecticides in southern Ontario. Canadian Entomologist, 112(5):469-474

Pree DJ; Marshall DB; Whitty KJ; Archibald DE, 1994. Management of insecticide resistance in Phyllonorycter spp. (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) and effects on their parasitoids. In: CT Maier ed. Integrated Management of Tentiform Leafminers, Phyllonorycter spp. (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), in North American apple orchards. Proceedings Thomas Say Publications in Entomology, Lanham MD, USA: Entomological Society of America. pp. 53-66.

Reissig WH; Weires RW; Forshey CG, 1982. Effects of gracillariid leafminers on apple tree growth and production. Environmental Entomology, 11(4):958-963

Ridgway NM; Mahr DL, 1985. Natural enemies of the spotted tentiform leafminer, Phyllonorycter blancardella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), in sprayed and unsprayed apple orchards in Wisconsin. Environmental Entomology, 14(4):459-463

Rock GC; Stinner RE; Bacheler JE; Hull LA; Hogmire HW Jr, 1993. Predicting geographical and within-season variation in male flights of four fruit pests. Environmental Entomology, 22(4):716-725

Roelofs WL; Reissig WH; Weires RW, 1977. Sex attractant for the spotted tentiform leaf miner moth, Lithocolletis blancardella. Environmental Entomology, 6(3):373-374

Schmaedick MA; Nyrop JP, 1995. Method for sampling arthropod pests with uncertain phenology with application to spotted tentiform leafminer (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 88(4):875-889

Sekita N; Yamada M, 1979. Studies on the population of the apple leaf miner Phyllonorycter ringoniella Matsumura (Lepidoptera: Lithocolletidae) III. Some analyses of the mortality factors operating upon the population. Applied Entomology and Zoology, 14(2):137-148

Sepros I; Bako Z, 1989. New data to the distribution of apple leaf miners (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in Hungary (1987-1988). Novenyvedelem, 25(2):91-93

Surina M, 1995. Guidelines for biological evaluation of crop protection products. Part II. Pests and diseases in orchards. Agrochemia-Bratislava, 35(9-10):184-201.

Thistlewood HMA, 1991. A survey of predatory mites in Ontario apple orchards with diverse pesticide programs. Canadian Entomologist, 123(6):1163-1174

Trimble RM, 1983. Diapause termination and the thermal requirements for postdiapause development in six Ontario populations of the spotted tentiform leafminer, Phyllonorycter blancardella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). Canadian Entomologist, 115(4):387-392

Trimble RM, 1983. Reliability of degree-day indices for predicting spring emergence of the spotted tentiform leafminer, Phyllonorycter blancardella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), in Ontario. Canadian Entomologist, 115(4):393-398

Trimble RM, 1986. Assessment of a sex-attractant trap for monitoring the spotted tentiform leafminer, Phyllonorycter blancardella (Fabr.) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae): relationship between male and female emergence and between trap catches and emergence. Canadian Entomologist, 118(12):1241-1253

Trimble RM, 1986. Effect of temperature on oviposition and egg development in the spotted tentiform leafminer, Phyllonorycter blancardella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). Canadian Entomologist, 118(8):781-787

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Villanueva R; Harmsen R, 1996. Ecological interactions of tarsonemid mites in apple orchards: predation of apple rust mite and use of Phyllonorycter blancardella mines. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Ontario, 127:99-106; 14 ref.

Vincent C; Chouinard G; Bostanian NJ; Morin Y, 1997. Peripheral-zone treatments for plum curculio management: validation in commercial apple orchards. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 84(1):1-8; 21 ref.

Vincent C; Mailloux M; Hagley EAC, 1986. Nonsticky pheromone-baited traps for monitoring the spotted tentiform leafminer (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 79(6):1666-1670

Voerman S; Herrebout WM, 1978. A sex attractant for the leaf miner moth Lithocolletis corylifoliella and its influence on that of L. blancardella (Lep., Gracillariidae). Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 23(1):96-98

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Vrkoc J, 1989. Use of Insect Pheromones in Integrated Pest Management: examples from Czechoslovakia. Chemica Scripta, 29:407-410.

Walgenbach JF; Gorsuch CS; Horton DL, 1990. Adult phenology and management of spotted tentiform leafminer (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. Journal of Economic Entomology, 83(3):985-994

Wang T; Laing JE, 1989. Diapause termination and morphogenesis of Holcothorax testaceipes Ratzeburg (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), an introduced parasitoid of the spotted tentiform leafminer, Phyllonorycter blancardella (F.) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). Canadian Entomologist, 121(1):65-74

Wang T; Laing JE, 1989. Reproductive biology of Holcothorax testaceipes (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and its effect on development of the host, Phyllonorycter blancardella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Ontario, 120:35-41; 14 ref.

Weires RW; Davis DR; Leeper JR; Reissig WH, 1980. Distribution and parasitism of gracillariid leafminers on apple in the northeast. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 73(5):541-546

Weires RW; Leeper JR; Reissig WH; Lienk SE, 1982. Toxicity of several insecticides to the spotted tentiform leafminer (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) and its parasite, Apanteles ornigis. Journal of Economic Entomology, 75(4):680-684

Weiss A; Vogt H, 1994. Populationsdynamik und Parasitierung von Miniermotten am Apfel im AbhSngigkeit von biologischen und chemischen Pflanzenschutzmassnahmen. Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für allgemeine und angewandte Entomologie, 9:379-388.

Zerova; MD; Tolkanitz VI; Kotenko AG; Narolsky NB; Fursov VN; Kononova SV; Farinetz SI; Nikitenko GN; Melika GG; Sviridov SV, 1991. Entomophages of Pests of Apple Trees in the South-west Region of the Ukraine. Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 276pp.

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