Invasive Species Compendium

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Phellinus noxius
(brown tea root disease)

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Datasheet

Phellinus noxius (brown tea root disease)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Phellinus noxius
  • Preferred Common Name
  • brown tea root disease
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •       Subphylum: Agaricomycotina
  •         Class: Agaricomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Phellinus noxius (brown tea root disease); Mature fruiting bodies.
TitleFruiting bodies
CaptionPhellinus noxius (brown tea root disease); Mature fruiting bodies.
Copyright©Fred Brooks, University of Hawaii at Manoa/via Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Phellinus noxius (brown tea root disease); Mature fruiting bodies.
Fruiting bodiesPhellinus noxius (brown tea root disease); Mature fruiting bodies.©Fred Brooks, University of Hawaii at Manoa/via Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Phellinus noxius (brown tea root disease); White rot, agglutinated fungal hyphae (close-up).
TitleSign
CaptionPhellinus noxius (brown tea root disease); White rot, agglutinated fungal hyphae (close-up).
Copyright©Fred Brooks, University of Hawaii at Manoa/via Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Phellinus noxius (brown tea root disease); White rot, agglutinated fungal hyphae (close-up).
SignPhellinus noxius (brown tea root disease); White rot, agglutinated fungal hyphae (close-up).©Fred Brooks, University of Hawaii at Manoa/via Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Phellinus noxius (brown tea root disease); White wood rot, agglutinated fungal hyphae.
TitleSign
CaptionPhellinus noxius (brown tea root disease); White wood rot, agglutinated fungal hyphae.
Copyright©Fred Brooks, University of Hawaii at Manoa/via Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Phellinus noxius (brown tea root disease); White wood rot, agglutinated fungal hyphae.
SignPhellinus noxius (brown tea root disease); White wood rot, agglutinated fungal hyphae.©Fred Brooks, University of Hawaii at Manoa/via Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Phellinus noxius (brown tea root disease); Sexual spores under light microscope.
TitleSexual spores
CaptionPhellinus noxius (brown tea root disease); Sexual spores under light microscope.
Copyright©Fred Brooks, University of Hawaii at Manoa/via Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Phellinus noxius (brown tea root disease); Sexual spores under light microscope.
Sexual sporesPhellinus noxius (brown tea root disease); Sexual spores under light microscope.©Fred Brooks, University of Hawaii at Manoa/via Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Left: a stump of a Leucaena tree with sporophores emerging from the mycelial sleeve above ground level. Right: cocoa tree with typical wilt symptoms caused by degradation of the root system due to infection with P. noxius.
TitleSymptoms (on trunk and leaves)
CaptionLeft: a stump of a Leucaena tree with sporophores emerging from the mycelial sleeve above ground level. Right: cocoa tree with typical wilt symptoms caused by degradation of the root system due to infection with P. noxius.
CopyrightAnon.
Left: a stump of a Leucaena tree with sporophores emerging from the mycelial sleeve above ground level. Right: cocoa tree with typical wilt symptoms caused by degradation of the root system due to infection with P. noxius.
Symptoms (on trunk and leaves)Left: a stump of a Leucaena tree with sporophores emerging from the mycelial sleeve above ground level. Right: cocoa tree with typical wilt symptoms caused by degradation of the root system due to infection with P. noxius.Anon.

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Phellinus noxius (Corner) G. Cunn.

Preferred Common Name

  • brown tea root disease

Other Scientific Names

  • Fomes noxius Corner

International Common Names

  • English: brown cocoa root rot; brown root rot; stem rot of Hevea spp.; stem rot of oil palm

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Braune Wurzelfaeule

EPPO code

  • PHELNO (Phellinus noxius)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •             Subphylum: Agaricomycotina
  •                 Class: Agaricomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Agaricomycetidae
  •                         Order: Hymenochaetales
  •                             Family: Hymenochaetaceae
  •                                 Genus: Phellinus
  •                                     Species: Phellinus noxius

