Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Albugo candida
(white rust of crucifers)

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Datasheet

Albugo candida (white rust of crucifers)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Albugo candida
  • Preferred Common Name
  • white rust of crucifers
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Chromista
  •     Phylum: Oomycota
  •       Class: Oomycetes
  •         Order: Peronosporales

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Stagheads in a field of B. juncea.
TitleStagheads with Brassica juncea
CaptionStagheads in a field of B. juncea.
CopyrightJ.P. Tewari
Stagheads in a field of B. juncea.
Stagheads with Brassica junceaStagheads in a field of B. juncea.J.P. Tewari
TitleWhite rust on Brassica juncea leaf
Caption
CopyrightJ.P. Tewari
White rust on Brassica juncea leafJ.P. Tewari
White rust stage on the cotyledons of B. rapa cv. Torch; experimental inoculation with A. candida from Thlaspi arvense.
TitleA. candida on Brassica rapa
CaptionWhite rust stage on the cotyledons of B. rapa cv. Torch; experimental inoculation with A. candida from Thlaspi arvense.
CopyrightJ.P. Tewari
White rust stage on the cotyledons of B. rapa cv. Torch; experimental inoculation with A. candida from Thlaspi arvense.
A. candida on Brassica rapaWhite rust stage on the cotyledons of B. rapa cv. Torch; experimental inoculation with A. candida from Thlaspi arvense.J.P. Tewari
White rust stage on R. islandica.
TitleSymptoms on Rorippa islandica
CaptionWhite rust stage on R. islandica.
CopyrightJ.P. Tewari
White rust stage on R. islandica.
Symptoms on Rorippa islandicaWhite rust stage on R. islandica.J.P. Tewari
White rust and staghead disease on S. arvense.
TitleSymptoms on Sinapis arvense
CaptionWhite rust and staghead disease on S. arvense.
CopyrightJ.P. Tewari
White rust and staghead disease on S. arvense.
Symptoms on Sinapis arvenseWhite rust and staghead disease on S. arvense.J.P. Tewari
Staghead on B. rapa; white rust stage is also present.
TitleSymptoms on Brassica rapa
CaptionStaghead on B. rapa; white rust stage is also present.
CopyrightJ.P. Tewari
Staghead on B. rapa; white rust stage is also present.
Symptoms on Brassica rapaStaghead on B. rapa; white rust stage is also present.J.P. Tewari
TitleStagheads on Brassica rapa
Caption
CopyrightJ.P. Tewari
Stagheads on Brassica rapaJ.P. Tewari
Pieces of staghead in a commercial seed sample of Brassica rapa.
TitlePieces of staghead in seed sample
CaptionPieces of staghead in a commercial seed sample of Brassica rapa.
CopyrightJ.P. Tewari
Pieces of staghead in a commercial seed sample of Brassica rapa.
Pieces of staghead in seed samplePieces of staghead in a commercial seed sample of Brassica rapa.J.P. Tewari
Oospores teased out from a staghead; note an antheridium beside an oospore.
TitleOospores
CaptionOospores teased out from a staghead; note an antheridium beside an oospore.
CopyrightJ.P. Tewari
Oospores teased out from a staghead; note an antheridium beside an oospore.
OosporesOospores teased out from a staghead; note an antheridium beside an oospore.J.P. Tewari
An oospore germinating to form zoospores in a vesicle.
TitleOospore forming into zoospores
CaptionAn oospore germinating to form zoospores in a vesicle.
CopyrightJ.P. Tewari
An oospore germinating to form zoospores in a vesicle.
Oospore forming into zoosporesAn oospore germinating to form zoospores in a vesicle.J.P. Tewari

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Albugo candida (Pers.) Kuntze

Preferred Common Name

  • white rust of crucifers

Other Scientific Names

  • Aecidium candidum Pers.
  • Albugo cruciferarum (DC.) Gray
  • Albugo lepidii A.N.S. Rao
  • Cystopus candidus (Pers.) Lév.
  • Uredo candida (Pers.) Fr.
  • Uredo candida [var.] thlaspeos Pers.
  • Uredo cheiranthi Pers.
  • Uredo cruciferarum DC.

