Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Phymatotrichopsis omnivora
(cotton root rot)

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Datasheet

Phymatotrichopsis omnivora (cotton root rot)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 11 October 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Phymatotrichopsis omnivora
  • Preferred Common Name
  • cotton root rot
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Pezizomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Two-year-old apple tree killed by P. omnivora. Leaves are bronzed and wilted.
TitleSymptoms on apple tree
CaptionTwo-year-old apple tree killed by P. omnivora. Leaves are bronzed and wilted.
CopyrightC.M. Kenerley
Two-year-old apple tree killed by P. omnivora. Leaves are bronzed and wilted.
Symptoms on apple treeTwo-year-old apple tree killed by P. omnivora. Leaves are bronzed and wilted.C.M. Kenerley
Five-year-old apple tree killed by P. omnivora.
TitleSymptoms on apple tree
CaptionFive-year-old apple tree killed by P. omnivora.
CopyrightC.M. Kenerley
Five-year-old apple tree killed by P. omnivora.
Symptoms on apple treeFive-year-old apple tree killed by P. omnivora.C.M. Kenerley
Row of cotton plants with various stages of symptom development.
TitleSymptoms on cotton
CaptionRow of cotton plants with various stages of symptom development.
CopyrightC.M. Kenerley
Row of cotton plants with various stages of symptom development.
Symptoms on cottonRow of cotton plants with various stages of symptom development.C.M. Kenerley
Several cotton plants infected with P. omnivora. Leaves are yellowed and wilted.
TitleSymptoms on cotton
CaptionSeveral cotton plants infected with P. omnivora. Leaves are yellowed and wilted.
CopyrightC.M. Kenerley
Several cotton plants infected with P. omnivora. Leaves are yellowed and wilted.
Symptoms on cottonSeveral cotton plants infected with P. omnivora. Leaves are yellowed and wilted.C.M. Kenerley
Section of a cotton field with extensive loss due to Phymatotrichopsis.
TitleSeverely damaged cotton field
CaptionSection of a cotton field with extensive loss due to Phymatotrichopsis.
CopyrightC.M. Kenerley
Section of a cotton field with extensive loss due to Phymatotrichopsis.
Severely damaged cotton fieldSection of a cotton field with extensive loss due to Phymatotrichopsis.C.M. Kenerley
Yellowish-brown strands of intertwined hyphae growing over root surface.
TitleHyphal strands
CaptionYellowish-brown strands of intertwined hyphae growing over root surface.
CopyrightC.M. Kenerley
Yellowish-brown strands of intertwined hyphae growing over root surface.
Hyphal strandsYellowish-brown strands of intertwined hyphae growing over root surface.C.M. Kenerley
Sporemat of P.omnivora formed under the canopy of an apple orchard.
TitleSporemat
CaptionSporemat of P.omnivora formed under the canopy of an apple orchard.
CopyrightC.M. Kenerley
Sporemat of P.omnivora formed under the canopy of an apple orchard.
SporematSporemat of P.omnivora formed under the canopy of an apple orchard. C.M. Kenerley
Germinating sclerotium (1-2 mm diameter) of P. omnivora.
TitleSclerotium
CaptionGerminating sclerotium (1-2 mm diameter) of P. omnivora.
CopyrightC.M. Kenerley
Germinating sclerotium (1-2 mm diameter) of P. omnivora.
SclerotiumGerminating sclerotium (1-2 mm diameter) of P. omnivora.C.M. Kenerley

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Phymatotrichopsis omnivora (Duggar) Hennebert

Preferred Common Name

  • cotton root rot

Other Scientific Names

  • Hydnum omnivorum Shear
  • Ozonium auricomum Pammel
  • Ozonium omnivorum Shear
  • Phymatotrichopsis omnivorum Duggar
  • Phymatotrichum omnivorum Duggar

International Common Names

  • English: cotton soft rot; grapevine Texas root rot; soft rot of cotton; Texas root rot of cotton
  • Spanish: pudrición texana
  • French: maladie du Texas du cotonnier

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Wurzelfäule: Baumwolle; Wurzelfäule: Wein

EPPO code

  • PHMPOM (Phymatotrichopsis omnivora)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Pezizomycetes
  •                     Order: Pezizales
  •                         Family: Rhizinaceae
  •                             Genus: Phymatotrichopsis
  •                                 Species: Phymatotrichopsis omnivora

