Albizia procera (white siris)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Plant Type
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Biology and Ecology
- Latitude/Altitude Ranges
- Air Temperature
- Rainfall Regime
- Soil Tolerances
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Impact Summary
- Environmental Impact
- Impact: Biodiversity
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Uses List
- Wood Products
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Albizia procera (Roxb.) Benth.
Preferred Common Name
- white siris
Other Scientific Names
- Acacia procera (Roxb.) Willd.
- Albizzia procera nom. illeg.
- Mimosa elata Roxb.
- Mimosa procera Roxb.
International Common Names
- English: red siris; safed siris; tall albizia
Local Common Names
- Bangladesh: silkorai
- Cuba: albizia; algarrobo de la India
- Indonesia: ki hiyang; wangkul; weru
- Malaysia: oriang
- Myanmar: kokko-sit; sit
- Nepal: seto siris
- Papua New Guinea: brown albizia
- Philippines: akleng parang
- ALBPR (Albizia procera)
- forest siris
- safed siris
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page A. procera is a fast-growing, semi-deciduous, light-demanding and fairly drought-tolerant species that root suckers after damage (Troup, 1921) and coppices readily (Ryan and Bell, 1989). This tree has the potential to become a weed in some environments because of its aggressive growth and Binggeli, 1996 classified it as a potentially/possibly invasive woody species. In the absence of regular burning it will colonize Imperata grassland (Tracey, 1982). In South Africa, A. procera invades subtropical coastal bush and riverbanks and is a category 1 plant on the regulation 15 declared weeds and invader plants list, i.e. the plant may not occur on any land other than in biological control reserves, and land owners are obliged to control it (Henderson, 2001).
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Dicotyledonae
- Order: Fabales
- Family: Fabaceae
- Subfamily: Mimosoideae
- Genus: Albizia
- Species: Albizia procera
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page The genus Albizia is a member of the legume family (Fabaceae), subfamily Mimosoideae. Albizia is similar to Acacia, from which it differs by the stamens being fused as opposed to free in Acacia. The genus was named after Filippo del Albizzi, a Florentine nobleman who in 1749 introduced A. julibrissin into cultivation. Albizia procera (Roxb.) Benth. was based on Mimosa procera Roxburgh and published under Albizia by G. Bentham in Hooker's London Journal of Botany 3: 89 (1844). The species name is derived from the Latin procerus - very tall or high, alluding to the height the species can attain.
Related species are A. canescens and A. lebbeck. A. procera is clearly distinguished from A. lebbeck by the smooth pale green or buff bark, larger leaves, more diffuse canopy, much smaller flowers, and smaller, flatter red pods (Lowry and Seebeck, 1997).
DescriptionTop of page A. procera is typically a small tree 7-15 m tall, but it can reach 30 m with a 9 m long straight or crooked bole 35-60 cm in diameter. The bark is smooth, pale grey-green, yellowish-green or brown with horizontal grooves, sometimes flaky in thin, small scales. The underside of the bark is green, changing to orange just below the surface; inner bark pinkish or straw-coloured. It is described and illustrated in many texts, including Brandis (1972), Verdcourt (1979), Nielsen (1985), ICFRE (1995), Doran and Turnbull (1997) and Valkenburg (1997). The compound leaves have 2-5 (-8) pairs of sub-opposite pinnae, with a petiole 5.5-12 cm long with a large, brown, oblong gland near the base; gland narrowly elliptical, 4-10 mm long, flat and disc-like or concave with raised margins. The pinnae are 12-20 cm long, with elliptical glands below the junction of the 1-3 distal pairs of petiolules, 1 mm in diameter. Leaflets are in 5-12 pairs on each pinna, opposite, asymmetrically ovate to sub-rhomboid, 2-4.5 (-6) cm x 1-2.2 (-3.3) cm, base asymmetrical, often emarginate, apex rounded or sub-truncate, both surfaces sparsely puberulous or finely pubescent, rarely glabrous above (Valkenburg, 1997). The inflorescence is a large terminal panicle, to 30 cm long, with sessile, white or greenish-white, sessile flowers in small 15-30 flowered heads, 13 mm in diameter on stalks 8-30 mm long; the corolla funnel-shaped, 6-6.5 mm long, with elliptical lobes. The fruit is a flat, papery pod, dark red-brown, linear-oblong, 10-25 cm long by 2-3 cm broad with distinctive long points at both ends and distinctive marks over each seed. It contains 6-12 brown, ellipsoid seeds, 7.5-8 mm x 4.5-6.5 mm and 1.5 mm thick that are arranged more or less transversely in the pod (Valkenburg, 1997). At maturity the pod splits open to release the seeds which are smooth, greenish brown with a leathery testa.
