Albizia procera (white siris)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Plant Type
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Biology and Ecology
- Latitude/Altitude Ranges
- Air Temperature
- Rainfall Regime
- Soil Tolerances
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Impact Summary
- Environmental Impact
- Impact: Biodiversity
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Uses List
- Wood Products
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Albizia procera (Roxb.) Benth.
Preferred Common Name
- white siris
Other Scientific Names
- Acacia procera (Roxb.) Willd.
- Albizzia procera nom. illeg.
- Mimosa elata Roxb.
- Mimosa procera Roxb.
International Common Names
- English: red siris; safed siris; tall albizia
Local Common Names
- Bangladesh: silkorai
- Cuba: albizia; algarrobo de la India
- Indonesia: ki hiyang; wangkul; weru
- Malaysia: oriang
- Myanmar: kokko-sit; sit
- Nepal: seto siris
- Papua New Guinea: brown albizia
- Philippines: akleng parang
- ALBPR (Albizia procera)
- forest siris
- safed siris
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Dicotyledonae
- Order: Fabales
- Family: Fabaceae
- Subfamily: Mimosoideae
- Genus: Albizia
- Species: Albizia procera
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
Related species are A. canescens and A. lebbeck. A. procera is clearly distinguished from A. lebbeck by the smooth pale green or buff bark, larger leaves, more diffuse canopy, much smaller flowers, and smaller, flatter red pods (Lowry and Seebeck, 1997).
DescriptionTop of page
Plant TypeTop of page
DistributionTop of page
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 17 Feb 2021
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Planted||Reference||Notes|
|São Tomé and Príncipe||Present||Introduced|
|-Andaman and Nicobar Islands||Present||Native|
|Antigua and Barbuda||Present||Introduced|
|Puerto Rico||Present, Widespread||Introduced||1924||Invasive|
|Saint Kitts and Nevis||Present||Introduced|
|Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||Present||Introduced|
|Trinidad and Tobago||Present||Introduced|
|U.S. Virgin Islands||Present||Introduced|
|Papua New Guinea||Present||Native|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
HabitatTop of page
In Australia, A. procera is found mainly in woodland, open-woodland and open-forest dominated by eucalypts. It occurs commonly in the understorey of woodland 10-20 m high dominated by Eucalyptus intermedia, E. pellita, E. tereticornis, E. tessellaris, E. torelliana, Acacia aulacocarpa, A. mangium and Lophostemon suaveolens. The woodlands are burnt regularly and the ground layer is dominated by the grasses Imperata cylindrica and Themeda australis (Tracey, 1982). It is co-dominant in low open-forest with E. miniata and E. polycarpa in northern Western Australia. In Queensland, it also occurs in monsoon forest and gallery forest and at the rain forest margins (Hyland and Whiffin, 1993; Lowry and Seebeck, 1997).
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial||Managed||Cultivated / agricultural land||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Managed forests, plantations and orchards||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Managed grasslands (grazing systems)||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Disturbed areas||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Natural forests||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Natural grasslands||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Riverbanks||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Littoral||Coastal areas||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
A. procera has a broad geographic range and it is reasonable to expect large provenance variation in such attributes as growth, form and adaptation to different environments. This is confirmed to some degree by species trials in southeastern Queensland which included a very limited range of Australian provenances of A. procera, and growth rate and survival 2 years after planting varied substantially among provenances (Ryan and Bell, 1991). Studies testing a comprehensive range of provenances of A. procera in different environments are warranted given the economic potential of the species. Institutes in Australia, India, Singapore and Thailand are listed as suppliers of seed from native populations of this species (Kindt et al., 1997). No breeding programmes of A. procera are known to exist.
Physiology and Phenology
A. procera becomes almost leafless for a short time during the dry season (Valkenburg, 1997). In Australia, leaf fall in this species occurs late in the dry season (late November-early December) (Lowry and Seebeck, 1997), while in India leaf fall takes place in January-February and new leaves appear in April-May (ICFRE, 1995). In Australia, flowering occurs about March to May and the fruits mature from July to October. In India, flowering begins in June after the monsoon has started; the pods are formed soon after flowering and mature in 8 months (January-March in northern states; February-May elsewhere); elsewhere it is reported to flower and fruit throughout the year (ICFRE, 1995; Valkenburg, 1997).
