Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Cadophora gregata
(brown stem rot of soyabean)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Cadophora gregata (brown stem rot of soyabean)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cadophora gregata
  • Preferred Common Name
  • brown stem rot of soyabean
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Eurotiomycetes

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
TitleSymptoms on leaf
Caption
Copyright©AgrEvo
Symptoms on leaf©AgrEvo

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cadophora gregata (Allington & D.W. Chamb.) T.C. Harr. & McNew

Preferred Common Name

  • brown stem rot of soyabean

Other Scientific Names

  • Phialophora gregata (Allington & D.W. Chamb.) W. Gams

International Common Names

  • English: brown stem rot of adzuki bean; brown stem rot of soybean
  • Spanish: podredumbre marrón del tablo de la soja
  • French: pourriture brune de la tige

EPPO code

  • PHIAGR (Phialophora gregata)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Eurotiomycetes
  •                     Order: Chaetotyriales
  •                         Family: Herpotrichiellaceae
  •                             Genus: Phialophora
  •                                 Species: Cadophora gregata

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Apr 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

EgyptPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)

Asia

JapanPresentEPPO (2020)
-HokkaidoPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-HonshuPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)

Europe

CroatiaPresentEPPO (2020)
HungaryAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)UK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
SerbiaPresentEPPO (2020)
Serbia and MontenegroPresent1984UK, CAB International (1996)

North America

CanadaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-OntarioPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
MexicoAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)UK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
Puerto RicoPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
United StatesPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-FloridaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-IllinoisPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-IndianaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-IowaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-KentuckyPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-MinnesotaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-MissouriPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-New YorkPresentEPPO (2020)
-North CarolinaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-OhioPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-South DakotaPresentMathew et al. (2015); EPPO (2020)
-VirginiaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-WisconsinPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)

South America

ArgentinaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
BrazilPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-Rio Grande do SulPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-Santa CatarinaPresentBonato and Costamilan (1996); EPPO (2020)

Growth Stages

Top of page Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / wilting
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Stems / internal discoloration

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Trichoderma harzianum Antagonist Hyphae

Plant Trade

Top of page
Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx hyphae; spores Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Fruits (inc. pods) hyphae; spores Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Leaves hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Roots hyphae; spores Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) hyphae; spores Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Wood

References

Top of page

Abo-el-Dahab MK, 1968. Occurrence of brown stem rot disease of soybean in Egypt (U.A.R.). Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 7:28-33.

Adee EA; Oplinger ES; Grau CR, 1994. Tillage, rotation sequence and cultivar influences on brown stem rot and soybean yield. Journal of Production Agriculture, 7(3):341-347

Argentina; Estacion Experimental Agro-Industrial "Obispo Colombres" de Tucuman, 1980. Annual report 1979. Publicacion Miscelanea Estacion Experimental Agro-Industrial "Obispo Colombres" de Tucuman, No. 70:180 pp.

Bonato ER; Costamilan LM, 1996. Performance of soyabean genotypes in areas with different levels of infestation by Phialophora gregata. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 21(2):275-280; 17 ref.

CABI/EPPO, 1998. Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith IM, Charles LMF). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, xviii + 768 pp.

Carris LM; Glawe DA; Gray LE, 1986. Isolation of the soybean pathogens Corynespora cassiicola and Phialophora gregata from cysts of Heterodera glycines in Illinois. Mycologia, 78(3):503-506

Chen WeiDong; Gray LE; Grau CR, 1996. Molecular differentiation of fungi associated with brown stem rot and detection of Phialophora gregata in resistant and susceptible soybean cultivars. Phytopathology, 86(10):1140-1148; 35 ref.

Ellis MA; Paschal EH; Powell PE; Tenne FD, 1979. Internally seedborne fungi of soya bean in Puerto Rico and their effect on seed germination and field emergence. Tropical Agriculture, 56(2):171-174

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Epstein AH; Hatfield JD; Tachibana H, 1983. Control of brown stem rot (caused by Phialophora gregata) with concomitant increase in yield by continuous cropping of resistant soybean. Phytopathology, 73:816.

Gams W, 1971. Cephalosporium-artige Schimmelpilze (Hyphomycetes). Stuttgart, Germany: G Fisher.

Grau CR; Oplinger ES; Adee EA; Hinkens EA; Martinka MJ, 1994. Planting date and row width effect on severity of brown stem rot and soybean productivity. Journal of Production Agriculture, 7(3):347-351

Gray LE, 1971. Variation in pathogenicity of Cephalosporium gregatum. Phytopathology, 61:1410-1411.

