Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Phenacoccus madeirensis
(Madeira mealybug)

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Datasheet

Phenacoccus madeirensis (Madeira mealybug)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Phenacoccus madeirensis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Madeira mealybug
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Adults of P. madeirensis feeding on Hibiscus sp. (ovisac arrowed).
TitleAdults and ovisac
CaptionAdults of P. madeirensis feeding on Hibiscus sp. (ovisac arrowed).
Copyright©Georg Goergen/IITA Insect Museum, Cotonou, Benin
Adults of P. madeirensis feeding on Hibiscus sp. (ovisac arrowed).
Adults and ovisacAdults of P. madeirensis feeding on Hibiscus sp. (ovisac arrowed).©Georg Goergen/IITA Insect Museum, Cotonou, Benin

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Phenacoccus madeirensis Green, 1923

Preferred Common Name

  • Madeira mealybug

Other Scientific Names

  • Phenacoccus gossypii Townsend & Cockerell (misidentification)
  • Phenacoccus grenadensis Green & Laing, 1924
  • Phenacoccus harbisoni Peterson, 1965

EPPO code

  • PHENMD (Phenacoccus madeirensis)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Coccoidea
  •                                 Family: Pseudococcidae
  •                                     Genus: Phenacoccus
  •                                         Species: Phenacoccus madeirensis

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Apr 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresent, LocalizedGuenaoui et al. (2019); EPPO (2020)
AngolaPresentBen-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2000)
BeninPresentCABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020)
Cabo VerdePresentWilliams (1987); CABI and EPPO (2000)
CameroonPresentWilliams (1987); CABI and EPPO (2000)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentNHM (1983); CABI and EPPO (2000)
Côte d'IvoirePresentNHM (1984); CABI and EPPO (2000)
GabonPresentNHM (1966); CABI and EPPO (2000)
GambiaPresentWilliams (1987); CABI and EPPO (2000)
GhanaPresentNHM (1982); CABI and EPPO (2000)
LiberiaPresentNHM (1988); CABI and EPPO (2000)
MalawiPresentNHM (1988)
MauritiusPresentWilliams and Matile-Ferrero (2008)
MozambiquePresentWilliams (1987); CABI and EPPO (2000)
NigeriaPresent, LocalizedVictor (1984); Fürsch (1987); Williams (1987); CABI and EPPO (2000)
RéunionPresentEPPO (2020)
São Tomé and PríncipePresentFernandes (1991); CABI and EPPO (2000)
SenegalPresent, LocalizedFürsch (1987); CABI and EPPO (2000)
SeychellesPresentEPPO (2020)
Sierra LeonePresent, LocalizedWilliams (1987); James and Fofanah (1992); CABI and EPPO (2000)
TogoPresentWilliams (1987); CABI and EPPO (2000)
TunisiaPresentHalima-Kamel et al. (2014); EPPO (2020)
ZimbabwePresentWilliams (1987); CABI and EPPO (2000)

Asia

ChinaPresentEPPO (2020)
Hong KongPresentEPPO (2020)
IndiaPresentEPPO (2020)
-Tamil NaduPresentVijay and Suresh (2013); EPPO (2020)
JapanPresentKondo et al. (2001); EPPO (2020)
-KyushuPresentKondo et al. (2001)
-ShikokuPresentKondo et al. (2001)
JordanPresentKatbeh-Bader et al. (2019)
PhilippinesPresentEPPO (2020)
TaiwanPresentChen et al. (2012)
ThailandPresentEPPO (2020)
TurkeyPresentEPPO (2020); Kaydan et al. (2016)
YemenPresentMarotta et al. (2001); EPPO (2020)

