Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Phlyctinus callosus
(vine calandra)

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Datasheet

Phlyctinus callosus (vine calandra)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Phlyctinus callosus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • vine calandra
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • In the Southern Hemisphere, P. callosus has spread from South Africa to New Zealand, then to Tasmania, before reaching mainland Australia where it has spread into a number of southern Australian states. Although frequently intercepted in the USA, it...
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Phlyctinus callosus (Schöenherr)

Preferred Common Name

  • vine calandra

Other Scientific Names

  • Phylctinus callosus Boheman 1984
  • Rhyncogonus germanus (Broun 1893)

International Common Names

  • Spanish: calendra

Local Common Names

  • Australia: garden weevil
  • New Zealand: garden weevil
  • South Africa: banded fruit weevil; banded snout beetle; grapevine beetle; kalander; v-back snoutbeetle; vine snout beetle

EPPO code

  • PHLYCA (Phlyctinus callosus)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page In the Southern Hemisphere, P. callosus has spread from South Africa to New Zealand, then to Tasmania, before reaching mainland Australia where it has spread into a number of southern Australian states. Although frequently intercepted in the USA, it has not become successfully established in the Northern Hemisphere.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Coleoptera
  •                         Family: Curculionidae
  •                             Genus: Phlyctinus
  •                                 Species: Phlyctinus callosus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page Although the authority for the description of P. callosus commonly appears in the literature as Boheman 1834, the species was actually described by Schönherr in 1826 in his description of the subgenus Peritelus (Phlyctinus). As the earlier author, Schönherr remains as the valid authority with his name appearing in parentheses because the species was originally described within Peritelus (Barnes, 1989). When this organism was first discovered in New Zealand in 1893, Broun considered it a new species and described it, naming it Rhyncogonus germanus, which remains a junior synonym. In some literature, the name has appeared as Philyctinus callosus; this is presumably a misspelling or misprint of the correct generic name.

Description

Top of page Eggs are oblong, about 0.9 mm long and creamy white when first laid, but turning black at each end as they age (Butcher, 1984).

Larvae are creamy white, legless and up to 6 mm long, with long hairs on the body. They have orange head capsules and black jaws. There are four to 11 larval instars, although most larvae have six to nine instars (Walker, 1978).

Pupae are 7-8 mm long and have stout, hooked bristles (Butcher, 1984).

Adults are 7 mm long, dull greyish-brown with a much lighter or white V-shaped band at the rear of the abdomen on the closed elytra. The tip of the rostrum is black and shiny. The abdomen is bulbous. To the posterior of the abdomen, beyond the white V-shaped band, the elytra are distinctly 'lumpy'. Each lump bears numerous setae (Annecke and Moran, 1982).

Fisher (1998) provides photographs of larvae, pupae and adults.

Distribution

Top of page P. callosus is indigenous to the western Cape Province of South Africa (Barnes and Pringle 1989). It has only been recorded in South Africa below latitude 33 degrees S (Barnes, 1989). It spread to New Zealand, where it was first reported in 1893 (Kuschel 1972) under the synonym Rhyncogonus germanus (Kuschel, 1990). Kuschel (1990) reported P. callosus as being sporadic in gardens and paddocks near Auckland. It is now present in the warmer parts of North Island and Nelson in the South Island (Butcher 1984). In New Zealand, P. callosus also occurs in glasshouses where it is a pest of grapevines grown in protection (Lo et al., 1990). In Australia, P. callosus first established in Tasmania, from where it spread to the mainland and spread further to occupy all of the southern Australian States.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Africa

South AfricaPresentNative Not invasive Schönherr, 1826; Annecke and Moran, 1982; Barnes and Pringle, 1989; EPPO, 2014