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

UzbekistanAbsent, invalid recordEPPO, 2014

Africa

LibyaPresentEPPO, 2014
SomaliaAbsent, unreliable recordEPPO, 2014

North America

MexicoRestricted distributionStreets and Bloss, 1973; CMI, 1987; IMI, 1990; EPPO, 2014
USARestricted distributionCMI, 1987; IMI, 1990; EPPO, 2014
-ArizonaPresentStreets and Bloss, 1973; CMI, 1987; IMI, 1990; EPPO, 2014
-ArkansasPresentYoung, 1929; CMI, 1987; IMI, 1990; EPPO, 2014
-CaliforniaPresentStreets and Bloss, 1973; CMI, 1987; IMI, 1990; EPPO, 2014
-HawaiiAbsent, invalid recordEPPO, 2014
-LouisianaPresentNeal, 1947; CMI, 1987; IMI, 1990; EPPO, 2014
-NevadaPresentStreets and Bloss, 1973; CMI, 1987; IMI, 1990; EPPO, 2014
-New MexicoPresentStreets and Bloss, 1973; CMI, 1987; IMI, 1990; EPPO, 2014
-OklahomaPresentStreets and Bloss, 1973; CMI, 1987; IMI, 1990; EPPO, 2014
-TexasPresentStreets and Bloss, 1973; CMI, 1987; IMI, 1990; EPPO, 2014
-UtahPresentStreets and Bloss, 1973; CMI, 1987; IMI, 1990; EPPO, 2014

Central America and Caribbean

Dominican RepublicAbsent, unreliable recordEPPO, 2014

South America

ArgentinaAbsent, invalid recordEPPO, 2014
BrazilAbsent, unreliable recordEPPO, 2014
-Rio Grande do SulAbsent, unreliable recordEPPO, 2014
VenezuelaRestricted distributionCMI, 1987; IMI, 1990; EPPO, 2014

Europe

Russian FederationAbsent, invalid recordEPPO, 2014

Growth Stages

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List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / wilting
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Roots / fungal growth on surface
Roots / rot of wood
Stems / internal discoloration

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aspergillus ustus Antagonist
Aspergillus versicolor Antagonist
Chaetomium globosum Pathogen
Clonostachys rosea Antagonist
Gliocladium catenulatum Antagonist
Haematonectria haematococca Pathogen
Penicillium crustosum Pathogen
Thielavia terricola Pathogen
Trichoderma harzianum Antagonist
Trichoderma pseudokoningii Antagonist

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Growing medium accompanying plants hyphae; sclerotia Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Roots hyphae; sclerotia Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Leaves
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

References

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Alderman SC; Hine RB, 1982. Vertical distribution in soil of and induction of disease by strands of Phymatotrichum omnivorum. Phytopathology, 72(4):409-412

Alderman SC; Stowell LJ, 1986. Strand ontogeny in Phymatotrichum omnivorum. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 86(2):207-211

Baniecki JF; Bloss HE, 1969. The basidial stage of Phymatotrichum omnivorum. Mycologia, 61:1054-1059.

Blank LM, 1953. The rot that attacks 2000 species. In: Stefferud A, ed. Plant Diseases. USDA Yearbook of Agriculture. Washington, DC, USA: USDA, 298-301.

CABI/EPPO, 1998. Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith IM, Charles LMF). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, xviii + 768 pp.

Chavez HB; McIntosh TH; Boyle AM, 1967. Greenhouse infection of cotton by Phymatotrichum omnivorum. Plant Disease Reporter, 51:926-927.

Dana BF, 1931. Soil cultures for the laboratory production of sclerotia of Phymatotrichum omnivorum. Phytopathology, 21:551-556.

Domsch KH; Gams W; Anderson TH, 1980. Compendium of soil fungi. Volumes 1 and 2. London, UK: Academic Press Ltd. 859 pp.

Dong S; Bloss HE; Alcorn SM, 1981. Ultrastructure and comparison of Phymatotrichum omnivorum and Sistotrema brinkmannii. Mycologia, 73(2):321-333

Duggar BM, 1916. The Texas root rot fungus and its conidial stage. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Gardens, 3:11-23.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Ezekiel WN; Taubenhaus JJ, 1932. Leaf temperatures of cotton plants with Phymatotrichum root rot. Science, 75:391-392.

Hennebert GL, 1973. Botrytis and Botrytis-like genera. Persoonia, 7(2):183-204

IMI, 1990. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Map No. 15. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

IMI, 1990. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Map No. 15. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Jeger MJ; Kenerley CM; Gerik TJ; Koch DO, 1987. Spatial dynamics of Phymatotrichum root rot in row crops in the Blackland region of North Central Texas. Phytopathology, 77(12):1647-1656

Kenerley CM; Ivors K; Appel D; Nelson S, 1994. Spatial and temporal dynamics of epidemics in apple orchards caused by Phymatotrichum omnivorum. Phytopathology, 84:1142.

Kenerley CM; Ivors K; Appel D; Nelson S, 1995. Comparison of epidemics caused by Phymatotrichum omnivorum in trellised apple orchards. Phytopathology, 85:1173.