Description

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Basidioma perennial, solitary or imbricate, sessile with a broad basal attachment, commonly resupinate. Pileus 5-13 x 6-25 x 2-4 cm, applanate, dimidiate or appressed-reflexed; upper surface deep reddish-brown to umbrinous, soon blackening, at first tomentose, glabrescent, sometimes with narrow concentric zonation, developing a thick crust; margin white then concolorous, obtuse. Context up to 1 cm thick, golden brown, blackening with KOH, silky-zonate fibrous, woody. Pore surface greyish-brown to umbrinous; pores irregular, polygonal, 6-8/mm, 75-175 µm diameter, dissepiments 25-100 µm thick, brittle and lacerate; tubes stratified, developing 2-5 layers, 1-4 mm to each layer, darker than context, carbonaceous. Basidiospores c. 4 x 3 µm, ovoid to broadly ellipsoid, hyaline, with a smooth, slightly thickened wall, and irrgular guttulate contents. Basidia 12-16 x 4-5 µm, short clavate, 4-spored. Setae absent. Setal hyphae present both in the context and the dissepiment trama. Context setal hyphae radially arranged, up to 600 x 4-13 µm, unbranched or rarely branching, with a thick dark chestnut brown wall and capillary lumen; apex acute to obtuse, occasionally nodulose. Tramal setal hyphae diverging to project into the tube cavity, 55-100 x 9-18 µm, with a thick dark chestnut-brown wall (2.5-7.5 µm thick) and a broad obtuse apex. Hyphal system dimitic with generative and skeletal hyphae, non-agglutinated in the context, but strongly agglutinated in the dissepiments. Generative hyphae 1-6.5 µm diameter, hyaline or brownish, wall thin to somewhat thickening, freely branching, simple septate. Skeletal hyphae 5-9 µm diameter, unbranched, of unlimited growth, with a thick reddish-brown wall (up to 2.5 µm thick) and continuous lumen, non-septate.

Distribution

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To date, P. noxius has been recorded only from tropical regions of the world, although it is found in Japan and Australia (NSW), but is absent from South America. Many of the host crops, such as cocoa, have been grown extensively in South American countries such as Brazil, so it is unlikely that the disease would not have been detected if present.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 17 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresent
BeninPresent
Burkina FasoPresent
CameroonPresent
Central African RepublicPresent
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresent
Côte d'IvoirePresent
GabonPresent
GhanaPresent
KenyaPresent
NigeriaPresent
Sierra LeonePresent
TanzaniaPresent
TogoPresent
UgandaPresent

Asia

ChinaPresent
Hong KongPresent
IndiaPresent
-AssamPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-KeralaPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-TripuraPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
IndonesiaPresent
-JavaPresent
-SumatraPresent
JapanPresent
-Bonin IslandsPresent
-Ryukyu IslandsPresent
MalaysiaPresent
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent
-SabahPresent
-SarawakPresent
MyanmarPresent
PakistanPresent
PhilippinesPresent
SingaporePresent
Sri LankaPresent
TaiwanPresent
VietnamPresent

North America

Costa RicaPresent
CubaPresent
Puerto RicoPresent

Oceania

American SamoaPresent
AustraliaPresent
-New South WalesPresent
-QueenslandPresent
Federated States of MicronesiaPresent
-PohnpeiPresent
FijiPresent
NiuePresent
Northern Mariana IslandsPresent
Papua New GuineaPresent
SamoaPresent
Solomon IslandsPresent
VanuatuPresent

Risk of Introduction

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There are only two risks to consider. Firstly, infection by spores is through freshly cut stumps. Therefore, preventing stumps being susceptible to infection by either poisoning the stump or removing it eliminates this risk. The second risk is from infected root fragments which may harbour viable fungus for up to 4 years in buried roots 3 inches in diameter. The accidental movement of such fragments in soil poses a risk of spreading the disease, and soil should not be removed from infested areas. Non-susceptible annual crops can assist in the breakdown of these fragments, and it is recommended that infested soil should not be re-planted with susceptible trees for a period of several years. This is often ignored in the redevelopment of old plantations due to economic pressures, but the earlier re-planting may be a false saving if this disease is still present, as it will destroy the new planting very quickly.