North America

USAAbsent, intercepted onlyIntroducedAPIS, 1979; Myburgh and Kriegler, 1967

Oceania

AustraliaRestricted distributionIntroducedMatthiessen & Learmouth, 1994; Walker, 1981; EPPO, 2014
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedChadwick, 1978
-South AustraliaPresentHorne, 1997; EPPO, 2014
-TasmaniaPresentMiller, 1979; Horne, 1997; EPPO, 2014
-VictoriaPresentHorne, 1997; EPPO, 2014
-Western AustraliaPresentHorne, 1997; Fisher, 1998; EPPO, 2014
New ZealandPresentIntroduced1893Broun, 1893; Kuschel, 1972; Spiller and Wise, 1982; Butcher, 1984; EPPO, 2014

Risk of Introduction

Top of page P. callosus is a quarantine pest for the USA (EPPO, 2004), having been detected in consignments of table grapes from South Africa since at least the late 1960s (Myburgh and Kriegler, 1967; APHIS, 1979). Detection of P. callosus in table grapes from South Africa is one of the major reasons why consignments of the fruit are disqualified from entry to the USA (Opatowski, 2001). P. callosus is also a quarantine pest in Israel where it has the potential to become an important pest of several crops (Opatowski, 2001).

P. callosus is attuned to dry, hot summers and wet winters (Annecke and Moran, 1982). It currently occurs in regions with warm temperate or mediterranean climates. Countries around the world with these, or similar, climates, and that import commodities or hosts plants from regions where P. callosus already occurs are potentially at risk. Where it is established, P. callosus damages a wide and varied range of crops. Outside of its current known distribution, it has the potential to cause significant damage if it successfully invades regions with similar climates and suitable hosts. It is difficult to predict which hosts are the most likely to be affected, because, as noted above, P. callosus has a wide range of hosts, and the most favoured hosts vary between countries and between regions within countries. International phytosanitary standards for pest risk analysis (FAO, 2002) should be followed to determine the nature of risk and appropriate phytosanitary measures to reduce the risk if necessary.

The damage caused by P. callosus adults and larvae is similar to that caused by other otiorhynchine weevils, thus P. callosus may go unrecognized, even when damage is seen or symptoms are detected after arrival in a new geographic area.

Habitat

Top of page Away from a cultivated environment, P. callosus is likely to occur on unmanaged trees and shrubs, hence it may present a threat to plants in the wider natural or unmanaged environment, although there is no published evidence of damage (Brockerhoff and Bain, 2000).

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page P. callosus is a polyphagous pest. It has been reported feeding on a wide range of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous species, including grasses, herbs and woody plants. It has not been recorded feeding or damaging gymnosperms.

Between countries, and even perhaps between regions within a country, P. callosus is not consistent in the hosts that it favours. For example, P. callosus is a major pest of grapevine, apples and nectarines in South Africa (Annecke and Moran, 1982; Barnes and Pringle, 1989), but not in New Zealand, where carrots and parsnips are the preferred hosts even though grapevines and apples are available. The bulbs or corms of some ornamental plants are also attacked in New Zealand (Butcher, 1984). P. callosus is only a minor pest of potatoes in both New Zealand and Australia (Matthiessen and Learmouth, 1994). As in South Africa, P. callosus is a serious pest of apples and both young and mature grapevines in several Australian states (Fisher, 1998), although it is primarily a pest of root vegetables in Tasmania (Miller, 1979). P. callosus can also be a significant pest of nectarines in Australia (Fisher, 1998).

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

Top of page Adult P. callosus attacks leaves, green stems and fruit. Typical leaf damage symptoms appear as shot-holes rather than as leaves with ragged edges. In vineyards, the most noticeable type of injury generally occurs in November and December when the developing bunches of grapes are attacked following flowering. Adults can cause scarring to grapes. Stalks of individual berries can be chewed off entirely or young grape bunches can be ring-barked, thus destroying the bunch completely (Myburgh et al., 1973; Annecke and Moran, 1982; Fisher, 1998). Young vines whose roots are attacked by P. callosus larvae are stunted and can appear water-stressed. Root feeding in mature vines is not usually as damaging.