Plant TypeTop of page Broadleaved
DistributionTop of page A. procera occurs naturally in a wide distribution from India (Gupta, 1993; ICFRE, 1995) and Myanmar through South-East Asia to Papua New Guinea and northern Australia. It extends north into China, including Hainan and Taiwan (Valkenburg, 1997). Isolated populations occur in the Malay Peninsula, southern Philippines, southern Kalimantan and Sumatra (Indonesia) and New Britain (Papua New Guinea) (Nielsen, 1985; Valkenburg, 1997). In Australia, A. procera is most common in coastal areas of north-eastern Queensland. There are also disjunct occurrences in the Kimberley region in northern Western Australia (Doran and Turnbull, 1997).
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Planted||Reference||Notes|
|Bangladesh||Present||Native||Natural||Parotta and Roshetko, 1997|
|Brunei Darussalam||Present||Native||World Agroforestry Centre, 2002|
|China||Present||Native||Valkenburg, 1997; ILDIS, 2002|
|-Hainan||Present||Native||Planted, Natural||Valkenburg, 1997|
|India||Present||Native||Gupta, 1993; ICFRE, 1995; ILDIS, 2002|
|-Andaman and Nicobar Islands||Present||Native||Natural||Parotta and Roshetko, 1997|
|-Madhya Pradesh||Present||Native||Planted, Natural|
|-Uttar Pradesh||Present||Native||Planted, Natural||Gupta, 1993|
|-West Bengal||Present||Native||Planted, Natural|
|Indonesia||Present||Native||Natural||World Agroforestry Centre, 2002|
|-Kalimantan||Present||Native||Nielsen, 1985; Valkenburg, 1997|
|-Sumatra||Present||Native||Nielsen, 1985; Valkenburg, 1997|
|-Peninsular Malaysia||Present||Native||Nielsen, 1985; Valkenburg, 1997|
|Nepal||Present||Native||Natural||Parotta and Roshetko, 1997|
|Philippines||Present||Native||Nielsen, 1985; Valkenburg, 1997; ILDIS, 2002|
|Sri Lanka||Present||Native||ILDIS, 2002|
|Taiwan||Present||Native||Valkenburg, 1997; ILDIS, 2002|
|Sao Tome and Principe||Present||Introduced||ILDIS, 2002|
|South Africa||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Henderson, 2001; ILDIS, 2002|
|Tanzania||Present||Introduced||World Agroforestry Centre, 2002|
|Zimbabwe||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Buss, 2002; ILDIS, 2002|
Central America and Caribbean
|Antigua and Barbuda||Present||Introduced||World Agroforestry Centre, 2002|
|Bahamas||Present||Introduced||World Agroforestry Centre, 2002|
|Barbados||Present||Introduced||World Agroforestry Centre, 2002|
|Cuba||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Cumba et al., 1992; ILDIS, 2002; Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012|
|Dominica||Present||Introduced||World Agroforestry Centre, 2002|
|Dominican Republic||Present||Introduced||World Agroforestry Centre, 2002|
|Grenada||Present||Introduced||World Agroforestry Centre, 2002|
|Guadeloupe||Present||Introduced||World Agroforestry Centre, 2002|
|Haiti||Present||Introduced||World Agroforestry Centre, 2002|
|Martinique||Present||Introduced||World Agroforestry Centre, 2002|
|Netherlands Antilles||Present||Introduced||World Agroforestry Centre, 2002|
|Puerto Rico||Widespread||Introduced||1924||Invasive||Francis and Liogier, 1991; Chinea-Rivera, 1995; Federal Highway Administration, 2001; ILDIS, 2002; World Agroforestry Centre, 2002|
|Saint Kitts and Nevis||Present||Introduced||World Agroforestry Centre, 2002|
|Saint Lucia||Present||Introduced||World Agroforestry Centre, 2002|
|Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||Present||Introduced||World Agroforestry Centre, 2002|
|Trinidad and Tobago||Present||Introduced||World Agroforestry Centre, 2002|
|United States Virgin Islands||Present||Introduced||World Agroforestry Centre, 2002|
|Venezuela||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Cronk and Fuller, 1995|
|Australia||Present||Native||Cronk and Fuller, 1995|