Europe

CroatiaPresentMilek et al. (2015); EPPO (2020)
FrancePresentMatile-Ferrero and Germain (2004); EPPO (2020)
GreecePresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020); Papadopoulou and Chryssohoides (2012); Stathas et al. (2015)
-CretePresentEPPO (2020)
ItalyPresent, LocalizedLongo et al. (1995); Sinacori (1995); CABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020)
-SicilyPresentCABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020)
PortugalPresent, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020)
-MadeiraPresentWilliams (1987); CABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated);
SpainPresentBeltrà and Soto (2011); EPPO (2020)

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresentBen-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2000)
BahamasPresent, LocalizedWilliams (1987); CABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
BarbadosPresent, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
BermudaPresent, LocalizedWilliams (1987); CABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
British Virgin IslandsPresent, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
Cayman IslandsPresentWilliams (1987); CABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
Costa RicaPresent, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
CubaPresent, LocalizedWilliams (1987); CABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
DominicaPresentCABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
Dominican RepublicPresent, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2000); CABI (Undated)
GrenadaPresent, LocalizedWilliams (1987); CABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
GuadeloupePresent, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
GuatemalaPresent, LocalizedWilliams (1987); CABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
HaitiPresent, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
JamaicaPresent, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
MexicoPresent, LocalizedMiller (1996); CABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
MontserratPresent, LocalizedWilliams (1987); CABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
PanamaPresent, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
Puerto RicoPresent, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
Saint Kitts and NevisPresent, LocalizedBen-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
Saint LuciaPresent, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
Trinidad and TobagoPresent, LocalizedWilliams (1987); Ben-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentEPPO (2020)
United StatesPresent, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020)
-AlabamaPresentBen-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2000)
-CaliforniaPresentWilliams (1987); Zuparko (1995); CABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020)
-FloridaPresentWilliams (1987); CABI and EPPO (2000)
-IllinoisPresentBen-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2000)
-LouisianaPresentNHM (1923); CABI and EPPO (2000)
-MarylandPresentBen-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2000)
-MinnesotaPresentBen-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2000)
-MississippiPresentBen-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2000)
-New YorkPresentBen-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2000)
-North CarolinaPresentBen-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2000)
-TexasPresentWilliams (1987); CABI and EPPO (2000)
-VirginiaPresentBen-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2000)
-WisconsinPresentBen-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2000)

Oceania

Federated States of MicronesiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2000)
GuamPresentCABI and EPPO (2000)

South America

ArgentinaPresentEPPO (2020)
BoliviaPresent, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
BrazilPresent, LocalizedNHM (1983); Williams (1987); CABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-BahiaPresentNHM (1978); CABI and EPPO (2000)
-Espirito SantoPresentCulik et al. (2007); Culik et al. (2009); EPPO (2020)
-Minas GeraisPresentNHM (1979); CABI and EPPO (2000)
-Rio de JaneiroPresentNHM (1986); CABI and EPPO (2000)
-Sao PauloPresentNHM (1986); CABI and EPPO (2000)
ColombiaPresentCastillo L. and Bellotti (1990); CABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
EcuadorPresent, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
French GuianaPresentEPPO (2020)
GuyanaPresent, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
ParaguayPresent, LocalizedWilliams (1987); CABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
PeruPresent, LocalizedWilliams (1987); CABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
VenezuelaPresent, LocalizedNHM (1980); CABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Leaves / wilting
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Stems / distortion
Stems / external feeding
Stems / honeydew or sooty mould
Whole plant / distortion; rosetting
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Acerophagus coccois Parasite
Acerophagus pallidus Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Amblyseius degenerans Predator
Anagyrus Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Anthoseius foenilis Predator
Apoanagyrus elgeri Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Blepyrus insularis Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Euseius stipulatus Predator
Gyranusoidea Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Hyperaspis notata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Leptomastix Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Leptomastix dactylopii Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Metanotalia maderensis Parasite
Nephus phenacoccophagus Predator Adults/Nymphs Nigeria; Senegal cassava
Typhlodromus exhilaratus Predator