In deciduous orchards, symptoms include shallow lesions on fruit of apples, nectarines and pears, as a result of adult feeding. Barnes and Giliomee (1992) provide a photograph of adult feeding damage to apples.

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / external feeding
Inflorescence / external feeding
Inflorescence / wilt
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / wilting
Roots / external feeding
Stems / external feeding
Vegetative organs / external feeding
Whole plant / wilt

Biology and Ecology

Top of page Egg laying begins about 6 weeks after adult emergence and continues for 3 to 6 months. Eggs are laid in loose organic litter in, or near the surface of, the soil in the late summer or early autumn. At 15 and 20°C, adult females produced less than 5 eggs per week for the first 4 or 3 weeks of egg laying, respectively (Walker, 1981). However, batches of up to 70 eggs can be laid at 7-day intervals. Over a period of 20 weeks at 20°C, approximately 350 eggs were produced by a single female (Butcher, 1984).

Depending on temperature, eggs hatch in about 10-14 days. Laboratory studies by Walker (1981) showed that eggs of P. callosus remained viable for 12 weeks at 5 and 8°C. Between 10.5 and 25.0°C, egg survival was uniformly high (76-86%). However, above 30.0°C egg survival fell to only 1.7%. The length of time for 50% of surviving eggs to hatch ranged from 65 days at 8°C to 8 days at 25°C. Based on such data, the theoretical minimum threshold temperature for egg development is 6°C.

On hatching. young larvae immediately burrow into the soil, where they feed on plant roots, tap roots such as carrots and parsnips, or tubers such as potatoes. Most larvae are found in the top 10 cm of soil (Barnes, 1989). The larvae over-winter in the soil and progress through a variable number of instars. The overlapping width of head capsules amongst larvae of different ages makes it difficult to determine precisely how many larval instars there are. Barnes (1989) reported that most larvae pass through six, seven or eight instars although there is a range of four to 11 instars. Walker (1978) reported six to nine instars. It is not uncommon for curculionids to have a large variation in the number of larval instars.

Larval mortality is particularly high in the early and middle instars, for example, 42% of first-instar larvae died before reaching the second instar and 70% failed to reach the fourth instar (Barnes, 1989). When Walker (1981) reared larvae at constant temperatures of 10.5, 15.0, 20.0, 25.0 and 30.0°C, only larvae reared at 15.0, 20.0 and 25.0 survived to adulthood. Larval survival was four times greater at 20.0 than at 15.0°C.

Larvae pupate within the top 10cm of soil (Barnes, 1989). The pupal stage lasts 7 to 22 days, with a mean of 14 days (Barnes, 1988).

Adults emerge in the late spring and early summer, feed by night on hosts, and hide during the day under rough bark or under clods of earth and rough organic material on the ground around hosts (Myburgh et al., 1973). The adult stage is mobile, although it does not fly (Annecke and Moran, 1982) because the elytra are fused together. Adults therefore climb the trunk to reach the canopy of hosts such as vines, or they reach the canopy via weeds that touch the canopy or by climbing up trailing canes or posts.

When reared at constant temperatures, in contrast to larval survival, adults perform better at 15°C, with 15% mortality in the first 100 days after emergence compared to 70% mortality at 20°C.

Most of the research literature states that P. callosus reproduces sexually, although Miller (1979) suggests that in Tasmania there are only females, implying reproduction by parthenogenesis.

P. callosus has one generation per year, except in irrigated crops or in the south-western Cape (South Africa), where a second generation is possible in the autumn if conditions are suitable (Barnes, 1989; Nel and Addison, 1993).

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page Adult P. callosus hiding on the ground during daytime may be eaten by birds, e.g. helmeted guineafowl (Witt et al., 1995), turkeys and chickens at densities of 50 per ha or more (Fisher, 1998).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page Natural dispersal (non-biotic)

As damage caused by P. callosus may be restricted to only a limited part of a cultivated plot, Horne (1997) suggests that adults do not tend to disperse widely. However, Barnes and Capatos (1989) suggested that an aggregation pheromone occurs in both male and female frass. It is suggested that the pheromone is secreted to indicate to other P. callosus adults the presence of a palatable host plant.