Hosts/Species Affected

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The list of hosts provided concentrates on species of significant economic importance to individual countries. P. noxius appears to be non host-specific (Chang, 1995a) behaving more like an opportunistic pathogen; the only restriction being its very slow growth rate which means it is unlikely to cause problems in annual crops. As new plantation industries are established, it will not be surprising to see the host range increase. Currently, it occurs on trees belonging to over 50 tropical genera.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Acacia confusaFabaceaeMain
Acacia mangium (brown salwood)FabaceaeUnknown
Adenanthera pavonina (red-bead tree)FabaceaeUnknown
Albizia lebbeck (Indian siris)FabaceaeUnknown
Alstonia scholaris (white cheesewood)ApocynaceaeUnknown
Ann et al. (1999); Chang and Yang (1998)
Anacardium occidentale (cashew nut)AnacardiaceaeUnknown
Annona montanaAnnonaceaeUnknown
Ann et al. (1999)
Annona squamosa (sugar apple)AnnonaceaeUnknown
Ann et al. (1999); Ann et al. (1999); Tsai et al. (2017)
Aralia elata (Japanese aralia)AraliaceaeUnknown
Araucaria cunninghamii (colonial pine)AraucariaceaeMain
Araucaria heterophylla (norfolk Island pine)AraucariaceaeUnknown
Ann et al. (1999); Chang and Yang (1998)
Ardisia sieboldiiPrimulaceaeUnknown
Artemisia capillarisAsteraceaeUnknown
Ann et al. (1999); Chang and Yang (1998)
Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit)MoraceaeMain
Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit)MoraceaeUnknown
Ann et al. (1999)
Averrhoa carambola (carambola)OxalidaceaeUnknown
Ann et al. (1999); Ann et al. (1999); Tsai et al. (2017)
Azadirachta excelsaMeliaceaeUnknown
Farid et al. (2005); Mohd et al. (2009)
Barringtonia asiatica (sea poison tree)LecythidaceaeUnknown
Barringtonia samoensisUnknown
Bauhinia (camel's foot)FabaceaeUnknown
Bauhinia purpurea (purple bauhinia)FabaceaeUnknown
Ann et al. (1999); Chang and Yang (1998)
Bauhinia variegata (mountain ebony)FabaceaeMain
Bischofia javanica (bishop wood)EuphorbiaceaeUnknown
Bombax ceiba (silk cotton tree)BombacaceaeUnknown
Ann et al. (1999); Chang and Yang (1998)
Calocedrus formosanaCupressaceaeUnknown
Calophyllum inophyllum (Alexandrian laurel)ClusiaceaeMain
Calophyllum neoebudicumUnknown
Camellia japonica (camellia)TheaceaeUnknown
Ann et al. (1999); Chang and Yang (1998)
Camellia sinensis (tea)TheaceaeMain
Ann et al. (1999)
Cananga odorata (ylang-ylang)AnnonaceaeUnknown
Canarium harveyiStrombidaeUnknown
Cassia fistula (Indian laburnum)FabaceaeUnknown
Ann et al. (1999); Chang and Yang (1998)
Casuarina (beefwood)CasuarinaceaeUnknown
Casuarina equisetifolia (casuarina)CasuarinaceaeMain
Ceiba speciosaUnknown
Celtis boninensisUnknown
Celtis sinensis (Chinese elm)UlmaceaeUnknown
Cerbera manghasApocynaceaeUnknown
Chorisia speciosa (floss-silk tree)BombacaceaeUnknown
Ann et al. (1999)
Cinnamomum camphora (camphor laurel)LauraceaeUnknown
Cinnamomum doederleiniiLauraceaeUnknown
Cinnamomum japonicumLauraceaeUnknown
Cinnamomum kanehiraiLauraceaeUnknown
Ann et al. (1999); Chang and Yang (1998)
Cinnamomum kotoenseUnknown
Cinnamomum osmophloeum (native cassia bark tree)LauraceaeUnknown
Cinnamomum pseudopedunculatumUnknown
Cinnamomum verum (cinnamon)LauraceaeUnknown
Ann et al. (1999); Chang and Yang (1998)
Cinnamomum yabunikkeiUnknown
CitrusRutaceaeUnknown
Citrus limon (lemon)RutaceaeUnknown
Codiaeum variegatum (garden croton)EuphorbiaceaeUnknown
Ann et al. (1999)
Coffea (coffee)RubiaceaeMain
Coffea arabica (arabica coffee)RubiaceaeUnknown
Ann et al. (1999)
Cordia alliodora (Ecuador laurel)BoraginaceaeUnknown
Cordia asperaUnknown
Cordia dichotoma (Indian cherry)BoraginaceaeUnknown