References

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Beltrà A, Soto A, 2011. New records of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) from Spain. Phytoparasitica, 39(4):385-387. http://www.springerlink.com/content/w243808608u27l68/

Ben-Dov Y, 1994. A systematic catalogue of the mealybugs of the world (Insecta: Homoptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae and Putoidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. Andover, UK; Intercept Limited, 686 pp

CABI/EPPO, 2000. Phenacoccus madeirensis. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Map No. 607. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Castillo L JA, Bellotti AC, 1990. Diagnostic characters of four mealybug species (Pseudococcidae) in cassava crops (Manihot esculenta) and observations on some of their natural enemies. Revista Colombiana de Entomologia, 16(2):33-43

Chen SP, Wong JY, Chiu YC, 2012. Survey of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) on Hibiscus spp. (Malvaceae) in Taiwan. Plant Protection Bulletin (Taipei), 54(1):13-27. http://www.pps.org.tw

Chiara SRdi, Tsolakis H, 1995. The effect of Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) on some biological parameters of four species of phytoseiid mites (Parasitiformes: Phytoseiidae). Israel Journal of Entomology, 29:301-307; 19 ref

Cock MJW (ed.), 1985. A review of biological control of pests in the Commonwealth Caribbean and Bermuda up to 1982. Farnham Royal, United Kingdom; Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, xii + 218 pp.

Cox JM, Williams DJ, 1981. An account of cassava mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) with a description of a new species. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 71(2):247-258

Culik MP, Martins Ddos S, Ventura JA, Peronti ALBG, Gullan PJ, Kondo T, 2007. Coccidae, Pseudococcidae, Ortheziidae, and Monophlebidae(Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Biota Neotropica, 7(3):61-65. http://www.biotaneotropica.org.br/v7n3/en/fullpaper?bn00507032007+en

Culik MP, Ventura JA, Martins Ddos S, 2009. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccidae) of pineapple in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Acta Horticulturae [Proceedings of the Sixth International Pineapple Symposium, Joao Pessoa, Brazil, 18-23 November 2007.], No.822:215-218. http://www.actahort.org

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Fernandes IM, 1991. New data on the scale fauna of the islands of S. Tome and Principe. Garcia de Orte. Serie de Zoologia, 18(1-2):111-113

Fursch H, 1987. New African species of Scymnini (Coleoptera Coccinellidae) as predators of cassava pests. Revue de Zoologie Africaine, 100(4):387-394

Green EE, 1923. Observations on the Coccidae of the Madeira Islands. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 14:87-97

Guenaoui, Y., Watson, G. W., Labdaoui, Z. E., 2019. First record of the mealybug Phenacoccus madeirensis Green, 1923 (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) in Algeria. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 49(2), 352-354. doi: 10.1111/epp.12574

Halima-Kamel MB, Germain JF, Mdellel L, Abdelaoui K, 2014. Phenacoccus madeirensis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae): a new species of mealybug in Tunisia. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 44(2):176-178. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1365-2338

James BD, Fofanah M, 1992. Population growth patterns for Phenacoccus manihoti Mat-Ferr on cassava in Sierra Leone. Tropical Pest Management, 38(1):89-92

Katbeh-Bader, A., Al-Jboory, I. J., Kaydan, M. B., 2019. First record of the Madeira mealybug, Phenacoccus madeirensis green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), in Jordan. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 49(2), 401-404. doi: 10.1111/epp.12579

Kaydan MB, Hayat M, Çaliskan AF, Ulusoy MR, 2016. New record of a parasitoid (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) of the Madeira mealybug, Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) from Turkey. Journal of the Entomological Research Society, 18(3):107-112. http://www.entomol.org/journal/index.php?journal=JERS&page=issue&op=archive

Kondo T, Esato T, Kawai S, 2001. Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), a recently introduced exotic pest in Japan. Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura [Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies, Padua, Italy, 2-8 September 2001.], 33(3):337-341