Vector transmission

There is no evidence that P. callosus is a vector of any plant pathogens. P. callosus feeds through biting and chewing. Insects that commonly transmit plant pathogens usually feed through the action of having piercing and sucking mouthparts.

Movement in trade

P. callosus has great potential to move with the assistance of man, either on rooted plants that are shipped and distributed during trade, or through private individuals moving rooted plants themselves. Rooted plants intended for planting could transport eggs, larvae, pupae or adults that occur undetected in accompanying soil, litter or above the ground on the host plant.

Adults could also be carried in trade via 'table ready' fruit, such as apples or table grapes intended for human consumption. However, the likelihood of P. callosus spreading to new geographic regions, either within or between countries, as a consequence of adults being carried on such fruit is much lower than the risk of spread as a result of transport with rooted plants, as rooted plants are much more likely to be planted outdoors from where adults could disperse to find other suitable hosts. When considering the risk of spread in trade, the intended use of host plants or host produce is important in determining a pest's capacity to enter and establish within a new geographic area (FAO, 2002).

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes larvae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Fruits (inc. pods) adults Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Growing medium accompanying plants eggs; larvae; pupae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves adults Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Roots larvae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches adults Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Wood Packaging

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Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Loose wood packing material
Non-wood
Processed or treated wood
Solid wood packing material with bark
Solid wood packing material without bark

Impact

Top of page Although P. callosus larvae and adults can cause significant damage to a range of crops, the larvae have an impact on a wider range of species where damage results from them feeding on roots or tubers below ground. Adults cause serious damage to the aerial parts of a more limited range of crops. Adults cause crop losses worth at least Rand 5 million annually in commercial orchards (Barnes, 1989). Apples and nectarines are damaged particularly when adults chew shallow lesions in the fruit, making them unmarketable. Similar damage on a smaller scale also occurs on pears, plums and peaches (Barnes, 1988, 1989). In South Africa, P. callosus is one of a number of weevil species damaging grapevines and grapes. They can cause severe feeding damage to the young shoots and leaves. The most noticeable type of injury generally occurs in November and December when the developing bunches of grapes are attacked subsequent to flowering. Serious damage is caused after the berries have set, when the insects chew away the stems of the young bunches or stems of individual berries, often causing the fruit to drop off (Myburgh et al., 1973; Annecke and Moran, 1982). P. callosus has become a pest on grapevines grown in glasshouses in New Zealand (Lo et al., 1990).

In orchards, P. callosus causes damage to the foliage in the lower parts of apple and plum trees. Young fruit trees can be defoliated by large adult populations (Barnes, 1989). Except for apples in South Africa, there are only a few quantitative estimates of the financial impact of damage caused by P. callosus. The weevil is cited as causing 40% of all damage to apples in the Elgin area of the Western Cape province, with damage amounting to 1.25% of the harvest, representing a cost of US$ 100,000 in 1981, and US$ 500,000 in 1987 (Witt et al., 1995). When control is inadequate, apple orchards in South Africa can suffer significant economic loss (Barnes and Giliomee, 1992), for example, P. callosus damage ranged from less than 1 to 66% across orchards where control was lacking. During this time, mean crop loss ranged from 5 to 29% between seasons (Barnes and Giliomee, 1992).

In Australia, P. callosus is a polyphagous pest of economically important crops in every state where it is established - generally regions with a mediterranean or warm temperate climate. P. callosus is especially a problem in Australian nurseries. Damage to nursery plants by adults is usually cosmetic, unless they kill new buds. It is the larvae that are most damaging (Horne, 1997).

Photographs of grapevine foliage and fruit damage are provided in Fisher (1998).