Flowers are bisexual (World Agroforestry Centre, 2002). In Puerto Rico, A. procera was reported to be reproductively mature after approximately three years and medium-sized trees growing in the open produced 3500 pods in one year, and most pods and seeds fell within the extent of the crown (Chinea-Rivera, 1995). In Australia, A. procera has about 16,600 viable seeds/kg, with an average germination rate of 63% (Doran and Turnbull, 1997), but in Indonesia and Bangladesh there are 20,000-24,000 seeds/kg (Mohiuddin, 1997; Roshetko, 1997). Depending on the location, pods can take 8 months to ripen (e.g. India) or the tree can flower and fruit throughout the year (World Agroforestry Centre, 2002). Seeds may be released from mature dehiscent pods still attached to the tree or from wind-blown pods that later dehisce or decompose (World Agroforestry Centre, 2002). Vegetative propagation of A. procera may be successfully achieved by stumps and stem or root cuttings (NAS, 1979; Valkenburg, 1997).
Valkenburg (1997) gives climatic indicators for this species: mean annual rainfall of 1700 mm with a range of 500-3000 mm; annual mean maximum temperature of 32ºC and annual mean minimum of 21ºC. Gupta (1993) describes the species as frost tender, with -1ºC the lowest temperature recorded throughout its natural range. In Australia, A. procera lies in the hot humid and sub-humid zones, and rarely close to the hot semi-arid zone (Doran and Turnbull, 1997). The mean maximum temperature of the hottest month is mainly 31-34ºC and the mean minimum of the coolest 11-19ºC. There are 60-100 days over 32ºC and from 0-4 days over 38ºC. The area is frost-free. The 50 percentile rainfall is mainly 1000-1750 mm but the extremes are from 650 to 2150 mm. The most northerly localities have a strong summer monsoon rainfall pattern. Elsewhere on the central east coast of Queensland there is a strong summer maximum. There are 60-125 rain-days a year.
According to Valkenburg (1997), A. procera grows well on shallow soils with a pH of 5.5-7.5. In India, this species prefers well-drained sandy to sandy loam soils in moist places along streams and even in swampy situations and low-lying areas, but is also capable of growing in poor soils (Gupta, 1993). In Western Australia, A. procera occurs on sandstone plateaux overlying basalt. Eastern Australian occurrences are mainly in the foothills and coastal lowlands on shallow sandy or loamy soils of low to medium fertility derived from basalts, granite or shales. Other soil types include acid and neutral yellow earths, acid red friable earths and solodized solonetz and solodics.
A. procera fixes nitrogen after nodulating with certain native strains of Rhizobia (Halliday, 1984; MacDicken, 1994).
Latitude/Altitude RangesTop of page
|Latitude North (°N)||Latitude South (°S)||Altitude Lower (m)||Altitude Upper (m)|
Air TemperatureTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit|
|Absolute minimum temperature (ºC)||-1|
|Mean annual temperature (ºC)||21||32|
|Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC)||31||34|
|Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC)||11||21|
RainfallTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit||Description|
|Dry season duration||4||5||number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall|
|Mean annual rainfall||500||3000||mm; lower/upper limits|
Rainfall RegimeTop of page
Soil TolerancesTop of page
- seasonally waterlogged
Special soil tolerances
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
Bruchids or seed weevils such as Bruchidius bilineatopygus, cause very considerable damage to seed of A. procera in India (Abraham et al., 1995; ICFRE, 1995). They can be controlled on the tree by spraying and the protection of seed in storage by chemical dusting is highly recommended. Root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) were identified causing galling and poor growth of A. procera in forest nurseries around Dehra Dun, India (Sharma and Mehrotra, 1992). The hemipterous insect Oxyrhachis tarandus causes considerable damage (Troup, 1921), and in Indonesia, the tops of young trees may be damaged by Rhynchites beetles (Kalshoven, 1934). Stem borer attacks are reported from Zimbabwe, and in India and Malaysia, trees of A. procera have been sometimes defoliated by larvae of Lepidoptera species such as Ascotis selenaria, Eurema blanda, E. hecaba, Cusiala raptaria, Hyposidra successaria, Rhesala imparata, R. inconcinnalis, R. moestalis and Semiotthisa emersaria (ICFRE, 1995; Valkenburg, 1997). The termite Coptotermes curvignathus is reported as a pest in India and in Africa the termite Ancistrotermes amphidon is a serious pest of young trees (World Agroforestry Centre, 2002).