Longo S, Mazzeo G, Russo A, Ascher KRS, BenDov Y, 1995. Biological observations on some scale insects (Homoptera: Coccoidea) in Sicily. Israel Journal of Entomology, 29:219-222

Marotta S, Harten Avan, Mahyoub MA, 2001. Mealybugs found on agricultural crops in Yemen. Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura [Proceedings of the ISSIS IX International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies, Padua, Italy, 2-8 September 2001.], 33(3):233-238

Matile-Ferrero D, Germain JF, 2004. Eriococcus munroi (Boratynski), new pest on Lavandin in France, and note on two mealybugs new for France (Hemiptera, Eriococcidae and Pseudococcidae). (Eriococcus munroi (Boratynski), nouveau ravageur du Lavandin en France, et note sur deux Pseudococcines nouvelles pour la France (Hemiptera, Eriococcidae et Pseudococcidae).) Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France, 109(2):191-192

Milek TM, Simala M, Markotic V, 2015. First records of Bougainvillea mealybug (Phenacoccus peruvianus Granara de Willink, 2007) and Madeira mealybug (Phenacoccus madeirensis Green, 1923) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Croatia [Conference poster]. In: Zbornik predavanj in referatov 12. Slovenskega posvetovanja o varstvu rastlin z mednarodno udelezbo, 3.-4. marec 2015, Ptuj, Slovenija [ed. by Trdan, S.]. Ljubljana, Slovenia: Drustvo za Varstvo Rastlin Slovenije, 318-322

Miller DR, 1996. Checklist of the scale insects (Coccoidea: Homoptera) of Mexico. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 98(1):68-86; 33 ref

Noyes JS, Hayat M, 1994. Oriental mealybug parasitoids of the Anagyrini (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Wallingford, UK; CAB International, viii + 554 pp

Papadopoulou S, Chryssohoides C, 2012. Phenacoccus madeirensis Green, 1923 (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) on Ocimum basilicum: a new geographical record for Greece. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 42(1):146-147. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1365-2338

Pijls JWAM, Alphen JJMvan, 1996. On the coexistence of the cassava mealybug parasitoids Apoanagyrus diversicornis and A. lopezi (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) in their native South America. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 86(1):51-59; 27 ref

Rameshkumar A, Noyes JS, Poorani J, Chong JH, 2013. Description of a new species of Anagyrus Howard (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Encyrtidae), a promising biological control agent of the invasive Madeira mealybug, Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Pseudococcidae). Zootaxa, 3717(1):76-84. http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2013/f/z03717p084f.pdf

Schotman CYL, 1989. Plant pests of quarantine importance to the Caribbean. RLAC-PROVEG, No. 21:80 pp

Sinacori A, 1995. Bio-ethological observations on Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) in Sicily. Israel Journal of Entomology, 29:179-182; 9 ref

Stathas GJ, Kartsonas ED, Darras AI, 2015. Record of Phenacoccus peruvianus Granara de Willing and Phenacoccus madeirensis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on new host ornamental plants in Greece. Hellenic Plant Protection Journal, 8(1):12-14. http://www.bpi.gr/files/journal/2015/january/VOLUME%208%20-%20ISSUE%201%20(January%202015).pdf

Veenakumari K, Buhl PN, Prashanth Mohanraj, Khan FR, 2013. Three new species of Allotropa Förster (Platygastridae: Sceliotrachelinae) from India. International Journal of Environmental Studies, 70(2):222-231. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/genv20

Victor R, 1984. Humidity reactions in two species of pseudococcid mealybugs Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero and Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Homoptera; Pseudococcidae). Revue de Zoologie Africaine, 98(2):229-242

Vieira RM da S, Carmona MM, Pita M de S, 1983. On the coccids of the Madeira Archipelago (Homoptera Coccoidea). Boletim do Museu Municipal do Funchal, 35(151/155):81-162