International Common Names

  • English: blister of crucifers; staghead of crucifers; white blister of crucifers
  • Spanish: chahuixtle blanco: cruciferas; roya blanca de las cruciferas
  • French: rouille blanche des crucifères
  • Chinese: shi zi hua ke bai xiu bing
  • Portuguese: ferrugem-branca

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Weisser: Kreuzbluetler Rost
  • Italy: ruggine bianca
  • Poland: bielik krzyzowych

EPPO code

  • ALBUCA (Albugo candida)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Chromista
  •         Phylum: Oomycota
  •             Class: Oomycetes
  •                 Order: Peronosporales
  •                     Family: Albuginaceae
  •                         Genus: Albugo
  •                             Species: Albugo candida

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

EgyptPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
EthiopiaPresentLiu and Rimmer (1991); CABI and EPPO (2001)
KenyaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); Herb IMI (Undated)
LibyaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); Herb IMI (Undated)
MalawiPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); Herb IMI (Undated)
MauritiusPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); Herb IMI (Undated)
Sierra LeonePresentCABI and EPPO (2001); Herb IMI (Undated)
South AfricaPresentHoltzhausen (1978); Morris and Knox-Davies (1980); CABI and EPPO (2001)
SudanPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); Herb IMI (Undated)
TanzaniaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); Herb IMI (Undated)
TunisiaPresentDjébali et al. (2009)

Asia

BhutanPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); Herb IMI (Undated)
ChinaPresentZhang et al. (1984); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-AnhuiPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
-FujianPresentChang (1981); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-GansuPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
-GuangxiPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
-GuizhouPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
-HebeiPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
-HubeiPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
-Inner MongoliaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
-JiangsuPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
-JiangxiPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
-JilinPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
-LiaoningPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
-QinghaiPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
-ShaanxiPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
-ShandongPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
-ShanxiPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
-SichuanPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
-TibetPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
-XinjiangPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
-YunnanPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
-ZhejiangPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
Hong KongPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); Herb IMI (Undated)
IndiaPresentSingh et al. (1993); CABI and EPPO (2001); CABI (Undated)
-BiharPresentRai et al. (1974); Dubey and Mishra (1994); Dubey (1996); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-DelhiPresentPaladhi et al. (1993); Uma Verma and Bhowmik (1996); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-GujaratPresentKhunti et al. (2004)
-HaryanaPresentYash Pal et al. (1992); Yadav et al. (1994); Naresh Mehta et al. (1996); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-Himachal PradeshPresentBhardwaj and Sud (1993); CABI and EPPO (2001); CABI (Undated)
-Jammu and KashmirPresentRai et al. (1974); Dar and Ghani (1997); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-JharkhandPresentSingh and Singh (2005)
-KarnatakaPresentHegde and Anahosur (1993); Hegde and Anahosur (1994); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-Madhya PradeshPresentTomar et al. (1992); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-MaharashtraPresentKhetmalas et al. (1994); CABI and EPPO (2001); CABI (Undated)
-ManipurPresentSingh (1989); CABI and EPPO (2001); CABI (Undated)
-PunjabPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); CABI (Undated)
-RajasthanPresentBhatia and Gangopadhyay (1996); Bhargava et al. (1997); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-SikkimPresentSrivastava and Verma (1987); Srivastava and Verma (1989); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-Tamil NaduPresentVelazhahan and Thiyagarajan (1994); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-Uttar PradeshPresentRai et al. (1974); Kolte et al. (1986); CABI and EPPO (2001); CABI (Undated)
-West BengalPresentGiri et al. (1989); CABI and EPPO (2001)
IranPresentEtebarian (1993); Etebarian (1995); CABI and EPPO (2001)
IraqPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); Herb IMI (Undated)
IsraelPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
JapanPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
MalaysiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); Herb IMI (Undated)
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); Herb IMI (Undated)
-SabahPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); Herb IMI (Undated)
-SarawakPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); Herb IMI (Undated)
NepalPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); Herb IMI (Undated)
PakistanPresentJalaluddin et al. (1993); CABI and EPPO (2001)
PhilippinesPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
Saudi ArabiaPresentBaka (2008)
South KoreaPresentSo et al. (1981); CABI and EPPO (2001); Choi et al. (2014)
TaiwanPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
TurkeyPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); Herb IMI (Undated)
YemenPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); Herb IMI (Undated)