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
Impact SummaryTop of page
|Fisheries / aquaculture||None|
Environmental ImpactTop of page
Impact: BiodiversityTop of page
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Highly adaptable to different environments
- Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
- Highly mobile locally
- Has high reproductive potential
- Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
- Damaged ecosystem services
- Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
- Negatively impacts agriculture
- Negatively impacts animal health
- Reduced native biodiversity
- Competition - monopolizing resources
- Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
UsesTop of page
A. procera has a large amount of non-durable, yellowish-white sapwood. The heartwood is hard and heavy, light or dark brown, with light and dark bands resembling walnut. It is straight-grained, splits readily, seasons well, works easily and is durable (Brandis, 1972). The timber is strong, elastic, tough and hard (ICFRE, 1995). A. procera makes a good cabinet and furniture timber, and is also suitable for general construction, agricultural implements, household products, poles, house posts, truck and bus bodies, and packing cases. It is a suitable source material for paper pulp, giving satisfactory yields of bleached pulp (ICFRE, 1995). The fibres of A. procera are short and blending with a long-fibred pulp may be necessary to improve strength properties for some end uses (ICFRE, 1995). A. procera makes excellent charcoal and fuelwood (Campbell, 1980; ICFRE, 1995). The high rate of biomass production (124 t/ha oven-dry at 5.5 years), high proportion of biomass in stem and branches (91%) and observed vigorous coppicing after felling led Lugo et al. (1990) to recommend the species for fuelwood production in Puerto Rico.
In India, the leaves of A. procera are considered good fodder for most ruminants (cattle, sheep, goats, elephants and deer) and the tree is lopped for fodder in several states (ICFRE, 1995). In Australia, it appears that early settlers regarded A. procera as a good fodder tree (Lowry and Seebeck, 1997). According to Lowry and Seebeck (1997), the main natural feed source from A. procera when established at wide spacings in a silvopastoral system would be the fallen leaves during the period of low quality dry-season pasture. These leaves could be expected to have similar feed value to the leaves of A. lebbeck, but would be available much later in the dry season. According to Valkenburg (1997), mineral content of the leaves for N, K, Ca and Mg is adequate for animal production, but the Na and P contents are inadequate, suggesting that this species should not be used alone for fodder but in mixtures with other fodder species. The leaf has a high crude fibre and lignin content, indicating poor digestibility (Valkenburg, 1997). This was confirmed by Vercoe (1989) who found the predicted in vivo dry matter digestibility of A. procera foliage to be low (19.4%). In a study in West Africa, Larbi et al. (1996) found that A. procera was inferior in feed value to A. lebbeck and A. saman.
The bark is a source of tannin, but yields are low (Japing, 1936; Valkenburg, 1997). The pounded bark is used as a fish poison and the leaves are used as an insecticide in Nepal (Valkenburg, 1997).
Uses ListTop of page
Animal feed, fodder, forage
- Fodder/animal feed
- Soil improvement
- Carved material
- Miscellaneous materials
Wood ProductsTop of page
- Short-fibre pulp
- Building poles
- Pit props
- Transmission poles
Sawn or hewn building timbers
- For heavy construction
- Industrial and domestic woodware
- Wood carvings
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.No specific information is available on the control of A. procera.
ReferencesTop of page
Abraham CC; Sudhakara K; Ushakumari R, 1995. Occurrence of Bruchidius bilineatopygus Pic. (Bruchidae: Coleoptera) as a pest of pods and seeds of the multipurpose tree species Albizia odoratissima (L.F.) A. procera (Roxb.) and Paraserianthus falcatoria [Paraserianthes falcataria] (L.). Insect Environment, 1(1):7-8
Ahlawat SP; Sharma SH, 1997. In vitro plant regeneration of Albizia procera (Roxb.) Benth. Indian Journal of Soil Conservation, 25(1):41-45; 11 ref.
Bagchee K, 1954. New and noteworthy diseases of trees in India: pit canker of Siris (Albizzia procera Benth.) due to Fusarium solani (Mart.) App. et Wr. sensu Snyder et Hansen. Indian For. 80 (5), (246-51 + 3 plates). 10 refs.
Binggeli P, 1999. Invasive woody plants. http://members.lycos.co.uk/WoodyPlantEcology/invasive/index.html.
Brandis D, 1972. The forest flora of North-west and Central India. Dehra Dun, India: Bisen Singh Mahendra.
Buss CM, 2002. The potential threat of invasive tree species in Botswana. Department of Crop Production and Forestry, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of Botswana, 40 pp.