|-Queensland||Present||Native||Ryan and Bell, 1991|
|-Western Australia||Present||Native||Natural||Doran and Turnbull, 1997|
|Papua New Guinea||Present||Native||Nielsen, 1985; Valkenburg, 1997; ILDIS, 2002|
|Solomon Islands||Present||Introduced||Planted||Streets, 1962|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page A. procera has been introduced into a number of Caribbean and Central American countries such as Cuba, Puerto Rico and Panama, where it has become a weed (Chinea-Rivera, 1995; Valkenburg, 1997). World Agroforestry Centre (2002) reports introduction to the US Virgin Islands in the 1800s and to Puerto Rico in 1924. It has also been introduced in various African countries including Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa, Uganda, and Zimbabwe and in countries in the South Pacific such as Fiji and Solomon Islands.
Risk of IntroductionTop of page A. procera is wildely promoted for use in agroforestry, wood production, as an ornamental and so the risk of introduction to other sites would appear high.
HabitatTop of page In India, A. procera occurs in tropical semi-evergreen forests, tropical moist deciduous forests, dry tropical forests such as low alluvial savannah woodlands and northern subtropical broadleaved forests (Gupta, 1993; ICFRE, 1995). In Vietnam, it is found in tropical rain forest, dry open forest and savannahs (Nguyen Ngoc Chinh et al., 1996). Other vegetation types reported by Valkenburg (1997) include secondary forest, monsoon forest, pyrogenic grassland and stunted, seasonal swamp forest.
In Australia, A. procera is found mainly in woodland, open-woodland and open-forest dominated by eucalypts. It occurs commonly in the understorey of woodland 10-20 m high dominated by Eucalyptus intermedia, E. pellita, E. tereticornis, E. tessellaris, E. torelliana, Acacia aulacocarpa, A. mangium and Lophostemon suaveolens. The woodlands are burnt regularly and the ground layer is dominated by the grasses Imperata cylindrica and Themeda australis (Tracey, 1982). It is co-dominant in low open-forest with E. miniata and E. polycarpa in northern Western Australia. In Queensland, it also occurs in monsoon forest and gallery forest and at the rain forest margins (Hyland and Whiffin, 1993; Lowry and Seebeck, 1997).
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial – Managed||Cultivated / agricultural land||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Managed forests, plantations and orchards||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Managed grasslands (grazing systems)||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Disturbed areas||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-natural||Natural forests||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Natural grasslands||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Riverbanks||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Coastal areas||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
Biology and EcologyTop of page Genetics
A. procera has a broad geographic range and it is reasonable to expect large provenance variation in such attributes as growth, form and adaptation to different environments. This is confirmed to some degree by species trials in southeastern Queensland which included a very limited range of Australian provenances of A. procera, and growth rate and survival 2 years after planting varied substantially among provenances (Ryan and Bell, 1991). Studies testing a comprehensive range of provenances of A. procera in different environments are warranted given the economic potential of the species. Institutes in Australia, India, Singapore and Thailand are listed as suppliers of seed from native populations of this species (Kindt et al., 1997). No breeding programmes of A. procera are known to exist.