Kenerley CM; Jeger MJ, 1990. Root colonization by Phymatotrichum omnivorum and symptom expression of Phymatotrichum root rot in cotton in relation to planting date, soil temperature and soil water potential. Plant Pathology, 39(3):489-500

Kenerley CM; Jeger MJ, 1992. Fungal diseases of the root and stem. Cotton diseases [edited by Hillocks, R.J.] Wallingford, UK; CAB International, 161-190

King CJ; Hope C, 1932. Distribution of the cotton root rot fungus in soil and plant tissues in relation to control by disinfectants. Journal of Agricultural Research, 45:725-740.

King CJ; Loomis HF; Hope C, 1931. Studies on sclerotia and mycelial strands of the cotton root-rot fungus. Journal of Agricultural Research, 42:827-840.

Koch DO; Jeger MJ; Gerik TJ; Kenerley CM, 1987. Effects of plant density on progress of Phymatotrichum root rot in cotton. Phytopathology, 77(12):1657-1662

Lyda SD, 1978. Ecology of Phymatotrichum omnivorum. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 16:193-209.

Lyda SD, 1984. Vertical and horizontal distribution of Phymatotrichum sclerotia in Texas soils. Phytopathology, 74:814.

Lyda SD; Burnett E, 1971. Influence of temperature on Phymatotrichum sclerotial formation and disease development. Phytopathology, 61:728-730.

Lyda SD; Kenerley CM, 1992. Phymatotrichum. In: Singleton LL, Mihail JD, Rush CM, eds. Methods for Research on Soilborne Phytopathogenic Fungi. St. Paul, MN, USA: American Phytopathological Society Press, 145-148.

Mulrean EN; Hine RB; Mueller JP, 1984. Effect of Phymatotrichum root rot on yield and seed and lint quality in Gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense. Plant Disease, 68(5):381-383

Neal DC, 1947. Discovery of Phymatotrichum root rot in Louisiana. Plant Disease Reporter, 31:416-417.

Neal DC; Wester RE; Gunn KC, 1934. Morphology and life history of the cotton root-rot fungus in Texas. Journal of Agricultural Research, 49:539-548.

Olsen MW; George S, 1987. Applications of systemic fungicides through subsurface drip irrigation for control of Phymatotrichum root rot of cotton. Phytopathology, 77:1748.

Olsen MW; Misaghi IJ; Goldstein D; Hine RB, 1983. Water relations in cotton plants infected with Phymatotrichum. Phytopathology, 73(2):213-216

Percy RG; Rush CM, 1985. Evaluation of four upland cotton genotypes for a rate-limiting resistance to Phymatotrichum root rot. Phytopathology, 75(4):463-466

Riggs JL; Lyda SD, 1988. Laboratory and field tests with triazole fungicides to control Phymatotrichum root rot of cotton. Proceedings, Beltwide Cotton Production Research Conferences, USA Memphis, USA; National Cotton Council of America, 45-48

Rogers CH; Watkins GM, 1938. Strand formation in Phymatotrichum omnivorum. American Journal of Botany, 25:244-246.

Rush CM; Gerik TJ; Kenerley CM, 1985. Atypical disease symptoms associated with Phymatotrichum root rot of cotton. Plant Disease, 69(6):534-537

Rush CM; Gerik TJ; Lyda SD, 1984. Factors affecting symptom appearance and development of Phymatotrichum root rot of cotton. Phytopathology, 74(12):1466-1469

Rush CM; Lyda SD; Gerik TJ, 1984. The relationship between time of cortical senescence and foliar symptom development of Phymatotrichum root rot of cotton. Phytopathology, 74(12):1464-1466

Shear CL, 1925. The life history of the Texas root rot fungus, Ozonium omnivorum Shear. Journal of Agricultural Research, 30:475-477.

Streets RB; Bloss HE, 1973. Phymatotrichum Root Rot. APS Monograph No. 8. St Paul, MN, USA: APS Press.

Taubenhaus JJ; Dana BF; Wolff SE, 1929. Plants susceptible or resistant to cotton root rot and their relation to control. College Station, TX: Texas Agricultural Experimental Station Bulletin, 393.

Taubenhaus JJ; Ezekiel WN, 1930. Studies on the overwintering of Phymatotrichum root rot. Phytopathology, 20:761-785.

Watkins GM, 1981. Compendium of Cotton Diseases. St Paul, Minnesota, USA: APS Press.

Wheeler JE; Hine RB, 1972. Influence of soil temperature and moisture on survival and growth of strands of Phymatotrichum omnivorum. Phytopathology, 72:828-832.

White TL; Kenerley CM; Gerik TJ, 1987. Quantification of hyphal strand growth and sclerotium formation of Phymatotrichum omnivorum using a micro-video system. Proceedings of the Beltwide Cotton Production Research Conference, 47:42-43.

Whitson RS; Hine RB, 1986. Activity of propiconazole and other sterol-inhibiting fungicides against Phymatotrichum omnivorum. Plant Disease, 70(2):130-133

Young VH, 1929. Phymatotrichum omnivorum on cotton in Arkansas. Plant Disease Reporter, 13:98.

Distribution Maps

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