In deciduous fruit orchards of South Africa, adult P. callosus are of most significance; the larvae cause no damage of economic importance. However, in Tasmania where root vegetable crops are attacked, the larvae are the most important life stage that causes economic injury.

Environmental Impact

Top of page There are no reports in the literature concerning P . callosus that suggest that the weevil has any detrimental environmental impact (Brockerhoff and Bain, 2000). However, given that P. callosus feeds on a range of uncultivated shrubs, if it spread and established in countries or new geographic regions within countries where it is already present, it would add to the herbivore fauna and could place hosts under more pressure from pests.

Detection and Inspection

Top of page To look for larvae, soil near the base of vines or around other hosts should be carefully dug up in late winter or early spring. Soil should be examined to a depth of 10 cm. Larvae may be seen actively feeding on roots.

Adults seek shelter during the day and so can be found clustered together in grape bunches or in crevices on, or under, bark. They can also be found under plant debris or in curled leaves below deciduous trees. When disturbed they remain still or may drop to the ground and appear to feign death. Examining crop hosts at night may reveal adults actively feeding in the foliage.

Strips of corrugated cardboard can be wrapped around the stems of vines. Adults will use the cardboard to shelter in during the day and can be easily detected by close examination of the cardboard.

Barnes (1991) evaluated four techniques for detecting adult emergence in apple orchards in South Africa. Traps placed on the ground were more effective than traps placed either on trunks or branches.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page The white, or pale coloured V stripe across the rear of the abdomen and the more compact overall shape distinguishes this weevil from Asynonychus cervinus and Otiorhynchus cribricollis, with which it could otherwise be confused.

Prevention and Control

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P. callosus is regarded as the most difficult pest to control in apple and nectarine orchards in South Africa (Barnes, 1989). To combat the pest, a wide range of control methods has been developed for P. callosus in different crops. Chemical, biological and cultural techniques contribute to integrated management in orchards and vineyards. In South Africa, the pyrethroid fenvalerate, applied as a foliar spray or incorporated into stem barriers, reduced damage on apples to less than 1% (Barnes et al. 1995). Esfenvalerate was the most effective insecticide in laboratory trials of P. callosus mortality (Prestige and Willoughby, 1989). Esfenvalerate is also recommended as a foliar spray of vineyard foliage in Western Australia, although its use can lead to outbreaks of secondary pests (Fisher, 1998). Alternative pyrethroids include lambda-cyhalothrin (used as a full cover spray) in South African vineyards (Anon, 2002). During trials in New Zealand, chloropyrifos did not provide significant protection to grapes in a commercial glasshouse (Lo et al., 1990).

The above chemical treatments tend to be used in conjunction with other methods, such as stem barriers. Although stem barriers do not necessarily kill, they prevent adults from entering the canopy foliage. Untreated stem barriers proved to be as effective as sprays or treated barriers in reducing apple damage to 5% or less (Barnes et al., 1996). Physical barriers developed in South Africa to prevent adults from reaching the crop canopy are uneconomic in Australian vineyards, except for the most valuable crops (Elliott, 2002).

As a number of weed species are hosts, good crop hygiene can help prevent P. callosus populations building up because the weeds can act as oviposition sites (Barnes and Pringle, 1989) and provide resources for development (Fisher, 1998). Inter-row hoeing and other methods of soil disturbance destroy immature stages and can help in control (Horne, 1997). In Australian vinyards, if five or more larvae are found per spade of soil examined, there is a good chance that control measures may be necessary (Fisher, 1998).

Biological control offers further options for reducing and eradicating populations of P. callosus. However, predation by birds is probably less effective than control by microorganisms such as entomopathic nematodes and fungi. The nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and the fungus Beauvaria bassiana have demonstrated high infectivity in P. callosus in the laboratory (Prestige and Willoughby, 1990). Heterorhabditis heliothidis caused mortality of 80-100% in field and glasshouse strawberry, following soil injection or drenching (Schwartz, 1988).

References

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Annecke DP; Moran VC, 1982. Insects and mites of cultivated plants in South Africa. Durban, South Africa: Butterworths.