Vijay S, Suresh S, 2013. Coccid pests of flower and medicinal crops in Tamil Nadu. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 26(1):46-53. http://pub.uasd.edu/ojs/index.php/kjas/article/viewFile/2861/2642

Williams DJ, 1987. Phenacoccus gossypii Townsend & Cockerell, P. madeirensis Green and some related mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research, 77(2):335-356

Williams DJ, Granara de Willink MC, 1992. Mealybugs of Central and South America. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Williams DJ, Matile-Ferrero D, 2008. Mealybugs of Mauritius [Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Pseudococcidae]. Revue Française d'Entomologie, 30(2/4):97-101

Zuparko RL, 1995. New host record for Metanotalia maderensis (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist, 71(4):245-246

Distribution References

Beltrà A, Soto A, 2011. New records of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) from Spain. Phytoparasitica. 39 (4), 385-387. http://www.springerlink.com/content/w243808608u27l68/ DOI:10.1007/s12600-011-0178-0

Ben-Dov Y, 1994. A systematic catalogue of the mealybugs of the world (Insecta: Homoptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae and Putoidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. In: A systematic catalogue of the mealybugs of the world (Insecta: Homoptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae and Putoidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. Andover, UK: Intercept Limited. 686 pp.

CABI, EPPO, 2000. Phenacoccus madeirensis. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 607.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Castillo L J A, Bellotti A C, 1990. Diagnostic characters of four mealybug species (Pseudococcidae) in cassava crops (Manihot esculenta) and observations on some of their natural enemies. (Caracteres diagnosticos de cuatro especies de piojos harinosos (Pseudococcidae) en cultivos de yuca (Manihot esculenta) y observaciones sobre algunos de sus enemigos naturales.). Revista Colombiana de Entomología. 16 (2), 33-43.

Chen S P, Wong J Y, Chiu Y C, 2012. Survey of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) on Hibiscus spp. (Malvaceae) in Taiwan. Plant Protection Bulletin (Taipei). 54 (1), 13-27. http://www.pps.org.tw

Culik M P, Martins D dos S, Ventura J A, Peronti A L B G, Gullan P J, Kondo T, 2007. Coccidae, Pseudococcidae, Ortheziidae, and Monophlebidae(Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Biota Neotropica. 7 (3), 61-65. http://www.biotaneotropica.org.br/v7n3/en/fullpaper?bn00507032007+en DOI:10.1590/S1676-06032007000300006

Culik M P, Ventura J A, Martins D dos S, 2009. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccidae) of pineapple in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Acta Horticulturae. 215-218. http://www.actahort.org

EPPO, 2020. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO.

Fernandes I M, 1991. New data on the scale fauna of the islands of S. Tome and Principe. (Novos dados para o conhecimento da quermofauna das ilhas de S. Tomé e Príncipe.). Garcia de Orta. Série de Zoologia. 18 (1/2), 111-113.

Fürsch H, 1987. New African species of Scymnini (Coleoptera Coccinellidae) as predators of cassava pests. (Neue afrikanische Scymnini-Arten (Coleoptera Coccinellidae) als Fressfeinde von Manihot-Schädlingen.). Revue de Zoologie Africaine. 100 (4), 387-394.

Guenaoui Y, Watson G W, Labdaoui Z E, 2019. First record of the mealybug Phenacoccus madeirensis Green, 1923 (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) in Algeria. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin. 49 (2), 352-354. DOI:10.1111/epp.12574

Halima-Kamel M B, Germain J F, Mdellel L, Abdelaoui K, 2014. Phenacoccus madeirensis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae): a new species of mealybug in Tunisia. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin. 44 (2), 176-178. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1365-2338 DOI:10.1111/epp.12109

James B D, Fofanah M, 1992. Population growth patterns for Phenacoccus manihoti Mat-Ferr on cassava in Sierra Leone. Tropical Pest Management. 38 (1), 89-92.