Gray LE, 1989. Brown stem rot. In: Sinclair JB, Backman PA, eds. Compendium of Soybean Diseases. St Paul, Minnesota, USA: American Phytopathological Society, pp. 29-30.

Gray LE; Hepburn AG, 1992. Mitochondrial DNA restriction patterns of Phialophora gregata isolates from soybean and adzuki bean. Phytopathology, 82(2):211-215

Hanson PM; Nickell CD; Gray LE; Sebastian SA, 1988. Identification of two dominant genes conditioning brown stem rot resistance in soybean. Crop Science, 28(1):41-43

Kobayashi K; Tanaka F; Kondo N; Ui T, 1981. A selective medium for isolation of Cephalosporium gregatum from soil and populations in Adzuki bean field soils estimated with the medium. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 47(1):29-34

Kobayashi K; Ui T, 1977. Wilt-inducing antibiotic compounds produced by Cephalosporium gregatum. Physiological Plant Pathology, 11(1):55-60

Kobayashi K; Yamamoto H; Negishi H; Ogoshi A, 1991. Formae speciales differentiation of Phialophora gregata isolates from adzuki bean and soybean in Japan. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 57(2):225-231

Lohnes DG; Nickell CD, 1995. Inheritance of brown stem rot resistance in soybean isolines L68-0327 and L68-0469 and germplasm lines L84-5873 and L84-5932. Soybean Genetics Newsletter, 22:203-207

Malvick DK; Impullitti AE, 2007. Detection and quantification of Phialophora gregata in soybean and soil samples with a quantitative, real-time PCR assay. Plant Disease, 91(6):736-742. HTTP://www.apsnet.org

Mathew F; Tande C; Gebreil A; Byamukama E; Osborne L; Draper M, 2015. First report of brown stem rot of soybean (Glycine max) caused by Phialophora gregata in South Dakota. Plant Disease, 99(8):1176. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Mengistu A; Grau CR, 1987. Seasonal progress of brown stem rot and its impact on soybean productivity. Phytopathology, 77(11):1521-1529

Mengistu A; Tachibana H; Grau CR, 1991. Selective medium for isolation and enumeration of Phialophora gregata from soybean straw and soil. Plant Disease, 75(2):196-199

Negishi H; Kobayashi K, 1984. Effect of soybean cyst nematode on the incidence of brown stem rot (BSR) of adzuki bean. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 50(4):500-506

Nelson RL; Nickell CD; Orf JH; Tachibana H; Gritton ET; Grau CR; Kennedy BW, 1989. Evaluating soybean germ plasm for brown stem rot resistance. Plant Disease, 73(2):110-114

UK CAB International, 1996. Phialophora gregata. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, December (Edition 1). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, Map 723.

Willmot DB; Horsch DH; Waller RS; Nickell CD, 1989. Preliminary study on the inheritance of brown stem rot resistance PI 437685D. Soybean Genetics Newsletter, 16:99-102

Willmot DB; Nickell CD; Gray LE, 1989. Physiologic specialization of Phialophora gregata on soybean. Plant Disease, 73(4):290-294

Yamamoto H, 1994. Studies on taxonomy of the causal fungus of brown stem rot of adzuki bean and soyabean, Phialophora gregata (Allington et Chamberlain) Gams. Memoirs of the Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, 19(1):57-98

Yamamoto H, 1995. Differential susceptibility of Phialophora gregata ff.sp. adzukicola and sojae to antimicrobial chemicals. Mycoscience, 36(1):125-126; 6 ref.

Yamamoto H; Kobayashi K; Ogoshi A, 1991. Comparison of culture characteristics of Phialophora gregata f.sp. adzukicola and sojae in Japan. Transactions of the Mycological Society of Japan, 32(4):529-533

Yamamoto H; Kobayashi K; Ogoshi A, 1993. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms in mitochondrial DNA of Phialophora gregata in Japan. Transactions of the Mycological Society of Japan, 34(4):465-471

Yamamoto H; Kobayashi K; Ogoshi A, 1995. Characterization of the nuclear DNA of Phialophora gregata ff.sp. adzukicola and sojae. Mycoscience, 36(1):117-119; 9 ref.

Yehia AH; Abd-El-Kader DA; Salem DE; Sayed-Ahmed AA, 1994. Biological soil treatment with Trichoderma harzianum to control brown stem rot of soybean in Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Phytopathology, 22(2):143-157; 20 ref.

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map