Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Albugo candida
(white rust of crucifers)

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Datasheet

Albugo candida (white rust of crucifers)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 24 October 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Albugo candida
  • Preferred Common Name
  • white rust of crucifers
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Chromista
  •     Phylum: Oomycota
  •       Class: Oomycetes
  •         Order: Peronosporales

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Stagheads in a field of B. juncea.
TitleStagheads with Brassica juncea
CaptionStagheads in a field of B. juncea.
CopyrightJ.P. Tewari
Stagheads in a field of B. juncea.
Stagheads with Brassica junceaStagheads in a field of B. juncea.J.P. Tewari
TitleWhite rust on Brassica juncea leaf
Caption
CopyrightJ.P. Tewari
White rust on Brassica juncea leafJ.P. Tewari
White rust stage on the cotyledons of B. rapa cv. Torch; experimental inoculation with A. candida from Thlaspi arvense.
TitleA. candida on Brassica rapa
CaptionWhite rust stage on the cotyledons of B. rapa cv. Torch; experimental inoculation with A. candida from Thlaspi arvense.
CopyrightJ.P. Tewari
White rust stage on the cotyledons of B. rapa cv. Torch; experimental inoculation with A. candida from Thlaspi arvense.
A. candida on Brassica rapaWhite rust stage on the cotyledons of B. rapa cv. Torch; experimental inoculation with A. candida from Thlaspi arvense.J.P. Tewari
White rust stage on R. islandica.
TitleSymptoms on Rorippa islandica
CaptionWhite rust stage on R. islandica.
CopyrightJ.P. Tewari
White rust stage on R. islandica.
Symptoms on Rorippa islandicaWhite rust stage on R. islandica.J.P. Tewari
White rust and staghead disease on S. arvense.
TitleSymptoms on Sinapis arvense
CaptionWhite rust and staghead disease on S. arvense.
CopyrightJ.P. Tewari
White rust and staghead disease on S. arvense.
Symptoms on Sinapis arvenseWhite rust and staghead disease on S. arvense.J.P. Tewari
Staghead on B. rapa; white rust stage is also present.
TitleSymptoms on Brassica rapa
CaptionStaghead on B. rapa; white rust stage is also present.
CopyrightJ.P. Tewari
Staghead on B. rapa; white rust stage is also present.
Symptoms on Brassica rapaStaghead on B. rapa; white rust stage is also present.J.P. Tewari
TitleStagheads on Brassica rapa
Caption
CopyrightJ.P. Tewari
Stagheads on Brassica rapaJ.P. Tewari
Pieces of staghead in a commercial seed sample of Brassica rapa.
TitlePieces of staghead in seed sample
CaptionPieces of staghead in a commercial seed sample of Brassica rapa.
CopyrightJ.P. Tewari
Pieces of staghead in a commercial seed sample of Brassica rapa.
Pieces of staghead in seed samplePieces of staghead in a commercial seed sample of Brassica rapa.J.P. Tewari
Oospores teased out from a staghead; note an antheridium beside an oospore.
TitleOospores
CaptionOospores teased out from a staghead; note an antheridium beside an oospore.
CopyrightJ.P. Tewari
Oospores teased out from a staghead; note an antheridium beside an oospore.
OosporesOospores teased out from a staghead; note an antheridium beside an oospore.J.P. Tewari
An oospore germinating to form zoospores in a vesicle.
TitleOospore forming into zoospores
CaptionAn oospore germinating to form zoospores in a vesicle.
CopyrightJ.P. Tewari
An oospore germinating to form zoospores in a vesicle.
Oospore forming into zoosporesAn oospore germinating to form zoospores in a vesicle.J.P. Tewari

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Albugo candida (Pers.) Kuntze

Preferred Common Name

  • white rust of crucifers

Other Scientific Names

  • Aecidium candidum Pers.
  • Albugo cruciferarum (DC.) Gray
  • Albugo lepidii A.N.S. Rao
  • Cystopus candidus (Pers.) Lév.
  • Uredo candida (Pers.) Fr.
  • Uredo candida [var.] thlaspeos Pers.
  • Uredo cheiranthi Pers.
  • Uredo cruciferarum DC.