Europe

AustriaPresentGlaeser (1973); Szith and Furlan (1979); CABI and EPPO (2001)
BelgiumPresentVanparys et al. (1993); Vanparys and Calus (1994); CABI and EPPO (2001)
BulgariaPresentStefcheva et al. (2005)
CroatiaPresentCvjetković (2008)
CyprusPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); Herb IMI (Undated)
DenmarkPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); CABI (Undated)
FinlandPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); Herb IMI (Undated)
FrancePresentCABI and EPPO (2001); CABI (Undated)
GermanyPresentBedlan (1987); Paul and Rawlinson (1992); CABI and EPPO (2001)
GreecePresentVakalounakis (1991); CABI and EPPO (2001)
HungaryPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); Herb IMI (Undated)
IrelandPresentRyan (1986); CABI and EPPO (2001)
ItalyPresentMinuto et al. (1997); CABI and EPPO (2001); CABI (Undated)
LatviaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); Herb IMI (Undated)
MaltaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); Herb IMI (Undated)
NetherlandsPresentBiesheuvel (1991); Meier (1996); CABI and EPPO (2001)
PolandPresent, WidespreadKurzawińska and Poniedziałek (1987); Macias (1996); CABI and EPPO (2001)
PortugalPresentDias and Lucas (1978); CABI and EPPO (2001)
RomaniaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); Herb IMI (Undated)
RussiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); Herb IMI (Undated)
Serbia and MontenegroPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); Herb IMI (Undated)
SlovakiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); Herb IMI (Undated)
SpainPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
-Canary IslandsPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); Herb IMI (Undated)
SwedenPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); Herb IMI (Undated)
SwitzerlandPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); Herb IMI (Undated)
UkrainePresentBurdyukova and Dudka (1982); Bogarada et al. (1984); CABI and EPPO (2001)
Union of Soviet Socialist RepublicsPresentHerb IMI (Undated)
United KingdomPresentBrooks (1975); Humpherson-Jones (1991); CABI and EPPO (2001); Herb IMI (Undated)

North America

BarbadosPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
BermudaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
CanadaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
-AlbertaPresentVerma and Petrie (1979); Thomas (1984); Petrie (1988); Petrie (1994); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-British ColumbiaPresentCONNERS (1967); Ginns (1986); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-ManitobaPresentVerma and Petrie (1979); Thomas (1984); Petrie (1988); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-New BrunswickPresentCONNERS (1967); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-Nova ScotiaPresentCONNERS (1967); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-OntarioPresentCONNERS (1967); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-Prince Edward IslandPresentCONNERS (1967); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-QuebecPresentCONNERS (1967); Ginns (1986); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-SaskatchewanPresentThomas (1984); Petrie (1988); Petrie (1994); CABI and EPPO (2001); CABI (Undated)
CubaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); Herb IMI (Undated)
Dominican RepublicPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
El SalvadorPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
JamaicaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); Herb IMI (Undated)
MexicoPresentPonce G. and Mendoza Z. (1983); CABI and EPPO (2001)
Puerto RicoPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); Herb IMI (Undated)
United StatesPresent, WidespreadFarr et al. (1995); CABI and EPPO (2001); CABI (Undated)
-AlabamaPresent, WidespreadFarr et al. (1995); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-ArizonaPresent, WidespreadFarr et al. (1995); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-ArkansasPresent, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (2001)
-CaliforniaPresentFarr et al. (1995); Koike (1996); CABI and EPPO (2001); Rector et al. (2016)
-ColoradoPresentFarr et al. (1995); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-DelawarePresent, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (2001)
-FloridaPresent, WidespreadFarr et al. (1995); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-GeorgiaPresentFarr et al. (1995); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-HawaiiPresent, WidespreadFarr et al. (1995); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-IdahoPresentFarr et al. (1995); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-IllinoisPresent, WidespreadFarr et al. (1995); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-IndianaPresent, WidespreadFarr et al. (1995); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-IowaPresent, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (2001)
-KansasPresent, WidespreadFarr et al. (1995); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-KentuckyPresent, WidespreadFarr et al. (1995); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-MainePresent, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (2001); CABI (Undated)
-MassachusettsPresentFarr et al. (1995); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-MinnesotaPresentFarr et al. (1995); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-MississippiPresent, WidespreadFarr et al. (1995); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-MissouriPresent, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (2001)
-MontanaPresent, WidespreadFarr et al. (1995); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-NebraskaPresent, WidespreadFarr et al. (1995); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-NevadaPresentFarr et al. (1995); CABI and EPPO (2001); Rector et al. (2016)
-New HampshirePresentFarr et al. (1995); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-New JerseyPresent, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (2001); CABI (Undated)
-New MexicoPresentFarr et al. (1995); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-New YorkPresent, WidespreadFarr et al. (1995); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-North CarolinaPresent, WidespreadFarr et al. (1995); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-North DakotaPresentFarr et al. (1995); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-OhioPresent, WidespreadFarr et al. (1995); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-OklahomaPresent, WidespreadFarr et al. (1995); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-OregonPresent, WidespreadFarr et al. (1995); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-PennsylvaniaPresent, WidespreadFarr et al. (1995); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-South CarolinaPresent, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (2001); CABI (Undated)
-South DakotaPresentFarr et al. (1995); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-TexasPresent, WidespreadFarr et al. (1995); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-UtahPresentFarr et al. (1995); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-VermontPresent, WidespreadFarr et al. (1995); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-VirginiaPresentFarr et al. (1995); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-WashingtonPresent, WidespreadJohnson and Gabrielson (1990); Farr et al. (1995); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-West VirginiaPresentFarr et al. (1995); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-WisconsinPresentFarr et al. (1995); CABI and EPPO (2001)
-WyomingPresentFarr et al. (1995); CABI and EPPO (2001)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
-Western AustraliaPresentBarbetti (1981); CABI and EPPO (2001)
Cook IslandsPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
FijiPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
French PolynesiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); Herb IMI (Undated)
New CaledoniaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
New ZealandPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); Herb IMI (Undated)
Papua New GuineaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); Herb IMI (Undated)
SamoaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
VanuatuPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)