Chinea-Rivera JD, 1995. Production, dispersal and dormancy of seeds of Albizia procera (Roxb.) Benth., a woody weed of pastures in Puerto Rico. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico, 79(3-4):163-171; 20 ref.
Cumba B; Fajardo O; Ortega R; Paneque L; Napoles S, 1992. Growth and yield of Coffea arabica var. 'Catuai' under two species and spacings of shade trees. [Crecimiento y rendimiento de Coffea arabica variedad 'Catuai' bajo dos especies y distancias de plantacion de arboles de sombra.] Revista Baracoa, 22(2):7-15; 6 ref.
Doran JC; Turnbull JW, 1997. Australian trees and shrubs: species for land rehabilitation and farm planting in the tropics. Australian trees and shrubs: species for land rehabilitation and farm planting in the tropics., viii + 384 pp.; [refs].
Faridah Hanum I; Maesen LJG van der, eds. , 1997. Plant resources of southeast Asia. No. 11. Auxillary plants. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys.
Federal Highway Administration, 2001. Lista preliminar de plantas invasoras para Puerto Rico.
Gupta SC; Agrawal V, Prasad BN (ed. ), Ghimire GPS (ed.), Agrawal VP, 1992. Micropropagation of woody taxa and plant productivity. Role of biotechnology in agriculture. New York, USA: International Science Publishers, 37-52; 57 ref.
Henderson L, 2001. Alien Weeds and Invasive Plants. Plant Protection Research Institute Handbook No. 12. Cape Town, South Africa: Paarl Printers.
ICFRE, 1995. Albizia procera (Safed Siris). Extension Series. Dehra Dun, India: Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education (ICFRE).
ILDIS, 2002. International Legume Database and Information Service. University of Southampton, UK. http://www.ildis.org/database/.
Japing HW, 1936. Looibastan op Java (The tan barks of Java). Tectona, 29:793-841.
Jha MN, 1997. Performance of Albizia species in different soil and ecological conditions of India. In: Zabala N, ed. International Workshop on Albizia and Paraserianthes species. Proceedings of a workshop held 13-19 November 1994, Bislig, Philippines. Forest, Farm and Community Tree Research Reports (Special Issue), Morrilton, Arkansas: Winrock International, 44-54.
Kalshoven LGE, 1934. Topbeschadigingen door insecten in boschculturen (Insect injuries to tops in forest plantations). Tectona, 27:724-743.
Kindt R; Muasya S; Kimotho J; Waruhiu A, 1997. Tree seed suppliers directory: sources of seeds and microsymbionts. Nairobi, Kenya: International Centre for Research in Agroforestry.
Larbi A; Smith JW; Adekunle IO; Kurdi IO, 1996. Studies on multipurpose fodder trees and shrubs in West Africa: variation in determinants of forage quality in Albizia and Paraserianthes species. Agroforestry Systems, 33(1):29-39; 29 ref.
Lowry JB; Seebeck J, 1997. The potential for tropical agroforestry in wood and animal feed production. RIRDC Publication No. 97/73. Canberra, Australia: Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation.
MacDicken KG, 1994. Selection and management of nitrogen-fixing trees. Selection and management of nitrogen-fixing trees., xii + 272 pp.; [Jointly published with FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, Thailand]; 28 pp. of ref.
Mohiuddin Md, 1997. Establishment techniques and utilisation of Albizia lebbeck, A. procera, and A. chinensis in Bangladesh. In: Zabala N, ed. International Workshop on Albizia and Paraserianthes species. Proceedings of a workshop held 13-19 November 1994, Bislig, Philippines. Forest, Farm and Community Tree Research Reports (Special Issue), Morrilton, Arkansas: Winrock International, 1-9.
Nath S; Das PK; Gangopadhyay SK; Kapoor KS; Balvinder Singh; Banerjee SK; Singh B, 1989. Suitability of different forest species for social forestry programme under different soil conditions. Part I - alluvial soil. Indian Forester, 115(8):536-547; 13 ref.
Nguyen Ngoc Chinh; Cao Thuy Chung; Vu Van Can; Nguyen Xuan Dung; Vu Van Dung; Nguyen Kim Dao; Tran Hop; Tran Tuyet Oanh; Nguyen Boi Quynh; Nguyen Nghian Thin, 1996. Vietnam forest trees. Hanoi, Vietnam: Agricultural Publishing House. 788p.
Nielsen I, 1985. The Malesian species of Acacia and Albizia (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae). Opera Botanica, 81:1-50.