International Common Names

  • English: blister of crucifers; staghead of crucifers; white blister of crucifers
  • Spanish: chahuixtle blanco: cruciferas; roya blanca de las cruciferas
  • French: rouille blanche des crucifères
  • Chinese: shi zi hua ke bai xiu bing
  • Portuguese: ferrugem-branca

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Weisser: Kreuzbluetler Rost
  • Italy: ruggine bianca
  • Poland: bielik krzyzowych

EPPO code

  • ALBUCA (Albugo candida)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Chromista
  •         Phylum: Oomycota
  •             Class: Oomycetes
  •                 Order: Peronosporales
  •                     Family: Albuginaceae
  •                         Genus: Albugo
  •                             Species: Albugo candida

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BhutanPresentIMI Herbarium, unda; CABI/EPPO, 2001
ChinaPresentZhang et al., 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-AnhuiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001
-FujianPresentChang, 1981; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-GansuPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001
-GuangxiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001
-GuizhouPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001
-HebeiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001
-Hong KongPresentIMI Herbarium, unda; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-HubeiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001
-JiangsuPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001
-JiangxiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001
-JilinPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001
-LiaoningPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001
-Nei MengguPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001
-QinghaiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001
-ShaanxiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001
-ShandongPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001
-ShanxiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001
-SichuanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001
-TibetPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001
-XinjiangPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001
-YunnanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001
-ZhejiangPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001
IndiaPresentSingh et al., 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-BiharPresentRai et al., 1974; Dubey and Mishra, 1994; Dubey, 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-DelhiPresentPaladhi et al., 1993; Verma and Bhowmik, 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-GujaratPresentKhunti et al., 2004
-HaryanaPresentPal et al., 1992; Yadav et al., 1994; Mehta et al., 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-Himachal PradeshPresentSingh et al., 1990; Bhardwaj and Sud, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-Indian PunjabPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001
-Jammu and KashmirPresentRai et al., 1974; Dar and Ghani, 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-JharkhandPresentSingh and Singh, 2005
-KarnatakaPresentHegde and Anahosur, 1993; Hegde and Anahosur, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-Madhya PradeshPresentTomar et al., 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-MaharashtraPresentKhetmalas et al., 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-ManipurPresentSingh, 1989; Singh et al., 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-RajasthanPresentBhatia and Gangopadhyay, 1996; Bhargava et al., 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-SikkimPresentSrivastava and Verma, 1987; Srivastava and Verma, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-Tamil NaduPresentVelazhahan and Thiyagarajan, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-Uttar PradeshPresentRai et al., 1974; Kolte et al., 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-West BengalPresentGiri et al., 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2001
IranPresentEtebarian, 1993; Etebarian, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2001
IraqPresentIMI Herbarium, unda; CABI/EPPO, 2001
IsraelPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001
JapanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001
Korea, Republic ofPresentSo et al., 1981; CABI/EPPO, 2001; Choi et al., 2014
MalaysiaPresentIMI Herbarium, unda; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentIMI Herbarium, unda; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-SabahPresentIMI Herbarium, unda; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-SarawakPresentIMI Herbarium, unda; CABI/EPPO, 2001
NepalPresentIMI Herbarium, unda; CABI/EPPO, 2001
PakistanPresentJalaluddin et al., 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2001
PhilippinesPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001
Saudi ArabiaPresentBaka, 2008
TaiwanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001
TurkeyPresentIMI Herbarium, unda; CABI/EPPO, 2001
YemenPresentIMI Herbarium, unda; CABI/EPPO, 2001

Africa

EgyptPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001
EthiopiaPresentLiu and Rimmer, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2001
KenyaPresentIMI Herbarium, unda; CABI/EPPO, 2001
LibyaPresentIMI Herbarium, unda; CABI/EPPO, 2001
MalawiPresentIMI Herbarium, unda; CABI/EPPO, 2001
MauritiusPresentIMI Herbarium, unda; CABI/EPPO, 2001
Sierra LeonePresentIMI Herbarium, unda; CABI/EPPO, 2001
South AfricaPresentHoltzhausen, 1978; Morris and Knox-Davies, 1980; CABI/EPPO, 2001
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentIMI Herbarium, unda; CABI/EPPO, 2001
SudanPresentIMI Herbarium, unda; CABI/EPPO, 2001
TanzaniaPresentIMI Herbarium, unda; CABI/EPPO, 2001
TunisiaPresentDjébali et al., 2009