South America

ArgentinaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); CABI (Undated)
BrazilPresentCABI and EPPO (2001)
-ParanaPresentCardoso et al. (1996); CABI and EPPO (2001)
Falkland IslandsPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); Herb IMI (Undated)
GuyanaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); Herb IMI (Undated)
SurinamePresentCABI and EPPO (2001)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Fruit / abnormal shape
Fruit / galls
Fruit / lesions: on pods
Inflorescence / distortion (non-graminaceous plants)
Inflorescence / galls
Inflorescence / lesions; flecking; streaks (not Poaceae)
Inflorescence / twisting and distortion
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / fungal growth
Roots / galls along length
Seeds / shrivelled
Stems / galls
Stems / mould growth on lesion

Plant Trade

Top of page
Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx fruiting bodies; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves fruiting bodies; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) fruiting bodies; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Roots
Wood

References

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1981. Report of activities 1979-1980. Avignon-Montfavet experimental station for market garden crops. Rapport d'activite 1979-1980. Station d'amelioration des plantes maraicheres d'Avignon-Montfavet. INRA, Ministry of Agriculture. Montfavet France, 145 pp.

Achar PN, 1993. Hypertrophy in tissues of radish due to mixed infection by Peronospora parasitica and Albugo candida. Phyton (Buenos Aires), 54(1):45-49

Anon., 1960. Index of Plant Diseases in the United States. Crops Research Division, Agricultural Research Service, Agriculture Handbook No. 165. Washington, USA: United States Department of Agriculture.

Anon., 1975. Plant diseases and pests in Denmark in 1974. 91st annual report. Plantesygdomme i Danmark 1974. 91. Lyngby, Denmark: Danish Research Service for Plant and Soil Science, 77 pp.

Appleton J, 1979. Lancs sprout trial rates 55 varieties for white blister. Grower, 91(8):52, 55, 58

Bains SS; Jhooty JS, 1979. Mixed infections by Albugo candida and Peronospora parasitica on Brassica juncea inflorescence and their control. Indian Phytopathology, 32(2):268-271

Baiswar P; Ngachan SV; Verma VK; Chandra S, 2016. Molecular evidence reveals presence of Albugo candida on Brassicajuncea var rugosa in northeast India. Environment and Ecology, 34(4A):1849-1851. http://www.environmentandecology.com/

Baka ZAM, 2008. Occurrence and ultrastructure of Albugo candida on a new host, Arabis alpina in Saudi Arabia. Micron, 39(8):1138-1144. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T9N-4SSG4SC-1&_user=6686535&_coverDate=12%2F31%2F2008&_rdoc=9&_fmt=high&_orig=browse&_srch=doc-info(%23toc%235119%232008%23999609991%23698195%23FLA%23display%23Volume)&_cdi=5119&_sort=d&_docanchor=&_ct=47&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=6686535&md5=17b858c93b22455c5f996821a95b59cc

Bansal VK; Tewari JP; Tewari I; G=mez-Campo C; Stringam GR, 1997. Genus Eruca: a potential source of white rust resistance in cultivated brassicas. Plant Genetic Resources Newsletter, No. 109:25-26; 13 ref.