Katbeh-Bader A, Al-Jboory I J, Kaydan M B, 2019. First record of the Madeira mealybug, Phenacoccus madeirensis green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), in Jordan. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin. 49 (2), 401-404. DOI:10.1111/epp.12579

Kaydan M B, Hayat M, Çalıșkan A F, Ulusoy M R, 2016. New record of a parasitoid (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) of the Madeira mealybug, Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) from Turkey. Journal of the Entomological Research Society. 18 (3), 107-112. http://www.entomol.org/journal/index.php?journal=JERS&page=issue&op=archive

Kondo T, Esato T, Kawai S, 2001. Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), a recently introduced exotic pest in Japan. Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura. 33 (3), 337-341.

Longo S, Mazzeo G, Russo A, 1995. Biological observations on some scale insects (Homoptera: Coccoidea) in Sicily. In: Israel Journal of Entomology [Proceedings of the VII International Symposium of Scale Insect Studies, held in Bet Dagan, Israel, June 12-17 1994.], 29 [ed. by Ascher K R S, Ben-Dov Y]. 219-222.

Marotta S, Harten A van, Mahyoub M A, 2001. Mealybugs found on agricultural crops in Yemen. Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura. 33 (3), 233-238.

Matile-Ferrero D, Germain J F, 2004. Eriococcus munroi (Boratynski), new pest on Lavandin in France, and note on two mealybugs new for France (Hemiptera, Eriococcidae and Pseudococcidae). (Eriococcus munroi (Boratynski), nouveau ravageur du Lavandin en France, et note sur deux Pseudococcines nouvelles pour la France (Hemiptera, Eriococcidae et Pseudococcidae).). Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France. 109 (2), 191-192.

Milek T M, Šimala M, Markotić V, 2015. First records of Bougainvillea mealybug (Phenacoccus peruvianus Granara de Willink, 2007) and Madeira mealybug (Phenacoccus madeirensis Green, 1923) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Croatia [Conference poster]. In: Zbornik predavanj in referatov 12. Slovenskega posvetovanja o varstvu rastlin z mednarodno udeležbo, 3.-4. marec 2015, Ptuj, Slovenija [Zbornik predavanj in referatov 12. Slovenskega posvetovanja o varstvu rastlin z mednarodno udeležbo, 3.-4. marec 2015, Ptuj, Slovenija.], [ed. by Trdan S]. Ljubljana, Slovenia: Društvo za Varstvo Rastlin Slovenije. 318-322.

Miller D R, 1996. Checklist of the scale insects (Coccoidea: Homoptera) of Mexico. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. 98 (1), 68-86.

NHM, 1923. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1966. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1978. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1979. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1980. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1982. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1983. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1984. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1986. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1988. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

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Sinacori A, 1995. Bio-ethological observations on Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) in Sicily. In: Israel Journal of Entomology [Proceedings of the VII International Symposium of Scale Insect Studies, held in Bet Dagan, Israel, June 12-17 1994.], 29 [ed. by Ascher K R S, Ben-Dov Y]. 179-182.

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Victor R, 1984. Humidity reactions in two species of pseudococcid mealybugs Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero and Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Homoptera; Pseudococcidae). Revue de Zoologie Africaine. 98 (2), 229-242.

Vijay S, Suresh S, 2013. Coccid pests of flower and medicinal crops in Tamil Nadu. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 26 (1), 46-53. http://pub.uasd.edu/ojs/index.php/kjas/article/viewFile/2861/2642

Williams D J, 1987. Phenacoccus gossypii Townsend & Cockerell, P. madeirensis Green and some related mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research. 77 (2), 335-356. DOI:10.1017/S0007485300011810

Williams D J, Matile-Ferrero D, 2008. Mealybugs of Mauritius [Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Pseudococcidae]. Revue Française d'Entomologie. 30 (2/4), 97-101.

Zuparko R L, 1995. New host record for Metanotalia maderensis (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist. 71 (4), 245-246.

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