North America

BermudaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001
CanadaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001
-AlbertaPresentVerma and Petrie, 1979; Thomas, 1984; Petrie, 1988; Petrie, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-British ColumbiaPresentConners, 1967; Ginns, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-ManitobaPresentVerma and Petrie, 1979; Thomas, 1984; Petrie, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-New BrunswickPresentConners, 1967; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-Nova ScotiaPresentConners, 1967; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-OntarioPresentConners, 1967; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-Prince Edward IslandPresentConners, 1967; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-QuebecPresentConners, 1967; Ginns, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-SaskatchewanPresentVerma & Petri, 1979; Thomas, 1984; Petrie, 1988; Petrie, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2001
MexicoPresentPonce and Mendoza, 1983; CABI/EPPO, 2001
USAWidespreadAnon, 1960; Farr et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-AlabamaWidespreadFarr et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-ArizonaWidespreadFarr et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-ArkansasWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2001
-CaliforniaPresentFarr et al., 1995; Koike, 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2001; Rector et al., 2016
-ColoradoPresentFarr et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-DelawareWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2001
-FloridaWidespreadFarr et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-GeorgiaPresentFarr et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-HawaiiWidespreadFarr et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-IdahoPresentFarr et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-IllinoisWidespreadFarr et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-IndianaWidespreadFarr et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-IowaWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2001
-KansasWidespreadFarr et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-KentuckyWidespreadFarr et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-MaineWidespreadAnon, 1960; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-MassachusettsPresentFarr et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-MinnesotaPresentFarr et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-MississippiWidespreadFarr et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-MissouriWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2001
-MontanaWidespreadFarr et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-NebraskaWidespreadFarr et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-NevadaPresentFarr et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2001; Rector et al., 2016
-New HampshirePresentFarr et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-New JerseyWidespreadAnon, 1960; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-New MexicoPresentFarr et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-New YorkWidespreadFarr et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-North CarolinaWidespreadFarr et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-North DakotaPresentFarr et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-OhioWidespreadFarr et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-OklahomaWidespreadFarr et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-OregonWidespreadFarr et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-PennsylvaniaWidespreadFarr et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-South CarolinaWidespreadAnon, 1960; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-South DakotaPresentFarr et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-TexasWidespreadFarr et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-UtahPresentFarr et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-VermontWidespreadFarr et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-VirginiaPresentFarr et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-WashingtonWidespreadJohnson and Gabrielson, 1990; Farr et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-West VirginiaPresentFarr et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-WisconsinPresentFarr et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-WyomingPresentFarr et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2001

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001
CubaPresentIMI Herbarium, unda; CABI/EPPO, 2001
Dominican RepublicPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001
El SalvadorPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001
JamaicaPresentIMI Herbarium, unda; CABI/EPPO, 2001
Puerto RicoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIMI Herbarium, unda; CABI/EPPO, 2001

South America

ArgentinaPresentDelhey & Kiehr-Delhey, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2001
BrazilPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001
-ParanaPresentCardoso et al., 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2001
Falkland IslandsPresentIMI Herbarium, unda; CABI/EPPO, 2001
GuyanaPresentIMI Herbarium, unda; CABI/EPPO, 2001
SurinamePresentCABI/EPPO, 2001

Europe

AustriaPresentGlaeser, 1973; Szith and Furlan, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2001
BelgiumPresentVanparys et al., 1993; Vanparys and Calus, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2001
BulgariaPresentStefcheva et al., 2005
CroatiaPresentCvjetkovic, 2008
CyprusPresentIMI Herbarium, unda; CABI/EPPO, 2001
DenmarkPresentAnon, 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2001
FinlandPresentIMI Herbarium, unda; CABI/EPPO, 2001
Former USSRPresentIMI Herbarium, unda
FrancePresentAnon, 1981; CABI/EPPO, 2001
GermanyPresentBedlan, 1987; Paul and Rawlinson, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2001
GreecePresentVakalounakis, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2001
HungaryPresentIMI Herbarium, unda; CABI/EPPO, 2001
IrelandPresentRyan, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2001
ItalyPresentTalame and Piccirillo, 1995; Minuto et al., 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2001
LatviaPresentIMI Herbarium, unda; CABI/EPPO, 2001
MaltaPresentIMI Herbarium, unda; CABI/EPPO, 2001
NetherlandsPresentBiesheuvel, 1991; Meier, 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2001
PolandWidespreadKurzawinska and Poniedzialek, 1987; Macias, 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2001
PortugalPresentDias and Lucas, 1978; CABI/EPPO, 2001
RomaniaPresentIMI Herbarium, unda; CABI/EPPO, 2001
Russian FederationPresentIMI Herbarium, unda; CABI/EPPO, 2001
SlovakiaPresentIMI Herbarium, unda; CABI/EPPO, 2001
SpainPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001
SwedenPresentIMI Herbarium, unda; CABI/EPPO, 2001
SwitzerlandPresentIMI Herbarium, unda; CABI/EPPO, 2001
UKPresentIMI Herbarium, unda; Brooks, 1975; Humpherson-Jones, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2001
UkrainePresentBurdyukova and Dudka, 1982; Bogarada et al., 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2001
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)PresentIMI Herbarium, unda; CABI/EPPO, 2001