Physiology and Phenology
A. procera becomes almost leafless for a short time during the dry season (Valkenburg, 1997). In Australia, leaf fall in this species occurs late in the dry season (late November-early December) (Lowry and Seebeck, 1997), while in India leaf fall takes place in January-February and new leaves appear in April-May (ICFRE, 1995). In Australia, flowering occurs about March to May and the fruits mature from July to October. In India, flowering begins in June after the monsoon has started; the pods are formed soon after flowering and mature in 8 months (January-March in northern states; February-May elsewhere); elsewhere it is reported to flower and fruit throughout the year (ICFRE, 1995; Valkenburg, 1997).
Flowers are bisexual (World Agroforestry Centre, 2002). In Puerto Rico, A. procera was reported to be reproductively mature after approximately three years and medium-sized trees growing in the open produced 3500 pods in one year, and most pods and seeds fell within the extent of the crown (Chinea-Rivera, 1995). In Australia, A. procera has about 16,600 viable seeds/kg, with an average germination rate of 63% (Doran and Turnbull, 1997), but in Indonesia and Bangladesh there are 20,000-24,000 seeds/kg (Mohiuddin, 1997; Roshetko, 1997). Depending on the location, pods can take 8 months to ripen (e.g. India) or the tree can flower and fruit throughout the year (World Agroforestry Centre, 2002). Seeds may be released from mature dehiscent pods still attached to the tree or from wind-blown pods that later dehisce or decompose (World Agroforestry Centre, 2002). Vegetative propagation of A. procera may be successfully achieved by stumps and stem or root cuttings (NAS, 1979; Valkenburg, 1997).
Valkenburg (1997) gives climatic indicators for this species: mean annual rainfall of 1700 mm with a range of 500-3000 mm; annual mean maximum temperature of 32ºC and annual mean minimum of 21ºC. Gupta (1993) describes the species as frost tender, with -1ºC the lowest temperature recorded throughout its natural range. In Australia, A. procera lies in the hot humid and sub-humid zones, and rarely close to the hot semi-arid zone (Doran and Turnbull, 1997). The mean maximum temperature of the hottest month is mainly 31-34ºC and the mean minimum of the coolest 11-19ºC. There are 60-100 days over 32ºC and from 0-4 days over 38ºC. The area is frost-free. The 50 percentile rainfall is mainly 1000-1750 mm but the extremes are from 650 to 2150 mm. The most northerly localities have a strong summer monsoon rainfall pattern. Elsewhere on the central east coast of Queensland there is a strong summer maximum. There are 60-125 rain-days a year.
According to Valkenburg (1997), A. procera grows well on shallow soils with a pH of 5.5-7.5. In India, this species prefers well-drained sandy to sandy loam soils in moist places along streams and even in swampy situations and low-lying areas, but is also capable of growing in poor soils (Gupta, 1993). In Western Australia, A. procera occurs on sandstone plateaux overlying basalt. Eastern Australian occurrences are mainly in the foothills and coastal lowlands on shallow sandy or loamy soils of low to medium fertility derived from basalts, granite or shales. Other soil types include acid and neutral yellow earths, acid red friable earths and solodized solonetz and solodics.