Ann et al. (1999); Chang and Yang (1998)
Corymbia citriodora (lemon-scented gum)LithomyrtusUnknown
Crossostylis bifloraUnknown
Cycas taitungensisCycadaceaeUnknown
Ann et al. (1999); Chang and Yang (1998)
Dalbergia sissooFabaceaeUnknown
Ann et al. (1999)
Delonix regia (flamboyant)FabaceaeUnknown
Dimocarpus longan (longan tree)SapindaceaeUnknown
Diospyros decandraUnknown
Ann et al. (1999)
Diospyros kaki (persimmon)EbenaceaeUnknown
Ann et al. (1999); Tsai et al. (2017)
Diospyros samoensisEbenaceaeUnknown
Diospyros veraEbenaceaeUnknown
Distylium lepidotumHamamelidaceaeUnknown
Distylium racemosum (isu)HamamelidaceaeUnknown
Duranta erecta (golden dewdrop)VerbenaceaeUnknown
Ann et al. (1999); Tsai et al. (2017)
Dypsis lutescens (yellow butterfly palm)ArecaceaeUnknown
Dysoxylum samoenseMeliaceaeUnknown
Ehretia philippinensisUnknown
Elaeagnus rotundataUnknown
Elaeis guineensis (African oil palm)ArecaceaeMain
Elaeocarpus serratusElaeocarpaceaeUnknown
Ann et al. (1999); Chang and Yang (1998)
Elaeocarpus sylvestrisElaeocarpaceaeUnknown
Elattostachys falcataUnknown
Eriobotrya japonica (loquat)RosaceaeUnknown
Ann et al. (1999); Ann et al. (1999); Tsai et al. (2017)
ErythrinaFabaceaeUnknown
Erythrina variegata (Indian coral tree)FabaceaeUnknown
Eucalyptus camaldulensis (red gum)LithomyrtusUnknown
Eucalyptus grandis (saligna gum)LithomyrtusUnknown
Eucalyptus pellita (red mahogany)LithomyrtusUnknown
Eucalyptus spp.LithomyrtusUnknown
Ann et al. (1999)
Eugenia uniflora (Surinam cherry)LithomyrtusUnknown
Euonymus boninensisUnknown
FicusMoraceaeUnknown
Ficus awkeotsang (jelly fig)MoraceaeUnknown
Ann et al. (1999); Ann et al. (1999); Tsai et al. (2017)
Ficus benghalensis (banyan)MoraceaeUnknown
Ficus benjamina (weeping fig)MoraceaeUnknown
Ficus elastica (rubber plant)MoraceaeUnknown
Ficus microcarpa (Indian laurel tree)MoraceaeMain
Ficus obliquaUnknown
Ficus pumila (creeping fig)MoraceaeUnknown
Ficus punctataUnknown
Ann et al. (1999)
Ficus religiosa (sacred fig tree)MoraceaeUnknown
Ficus tinctoriaUnknown
Ficus virgataMoraceaeUnknown
Firmiana simplexSterculiaceaeUnknown
Ann et al. (1999); Chang and Yang (1998)
Flueggea flexuosaEuphorbiaceaeUnknown
Fraxinus formosanaOleaceaeUnknown
Ann et al. (1999); Chang and Yang (1998)
Garcinia mangostana (mangosteen)ClusiaceaeMain
Garcinia subellipticaClusiaceaeUnknown
Gardenia jasminoides (cape jasmine)RubiaceaeUnknown
Ann et al. (1999)
Glochidion obovatumEuphorbiaceaeUnknown
Glochidion ramiflorumUnknown
Gmelina arborea (candahar)LamiaceaeUnknown
Grevillea robusta (silky oak)ProteaceaeUnknown
Ann et al. (1999)
Hernandia nymphaeifoliaHernandiaceaeUnknown
Hevea brasiliensis (rubber)EuphorbiaceaeMain
Hibiscus glaberMalvaceaeUnknown
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (China-rose)MalvaceaeUnknown
Hibiscus schizopetalus (fringed hibiscus)MalvaceaeUnknown
Ann et al. (1999)
Hibiscus tiliaceus (coast cottonwood)MalvaceaeUnknown
Hydrangea chinensisUnknown
Ann et al. (1999)
Ilex rotunda (kurogane holly)AquifoliaceaeUnknown
Inocarpus fagiferFabaceaeUnknown
Intsia bijuga (Moluccan ironwood)FabaceaeUnknown
Ipomoea pes-caprae (beach morning glory)ConvolvulaceaeUnknown
Ann et al. (1999); Chang and Yang (1998)
Jatropha integerrima (peregrina)EuphorbiaceaeUnknown
Juniperus chinensis var. kaizukaCupressaceaeUnknown
Keteleeria davidiana var. formosanaUnknown
Ann et al. (1999); Chang and Yang (1998)
Khaya senegalensis (dry zone mahogany)MeliaceaeUnknown
Kigelia africana (sausage tree)BignoniaceaeUnknown
Ann et al. (1999); Tsai et al. (2017)
Koelreuteria elegans var. formosanaSapindaceaeMain
Koelreuteria paniculata (golden rain tree)SapindaceaeHabitat/association
Lactuca indica (Indian lettuce)AsteraceaeUnknown