Oceania

AustraliaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001
-Western AustraliaPresentBarbetti, 1981; CABI/EPPO, 2001
Cook IslandsPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001
FijiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001
French PolynesiaPresentIMI Herbarium, unda; CABI/EPPO, 2001
New CaledoniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001
New ZealandPresentIMI Herbarium, unda; CABI/EPPO, 2001
Papua New GuineaPresentIMI Herbarium, unda; CABI/EPPO, 2001
SamoaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001
VanuatuPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Fruit / abnormal shape
Fruit / galls
Fruit / lesions: on pods
Inflorescence / distortion (non-graminaceous plants)
Inflorescence / galls
Inflorescence / lesions; flecking; streaks (not Poaceae)
Inflorescence / twisting and distortion
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / fungal growth
Roots / galls along length
Seeds / shrivelled
Stems / galls
Stems / mould growth on lesion

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx fruiting bodies; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves fruiting bodies; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) fruiting bodies; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Roots
Wood

References

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1981. Report of activities 1979-1980. Avignon-Montfavet experimental station for market garden crops. Rapport d'activite 1979-1980. Station d'amelioration des plantes maraicheres d'Avignon-Montfavet. INRA, Ministry of Agriculture. Montfavet France, 145 pp.

Achar PN, 1993. Hypertrophy in tissues of radish due to mixed infection by Peronospora parasitica and Albugo candida. Phyton (Buenos Aires), 54(1):45-49

Anon., 1960. Index of Plant Diseases in the United States. Crops Research Division, Agricultural Research Service, Agriculture Handbook No. 165. Washington, USA: United States Department of Agriculture.

Anon., 1975. Plant diseases and pests in Denmark in 1974. 91st annual report. Plantesygdomme i Danmark 1974. 91. Lyngby, Denmark: Danish Research Service for Plant and Soil Science, 77 pp.

Appleton J, 1979. Lancs sprout trial rates 55 varieties for white blister. Grower, 91(8):52, 55, 58

Bains SS; Jhooty JS, 1979. Mixed infections by Albugo candida and Peronospora parasitica on Brassica juncea inflorescence and their control. Indian Phytopathology, 32(2):268-271

Baiswar P; Ngachan SV; Verma VK; Chandra S, 2016. Molecular evidence reveals presence of Albugo candida on Brassicajuncea var rugosa in northeast India. Environment and Ecology, 34(4A):1849-1851. http://www.environmentandecology.com/

Baka ZAM, 2008. Occurrence and ultrastructure of Albugo candida on a new host, Arabis alpina in Saudi Arabia. Micron, 39(8):1138-1144. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T9N-4SSG4SC-1&_user=6686535&_coverDate=12%2F31%2F2008&_rdoc=9&_fmt=high&_orig=browse&_srch=doc-info(%23toc%235119%232008%23999609991%23698195%23FLA%23display%23Volume)&_cdi=5119&_sort=d&_docanchor=&_ct=47&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=6686535&md5=17b858c93b22455c5f996821a95b59cc

Bansal VK; Tewari JP; Tewari I; G=mez-Campo C; Stringam GR, 1997. Genus Eruca: a potential source of white rust resistance in cultivated brassicas. Plant Genetic Resources Newsletter, No. 109:25-26; 13 ref.

Barbetti MJ, 1981. Effects of sowing date and oospore seed contamination upon subsequent crop incidence of white rust (Albugo candida) in rapeseed. Australasian Plant Pathology, 10(3):44-46

Bedlan G, 1987. The most important diseases of radishes. Pflanzenschutz, 3(3-4):9-10

Berkenkamp B, 1972. Diseases of rapeseed in central and northern Alberta in 1971. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 52:62-63.

Bernier CC, 1972. Diseases of rapeseed in Manitoba in 1971. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 52:108.

Bhardwaj CL; Sud AK, 1993. Reaction of Brassica cultivars against Albugo candida isolates from Kangra valley. Indian Phytopathology, 46(3):258-260

Bhardwaj CL; Sud AK, 1995. A visual rating scale for white rust disease assessment of cruciferous crops. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 25(3):181-183; 1 ref.