Barbetti MJ, 1981. Effects of sowing date and oospore seed contamination upon subsequent crop incidence of white rust (Albugo candida) in rapeseed. Australasian Plant Pathology, 10(3):44-46

Bedlan G, 1987. The most important diseases of radishes. Pflanzenschutz, 3(3-4):9-10

Berkenkamp B, 1972. Diseases of rapeseed in central and northern Alberta in 1971. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 52:62-63.

Bernier CC, 1972. Diseases of rapeseed in Manitoba in 1971. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 52:108.

Bhardwaj CL; Sud AK, 1993. Reaction of Brassica cultivars against Albugo candida isolates from Kangra valley. Indian Phytopathology, 46(3):258-260

Bhardwaj CL; Sud AK, 1995. A visual rating scale for white rust disease assessment of cruciferous crops. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 25(3):181-183; 1 ref.

Bhargava AK; Sobti AK; Bhargava LP; Nag A, 1997. Chemical control of white rust of mustard through seed treatment-cum-spray and their economics. Indian Phytopathology, 50(2):242-245; 9 ref.

Bhatia JN; Gangopadhyay S, 1996. Studies on chemical control of white rust disease of mustard. International Journal of Pest Management, 42:61-65.

Bhatia JN; Gangopadhyay S; Godara SL, 1994. Studies on phenolic contents in mustard genotypes in relation to white rust disease. Plant Disease Research, 9(2):169-171; 9 ref.

Biesheuvel AR, 1991. Information on white cabbages. Compromise between diseases and quality. Groenten + Fruit, Vollegrondsgroenten, 1(9):14-15

Biga MLB, 1955. Riesaminazione delle specie del genere Albugo in base all morfologia dei conidi. Sydowia, 9:339-358.

Bisht IS; Agrawal RC; Singh R, 1994. White rust (Albugo candida) severity in mustard (Brassica juncea) varieties and its effects on seed yields. Plant Varieties & Seeds, 7(2):85-89

Bogarada AP; Spiridonova VP; Martynovskaya NM, 1984. Pests and diseases of Erysimum diffusum in the Ukraine. Byulleten' Glavnogo Botanicheskogo Sada, No. 134:94-97; [1 fig.]; 8 ref.

Brooks AV, 1975. Notes from Wisley. Some disease problems of 1974. Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society, 100(5):188-191

Burdyukova LI; Dudka IA, 1982. Species of the genus Albugo on new and rare host plants in the Ukrainian SSR. Mikologiya i Fitopatologiya, 16(4):289-294

CABI/EPPO, 2001. Albugo candida. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Map No. 821. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Camele I; Mang SM; Rana GL, 2011. First report of Albugo candida causing white rust on Lunaria annua in Italy. Plant Disease, 95(1):72. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Cardoso RM de L; Oliveira MAR de; Leite RMVB de C; Barbosa C de J; Balbino LC, 1996. Boletim de canola no Parana. Boletim Tecnico Instituto Agronomico do Parana, No. 51.

Chang ZM, 1981. Evaluation of rape downy mildew and white rust. Fukien Agricultural Science and Technology, 5:8-10

Chauhan YS; Kumar K; Maurya KN; Singh RB, 1999. Development of NDM 87-1, a white rust resistant strain of mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern & Coss). Cruciferae Newsletter, No. 21:117-118; 3 ref.

Choi D; Priest MJ, 1995. A key to the genus Albugo. Mycotaxon, 53:261-272

Choi YJ; Han KS; Park YH; Shin HD, 2014. First report of white blister rust caused by Albugo candida on Wasabi in Korea. Plant Disease, 98(7):1006-1007. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Chou HM; Rolfe SA; Scholes JD, 1995. The effect of Albugo candida on the photosynthetic and carbohydrate metabolism of Arabidopsis thaliana. Aspects of Applied Biology, 42:149-153

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