A. procera fixes nitrogen after nodulating with certain native strains of Rhizobia (Halliday, 1984; MacDicken, 1994).
Latitude/Altitude RangesTop of page
|Latitude North (°N)||Latitude South (°S)||Altitude Lower (m)||Altitude Upper (m)|
Air TemperatureTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit|
|Absolute minimum temperature (ºC)||-1|
|Mean annual temperature (ºC)||21||32|
|Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC)||31||34|
|Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC)||11||21|
RainfallTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit||Description|
|Dry season duration||4||5||number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall|
|Mean annual rainfall||500||3000||mm; lower/upper limits|
Rainfall RegimeTop of page Bimodal
Soil TolerancesTop of page
- seasonally waterlogged
Special soil tolerances
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page In the nursery, seedling wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum causes death of A. procera seedlings in India and is controlled chemically, either by treating the seed beds before sowing or application to seedlings (ICFRE, 1995). Colletotrichum dematium or leaf spot disease causes damage to older leaves of seedlings and tender shoots, and promotes early defoliation and is most severe under conditions of high humidity and is controlled chemically by spraying (ICFRE, 1995). Ravenelia clemensiae causes pustules to form on leaflets of seedlings and can kill plants, and it too is controlled chemically (ICFRE, 1995). In plantations in India, bark and stem cankers in 15-20 year old trees of A. procera are caused by the pit canker disease, Fusarium solani. This serious disease gains access through broken branches and kills the crown above, or trees break off at the point of infection but can be controlled chemically (ICFRE, 1995). A serious outbreak of leaf-spot fungus, Cercospora albiziae on A. procera in India was reported by Nath et al. (1989). Root rot caused by Ganoderma lucidum and heart rot caused by Ganoderma applanatum and Polyporus gilvus are reported to be minor diseases of A. procera in India.
Bruchids or seed weevils such as Bruchidius bilineatopygus, cause very considerable damage to seed of A. procera in India (Abraham et al., 1995; ICFRE, 1995). They can be controlled on the tree by spraying and the protection of seed in storage by chemical dusting is highly recommended. Root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) were identified causing galling and poor growth of A. procera in forest nurseries around Dehra Dun, India (Sharma and Mehrotra, 1992). The hemipterous insect Oxyrhachis tarandus causes considerable damage (Troup, 1921), and in Indonesia, the tops of young trees may be damaged by Rhynchites beetles (Kalshoven, 1934). Stem borer attacks are reported from Zimbabwe, and in India and Malaysia, trees of A. procera have been sometimes defoliated by larvae of Lepidoptera species such as Ascotis selenaria, Eurema blanda, E. hecaba, Cusiala raptaria, Hyposidra successaria, Rhesala imparata, R. inconcinnalis, R. moestalis and Semiotthisa emersaria (ICFRE, 1995; Valkenburg, 1997). The termite Coptotermes curvignathus is reported as a pest in India and in Africa the termite Ancistrotermes amphidon is a serious pest of young trees (World Agroforestry Centre, 2002).
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page Seeds may be released from mature dehiscent pods still attached to the tree or from wind-blown pods that later dehisce or decompose (World Agroforestry Centre, 2002). Seeds may also be spread by livestock as pods are often fed to animals. This species has been widely cultivated for use in agroforestry systems, soil rehabilitation and as an ornamental and intentional introduction is therefore one of the primary routes of spread.
Impact SummaryTop of page
|Fisheries / aquaculture||None|
Environmental ImpactTop of page Likely to affect nutrient cycling as the species is a nitrogen fixer and litter from fallen leaves and plant pods can be formed.
Impact: BiodiversityTop of page Henderson (2001) classes A procera, as a transformer species, i.e. as a monospecies it can dominate or replace the canopy or subcanopy layer of a natural or semi-natural ecosystem altering its structure, integrity or functioning. In Puerto Rico, A. procera covers more than 1000 hectares in moist plains and foothills, the rate of spread has been rapid, and it is regarded as already common or abundant, widespread and competing in primary or secondary forest stands (Francis and Liogier, 1991). In the Caribbean, A. procera grows faster than many native species (World Agroforestry Centre, 2002). Henderson (2001) classifies all plant parts as poisonous, however, the tree is widely used as a fodder tree in agroforestry systems with the pods used in animal feed.