Oviedo Prieto R; Herrera Oliver P; Caluff MG, et al. , 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96.
Parotta JA; Roshetko JM, 1997. Albizia procera – white siris for reforestation and agroforestry. FACTNet FACT Sheet 97-01. Morrilton, USA: Winrock International. http://www.winrock.org/forestry/factpub/factsh/ALBPRO.htm.
Pinyopusarerk K, 1989. Growth and survival of Australian tree species in field trials in Thailand. In: Boland DJ, ed. Trees for the tropics. Growing Australian multipurpose trees and shrubs in Developing Countries. ACIAR-Monograph, No. 10, 109-127.
Roshetko JM, 1997. Seed treatment of Albizia species in different soil and ecological conditions of India. In: Zabala N, ed. International Workshop on Albizia and Paraserianthes species. Proceedings of a workshop held 13-19 November 1994, Bislig, Philippines. Forest, Farm and Community Tree Research Reports (Special Issue), Morrilton, Arkansas: Winrock International, 37-43.
Ryan PA; Bell RE, 1991. Australian hardwoods for fuelwood and agroforestry. Review report on ACIAR Project 8809. Gympie: Queensland Forest Service (unpublished).
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Troup RS; Joshi HB, 1983. The Silviculture of Indian Trees. Vol IV. Leguminosae. Delhi, India; Controller of Publications.
Valkenburg JLCH van, 1997. Albizia procera. In: Fariday Hanum I, Maesen LJG van der, eds. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 11- Auxiliary Plants. Prosor Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, Netherlands: 65-68.
World Agroforestry Centre, 2002. Agroforestree Database. Nairobi, Kenya: ICRAF. http://www.worldagroforestrycentre.org/Sites/TreeDBS/AFT/AFT.htm.
Anon, 1997. Australian trees and shrubs: species for land rehabilitation and farm planting in the tropics. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR). viii + 384 pp.
Buss CM, 2002. The potential threat of invasive tree species in Botswana., Department of Crop Production and Forestry, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of Botswana. 40 pp.
CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Chinea-Rivera J D, 1995. Production, dispersal and dormancy of seeds of Albizia procera (Roxb.) Benth., a woody weed of pastures in Puerto Rico. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico. 79 (3-4), 163-171.
Cumbá B, Fajardo O, Ortega R, Paneque L, Nápoles S, 1992. Growth and yield of Coffea arabica var. 'Catuai' under two species and spacings of shade trees. (Crecimiento y rendimiento de Coffea arabica variedad 'Catuai' bajo dos especies y distancias de plantación de árboles de sombra.). Revista Baracoa. 22 (2), 7-15.
Federal Highway Administration, 2001. (Lista preliminar de plantas invasoras para Puerto Rico).,
Firdousi S A, 2018. First report of fungal disease at nursery of social forestry department, Jalgaon (M.S.) India. Flora and Fauna (Jhansi). 24 (1), 88-90. http://www.floraandfona.org.in/abstract241/abstract24119.aspx
Henderson L, 2001. Alien Weeds and Invasive Plants. In: Plant Protection Research Institute Handbook No. 12, Cape Town, South Africa: Paarl Printers.
ICFRE, 1995. (Albizia procera (Safed Siris)). In: Extension Series, Dehra Dun, India: Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education (ICFRE).
ILDIS, 2002. International Legume Database and Information Service., UK: University of Southampton. http://www.ildis.org/database/
Nielsen I, 1985. The Malesian species of Acacia and Albizia (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae). In: Opera Botanica, 81 1-50.
Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 6 (Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.
Parotta JA, Roshetko JM, 1997. Albizia procera - white siris for reforestation and agroforestry. In: FACTNet FACT Sheet 97-01, Morrilton, USA: Winrock International. http://www.winrock.org/forestry/factpub/factsh/ALBPRO.htm
Ryan PA, Bell RE, 1991. Australian hardwoods for fuelwood and agroforestry. In: Review report on ACIAR Project 8809, Gympie, Queensland Forest Service.
Valkenburg JLCH van, 1997. (Albizia procera). In: Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 11- Auxiliary Plants, [ed. by Fariday Hanum I, Maesen LJG van der]. Bogor; Leiden, Indonesia; Netherlands: Backhuys Publishers. 65-68.
World Agroforestry Centre, 2002. Agroforestree Database., Nairobi, Kenya: ICRAF. http://www.worldagroforestrycentre.org/Sites/TreeDBS/AFT/AFT.htm
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