Anon, 2002. DPHQ recommendations: banded snout beetle (Phlyctinus callosus) management for table grapes from the Hex River area destined for Israel, using PLANTEX® + KARATE®. Department of Agriculture, Republic of South Africa. http://www.nda.agric.za/docs/npposa/PLANTEX.pdf.

APHIS, 1979. List of intercepted plant pests (pests recorded from July 1, 1973, through September 30, 1977). Aphis 82-5, USDA.

Barnes BN, 1988. Banded fruit weevil Phylictinus callosus, in deciduous fruit orchards of the South Western Cape, I. Historical review and background to the problem. Deciduous Fruit Grower, 38, 276-279.

Barnes BN, 1989. Different life and seasonal cycles of banded fruit weevil, Phlyctinus callosus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in apple orchards in the south-western Cape Phytophylactica, 21(2):147-157.

Barnes BN, 1991. Evaluation of techniques for monitoring emergence of the banded fruit weevil, Phlyctinus callosus, in deciduous fruit orchards. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 60(1):7-11

Barnes BN, 2014. First record of a fairyfly, Cleruchus depressus (Annecke) (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), parasitizing eggs of banded fruit weevil, Phlyctinus callosus Schönherr (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in South Africa. African Entomology, 22(4):900-905. http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.4001/003.022.0404

Barnes BN; Capatos D, 1989. Evidence for an aggregation pheromone in adult frass of banded fruit weevil, Phlyctinus callosus (Schoenherr) (Col., Coleoptera). Journal of Applied Entomology, 108(5):512-518

Barnes BN; Giliomee JH, 1992. Fruit-feeding behaviour of banded fruit weevil, Phlyctinus callosus (Schönherr) (Col., Curculionidae), in apple orchards. Journal of Applied Entomology, 113(4):407-415; 15 ref.

Barnes BN; Knipe MC; Calitz FJ, 1995. Effective weevil control on apple trees with batting trunk barriers. Deciduous Fruit Grower, 45(9):376-378

Barnes BN; Knipe MC; Calitz FJ, 1996. Latest results with trunk exclusion barriers for weevil control on apples. Deciduous Fruit Grower, 46(8):284-287; 1 ref.

Barnes BN; Pringle KL, 1989. Oviposition by the banded fruit weevil, Phlyctinus callosus (Schoenherr) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in deciduous fruit orchards in South Africa. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 79(1):31-40

Brockerhoff EG; Bain J, 2000. Biosecurity implications of exotic beetles attacking trees and shrubs in New Zealand. Proceedings of the 53rd New Zealand Weed and Pest Control Conference.. New Zealand Weed and Pest Control Society Inc. Palmerston North, 321-327.

Broun T, 1893. Descriptions of new Coleoptera from New Zealand. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, (6)12: 161-195, 288-302, 374-392.

Butcher MR, 1984. Vegetable crop pests. In New Zealand pest and beneficial insects (ed. RR Scott), pp. 93-118. Lincoln University College of Agriculture, Canterbury.

Chadwick CE, 1978. Distribution and food plants of certain Curculionoidea (Coleoptera) with special reference to New South Wales. General and Applied Entomology, 10:3-38

Elliot J, 2002. Garden weevil (Phlyctinus callosus) factsheet. Department of Agriculture, Government of Western Australia. www. agspsrv34.agric.wa.gov.au/programs/hort/viticulture/pests/gardenweevil.pdf.

EPPO, 2004. EPPO Plant Quarantine Information Retrieval System, v. 4.2. European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organisation, Paris.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Fisher D, 1998. Garden weevil in vineyards. Farmnote 25/98. Agdex 246/622, Agriculture Western Australia, Perth.

Horne PA, 1997. Grubs in your pots? Are they weevils and what can you do about it? The Nursery Papers, issue no. 1997 / 011, 4pp. Nursery Industry Association of Australia.