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page Invasiveness
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Highly adaptable to different environments
- Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
- Highly mobile locally
- Has high reproductive potential
- Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
- Damaged ecosystem services
- Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
- Negatively impacts agriculture
- Negatively impacts animal health
- Reduced native biodiversity
- Competition - monopolizing resources
- Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
UsesTop of page A. procera is a useful tree for farm and amenity planting, light shade, firebreaks and for the rehabilitation of seasonally dry, eroded and degraded soils (Doran and Turnbull, 1997). In Cuba, it is used as a shade tree over coffee (Cumba et al., 1992) and in Himachal Pradesh, India it has been tested successfully as an agroforestry species in an alley cropping system with rain-fed wheat (Chauhan et al., 1995). In the Philippines, farmers conserve trees of A. procera in the landscape because they cast only a light shade, fix nitrogen, and serve as a cash reserve as the trees are in demand by local carvers (Valkenburg, 1997). In Bangladesh, A. procera is regarded as a soil improver and is used as a nurse tree in tea gardens, coffee and cocoa plantings (Mohiuddin, 1997).
A. procera has a large amount of non-durable, yellowish-white sapwood. The heartwood is hard and heavy, light or dark brown, with light and dark bands resembling walnut. It is straight-grained, splits readily, seasons well, works easily and is durable (Brandis, 1972). The timber is strong, elastic, tough and hard (ICFRE, 1995). A. procera makes a good cabinet and furniture timber, and is also suitable for general construction, agricultural implements, household products, poles, house posts, truck and bus bodies, and packing cases. It is a suitable source material for paper pulp, giving satisfactory yields of bleached pulp (ICFRE, 1995). The fibres of A. procera are short and blending with a long-fibred pulp may be necessary to improve strength properties for some end uses (ICFRE, 1995). A. procera makes excellent charcoal and fuelwood (Campbell, 1980; ICFRE, 1995). The high rate of biomass production (124 t/ha oven-dry at 5.5 years), high proportion of biomass in stem and branches (91%) and observed vigorous coppicing after felling led Lugo et al. (1990) to recommend the species for fuelwood production in Puerto Rico.
In India, the leaves of A. procera are considered good fodder for most ruminants (cattle, sheep, goats, elephants and deer) and the tree is lopped for fodder in several states (ICFRE, 1995). In Australia, it appears that early settlers regarded A. procera as a good fodder tree (Lowry and Seebeck, 1997). According to Lowry and Seebeck (1997), the main natural feed source from A. procera when established at wide spacings in a silvopastoral system would be the fallen leaves during the period of low quality dry-season pasture. These leaves could be expected to have similar feed value to the leaves of A. lebbeck, but would be available much later in the dry season. According to Valkenburg (1997), mineral content of the leaves for N, K, Ca and Mg is adequate for animal production, but the Na and P contents are inadequate, suggesting that this species should not be used alone for fodder but in mixtures with other fodder species. The leaf has a high crude fibre and lignin content, indicating poor digestibility (Valkenburg, 1997). This was confirmed by Vercoe (1989) who found the predicted in vivo dry matter digestibility of A. procera foliage to be low (19.4%). In a study in West Africa, Larbi et al. (1996) found that A. procera was inferior in feed value to A. lebbeck and A. saman.
The bark is a source of tannin, but yields are low (Japing, 1936; Valkenburg, 1997). The pounded bark is used as a fish poison and the leaves are used as an insecticide in Nepal (Valkenburg, 1997).
Uses ListTop of page
Animal feed, fodder, forage
- Fodder/animal feed
- Soil improvement
- Carved material
- Miscellaneous materials
Wood ProductsTop of page
- Short-fibre pulp
- Building poles
- Pit props
- Transmission poles
Sawn or hewn building timbers
- For heavy construction
- Industrial and domestic woodware
- Wood carvings
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page Related species are A. canescens and A. lebbeck. A. procera is clearly distinguished from A. lebbeck by the smooth pale green or buff bark, larger leaves, more diffuse canopy, much smaller flowers, and smaller, flatter red pods (Lowry and Seebeck, 1997).
Prevention and ControlTop of page No specific information is available on the control of A. procera.