Bhargava AK; Sobti AK; Bhargava LP; Nag A, 1997. Chemical control of white rust of mustard through seed treatment-cum-spray and their economics. Indian Phytopathology, 50(2):242-245; 9 ref.

Bhatia JN; Gangopadhyay S, 1996. Studies on chemical control of white rust disease of mustard. International Journal of Pest Management, 42:61-65.

Bhatia JN; Gangopadhyay S; Godara SL, 1994. Studies on phenolic contents in mustard genotypes in relation to white rust disease. Plant Disease Research, 9(2):169-171; 9 ref.

Biesheuvel AR, 1991. Information on white cabbages. Compromise between diseases and quality. Groenten + Fruit, Vollegrondsgroenten, 1(9):14-15

Biga MLB, 1955. Riesaminazione delle specie del genere Albugo in base all morfologia dei conidi. Sydowia, 9:339-358.

Bisht IS; Agrawal RC; Singh R, 1994. White rust (Albugo candida) severity in mustard (Brassica juncea) varieties and its effects on seed yields. Plant Varieties & Seeds, 7(2):85-89

Bogarada AP; Spiridonova VP; Martynovskaya NM, 1984. Pests and diseases of Erysimum diffusum in the Ukraine. Byulleten' Glavnogo Botanicheskogo Sada, No. 134:94-97; [1 fig.]; 8 ref.

Brooks AV, 1975. Notes from Wisley. Some disease problems of 1974. Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society, 100(5):188-191

Burdyukova LI; Dudka IA, 1982. Species of the genus Albugo on new and rare host plants in the Ukrainian SSR. Mikologiya i Fitopatologiya, 16(4):289-294

CABI/EPPO, 2001. Albugo candida. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Map No. 821. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Camele I; Mang SM; Rana GL, 2011. First report of Albugo candida causing white rust on Lunaria annua in Italy. Plant Disease, 95(1):72. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Cardoso RM de L; Oliveira MAR de; Leite RMVB de C; Barbosa C de J; Balbino LC, 1996. Boletim de canola no Parana. Boletim Tecnico Instituto Agronomico do Parana, No. 51.

Chang ZM, 1981. Evaluation of rape downy mildew and white rust. Fukien Agricultural Science and Technology, 5:8-10

Chauhan YS; Kumar K; Maurya KN; Singh RB, 1999. Development of NDM 87-1, a white rust resistant strain of mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern & Coss). Cruciferae Newsletter, No. 21:117-118; 3 ref.

Choi D; Priest MJ, 1995. A key to the genus Albugo. Mycotaxon, 53:261-272

Choi YJ; Han KS; Park YH; Shin HD, 2014. First report of white blister rust caused by Albugo candida on Wasabi in Korea. Plant Disease, 98(7):1006-1007. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Chou HM; Rolfe SA; Scholes JD, 1995. The effect of Albugo candida on the photosynthetic and carbohydrate metabolism of Arabidopsis thaliana. Aspects of Applied Biology, 42:149-153

Coffey MD, 1975. Ultrastructural features of the haustorial apparatus of the white blister fungus Albugo candida. Canadian Journal of Botany, 53(13):1285-1299

Coffey MD, 1983. Cytochemical specialization at the haustorial interface of a biotrophic fungal parasite, Albugo candida. Canadian Journal of Botany, 61(7):2004-2014

Coll C; Booth EJ; Sutherland KG, 1998. Pest and disease control requirements for spring oilseed rape in northern climates. Brighton Crop Protection Conference: Pests & Diseases - 1998: Volume 3: Proceedings of an International Conference, Brighton, UK, 16-19 November 1998., 1059-1064; 3 ref.

Conners IL, 1967. An annotated index of plant diseases in Canada and fungi recorded on plants in Alaska, Canada and Greenland. Research Branch, Canada Department of Agriculture, Publ. 1251.

Cromack HTH, 1998. The effect of sowing date on the growth and production of Lunaria annua in southern England. Special issue. Selected papers from the Third European Symposium on Industrial Crops and Products, Reims, France, 22-24 April, 1996, Part II, 7(2-3):217-221.

Cvjetkovic B, 2008. Less frequent diseases of oilseed rape. (RjeÐe ucestale bolesti uljane repice.) Glasilo Biljne Za?tite, 8(5):318-320.

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