Kuschel G, 1972. The foreign Curculionoidea established in New Zealand (Insecta : Coleoptera). New Zealand Journal of Science, 15(3):273-289; 9 ref.

Kuschel G, 1990. Beetles in a suburban environment: a New Zealand case study. The identity and status of Coleoptera in the natural and modified habitats of Lynfield, Auckland (1974-1989). DSIR Plant Protection Report, No. 3:119 pp.

Lo PL; Blank RH; Parker RE, 1990. Insecticides for adult garden weevil and problems with control on glasshouse grapes. Proceedings of the Forty Third New Zealand Weed and Pest Control Conference Palmerston North, New Zealand; New Zealand Weed and Pest Control Society Inc., 100-103

Matthiessen JN; Learmonth SE, 1994. Biology and management of soil insect pests of potato in Australia and New Zealand. Advances in Potato Pest Biology and Management (Eds. G.W. Zehnder, M.L. Powelson, R.K. Jansson, and K.V. Raman), pp. 17-30. APS Press, St. Paul Minnesota.

Miller LA, 1979. Weevil pests of horticultural crops. Journal of Agriculture, Tasmania, 50(2):52-53.

Myburgh AC; Kriegler PJ, 1967. Experiments on sterilization of the snout beetles, Phlyctinus callosus Boh. and Eremnus setulosus Boh. on export grapes in cold-storage. J. Ent. Soc. Sth. Afr., 29: 96-101.

Myburgh AC; Whitehead VB; Daiber CC, 1973. Pests of deciduous fruit, grapes and miscellaneous other horticultural crops in South Africa. Entomology Memoir. Department of Agricultural Technical Services, Republic of South Africa. Pretoria., 27:38 pp.

Nel PJ; Addison MF, 1993. The development of an integrated pest management programme in apple orchards in Elgin, South Africa and the implications for integrated fruit production. Acta Horticulturae, No. 347:323-326.

Opatowski D, 2001. EPPO Panel on Pest Risk Analysis. Bulletin OEPP, 31(3):371-374.

Prestidge RA; Willoughby B, 1989. Garden weevil life cycle and insecticides for its control in asparagus. Proceedings of the Forty Second New Zealand Weed and Pest Control Conference, Taranki Country Lodge, New Plymouth, 8-10 August, 1989 Palmerston North, New Zealand; New Zealand Weed and Pest Control Society Inc., 238-242

Prestidge RA; Willoughby B, 1990. Control of the garden weevil (Phlyctinus callosus) larvae and pupae with a parasitic nematode and a fungal pathogen. Proceedings of the Forty Third New Zealand Weed and Pest Control Conference Palmerston North, New Zealand; New Zealand Weed and Pest Control Society Inc., 63-66

Schwartz A, 1988. Efficacy of trunk barriers for the control of key pests on trellised grapevines. South African Journal for Enology and Viticulture, 9(1):16-18

Schönherr CJ, 1826. Curculonidium dispositio methodica, cum generum characteribus, decriptionibus atque observationibus variis, seu prodromus ad synonymiae insectorum, partem IV. F. Fleicher, Lipsiae.

Scott RR, 1984. Berry fruit pests. In New Zealand pest and beneficial insects (ed. R.R. Scott), pp. 11-32. Lincoln University College of Agriculture, Canterbury.

Spiller DM; Wise KAJ, 1982. A catalogue (1860-1960) of New Zealand insects and their host plants (revised by PS Dale & PA Maddison). Wellington, New Zealand: DSIR Science Information Division, 259 pp.

Walker PL, 1978. A study of the biology, pest status and control of garden weevil, Phlyctinus callosus Boheman, and the development techniques for laboratory studies. Research Project Report, Plant Research Institute, Burnley, Victoria Department of Agriculture, 73pp.

Walker PL, 1981. Laboratory rearing of the garden weevil, Phlyctinus callosus Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and the effect of temperature on its growth and survival. Australian Journal of Zoology, 29(1):25-32

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