ReferencesTop of page
Abraham CC; Sudhakara K; Ushakumari R, 1995. Occurrence of Bruchidius bilineatopygus Pic. (Bruchidae: Coleoptera) as a pest of pods and seeds of the multipurpose tree species Albizia odoratissima (L.F.) A. procera (Roxb.) and Paraserianthus falcatoria [Paraserianthes falcataria] (L.). Insect Environment, 1(1):7-8
Ahlawat SP; Sharma SH, 1997. In vitro plant regeneration of Albizia procera (Roxb.) Benth. Indian Journal of Soil Conservation, 25(1):41-45; 11 ref.
Bagchee K, 1954. New and noteworthy diseases of trees in India: pit canker of Siris (Albizzia procera Benth.) due to Fusarium solani (Mart.) App. et Wr. sensu Snyder et Hansen. Indian For. 80 (5), (246-51 + 3 plates). 10 refs.
Binggeli P, 1999. Invasive woody plants. http://members.lycos.co.uk/WoodyPlantEcology/invasive/index.html.
Brandis D, 1972. The forest flora of North-west and Central India. Dehra Dun, India: Bisen Singh Mahendra.
Buss CM, 2002. The potential threat of invasive tree species in Botswana. Department of Crop Production and Forestry, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of Botswana, 40 pp.
Chinea-Rivera JD, 1995. Production, dispersal and dormancy of seeds of Albizia procera (Roxb.) Benth., a woody weed of pastures in Puerto Rico. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico, 79(3-4):163-171; 20 ref.
Cumba B; Fajardo O; Ortega R; Paneque L; Napoles S, 1992. Growth and yield of Coffea arabica var. 'Catuai' under two species and spacings of shade trees. [Crecimiento y rendimiento de Coffea arabica variedad 'Catuai' bajo dos especies y distancias de plantacion de arboles de sombra.] Revista Baracoa, 22(2):7-15; 6 ref.
Doran JC; Turnbull JW, 1997. Australian trees and shrubs: species for land rehabilitation and farm planting in the tropics. Australian trees and shrubs: species for land rehabilitation and farm planting in the tropics., viii + 384 pp.; [refs].
Faridah Hanum I; Maesen LJG van der, eds. , 1997. Plant resources of southeast Asia. No. 11. Auxillary plants. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys.
Federal Highway Administration, 2001. Lista preliminar de plantas invasoras para Puerto Rico.
Gupta SC; Agrawal V, Prasad BN (ed. ), Ghimire GPS (ed.), Agrawal VP, 1992. Micropropagation of woody taxa and plant productivity. Role of biotechnology in agriculture. New York, USA: International Science Publishers, 37-52; 57 ref.
Henderson L, 2001. Alien Weeds and Invasive Plants. Plant Protection Research Institute Handbook No. 12. Cape Town, South Africa: Paarl Printers.
ICFRE, 1995. Albizia procera (Safed Siris). Extension Series. Dehra Dun, India: Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education (ICFRE).
ILDIS, 2002. International Legume Database and Information Service. University of Southampton, UK. http://www.ildis.org/database/.
Japing HW, 1936. Looibastan op Java (The tan barks of Java). Tectona, 29:793-841.
Jha MN, 1997. Performance of Albizia species in different soil and ecological conditions of India. In: Zabala N, ed. International Workshop on Albizia and Paraserianthes species. Proceedings of a workshop held 13-19 November 1994, Bislig, Philippines. Forest, Farm and Community Tree Research Reports (Special Issue), Morrilton, Arkansas: Winrock International, 44-54.
Kalshoven LGE, 1934. Topbeschadigingen door insecten in boschculturen (Insect injuries to tops in forest plantations). Tectona, 27:724-743.
Kindt R; Muasya S; Kimotho J; Waruhiu A, 1997. Tree seed suppliers directory: sources of seeds and microsymbionts. Nairobi, Kenya: International Centre for Research in Agroforestry.
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