Ann et al. (1999); Chang and Yang (1998)
Lagerstroemia speciosa (Pride of India)LythraceaeUnknown
Ann et al. (1999)
Lagerstroemia subcostataLythraceaeUnknown
Lagerstroemia turbinataUnknown
Lannea coromandelicaAnacardiaceaeUnknown
Lantana camara (lantana)VerbenaceaeUnknown
Ann et al. (1999); Chang and Yang (1998)
Leptopetalum grayiUnknown
Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena)FabaceaeUnknown
Ligustrum japonicum (Japanese privet)OleaceaeUnknown
Ligustrum micranthumOleaceaeUnknown
Liquidambar formosana (beautiful sweetgum)HamamelidaceaeUnknown
Litchi chinensis (lichi)SapindaceaeUnknown
Akiba et al. (2015); Ann et al. (1999); Ann et al. (1999); Tsai et al. (2017)
Litsea glutinosa (Indian laurel)LauraceaeUnknown
Ann et al. (1999); Chang and Yang (1998)
Litsea hypophaeaUnknown
Ann et al. (1999)
Litsea japonicaLauraceaeUnknown
Macaranga harveyanaUnknown
Macaranga stipulosaUnknown
Macaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree)EuphorbiaceaeUnknown
Maesa teneraMyrsinaceaeUnknown
Ann et al. (1999)
Malpighia emarginataMalpighiaceaeUnknown
Mangifera indica (mango)AnacardiaceaeUnknown
Melaleuca bracteataLithomyrtusUnknown
Melaleuca leucadendra (long-leaved paperbark)LithomyrtusUnknown
Ann et al. (1999); Chang and Yang (1998)
Melia azedarach (Chinaberry)MeliaceaeUnknown
Michelia compressaMagnoliaceaeUnknown
Ann et al. (1999); Chang and Yang (1998)
Michelia figoMagnoliaceaeUnknown
Ann et al. (1999)
Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry)RubiaceaeUnknown
Morus australisMoraceaeUnknown
Murraya paniculata (orange jessamine)RutaceaeUnknown
Nandina domestica (Nandina)BerberidaceaeUnknown
Neolitsea sericeaLauraceaeUnknown
Neonauclea forsteriRubiaceaeUnknown
Nerium oleander (oleander)ApocynaceaeUnknown
Ann et al. (1999); Chang and Yang (1998)
Ochrosia nakaianaApocynaceaeUnknown
Osmanthus fragransOleaceaeUnknown
Osmanthus insularisUnknown
Pachira aquatica (pachira nut)BombacaceaeUnknown
Palaquium formosanumSapotaceaeUnknown
Ann et al. (1999); Chang and Yang (1998)
Pandanus boninensisUnknown
Persea thunbergiiLauraceaeUnknown
Persea zuihoensisLauraceaeUnknown
Ann et al. (1999)
Pinus thunbergii (Japanese black pine)PinaceaeUnknown
Ann et al. (1999); Chang and Yang (1998)
Pipturus argenteusUrticaceaeUnknown
Pistacia chinensis (chinese pistachio)AnacardiaceaeUnknown
Ann et al. (1999); Chang and Yang (1998)
Pittosporum tobira (Japanese pittosporum)PittosporaceaeUnknown
Planchonella grayanaUnknown
Planchonella obovataSapotaceaeUnknown
Planchonella torricellensisSapotaceaeUnknown
Podocarpus macrophyllus (Long-leaf podocarpus)PodocarpaceaeMain
Pometia pinnata (fijian longan)SapindaceaeUnknown
Pongamia pinnata (Indian beech)FabaceaeUnknown
Ann et al. (1999); Chang and Yang (1998)
Populus deltoides (poplar)SalicaceaeUnknown
Prunus armeniaca (apricot)RosaceaeUnknown
Prunus campanulata (Taiwan cherry)RosaceaeUnknown
Prunus mume (Japanese apricot tree)RosaceaeUnknown
Ann et al. (1999); Chang and Yang (1998); Tsai et al. (2017); Ann et al. (1999)
Prunus persica (peach)RosaceaeUnknown
Psidium cattleianum (strawberry guava)LithomyrtusUnknown
Psidium guajava (guava)LithomyrtusUnknown
Pterocarpus indicus (red sandalwood)FabaceaeUnknown
Pyrus communis (European pear)RosaceaeUnknown
Ann et al. (1999)
Pyrus pyrifolia (Oriental pear tree)RosaceaeUnknown
Tsai et al. (2017); Ann et al. (1999)
Rhaphiolepis indicaRosaceaeUnknown
Rhaphiolepis indica var. umbellataUnknown
Rhaphiolepis umbellata (Yedda hawthorne)RosaceaeUnknown
Roystonea regia (cuban royal palm)ArecaceaeUnknown
Ann et al. (1999)
Salix babylonica (weeping willow)SalicaceaeMain
Ann et al. (1999); Chang and Yang (1998)
Samanea saman (rain tree)FabaceaeUnknown
Schinus terebinthifolius (Brazilian pepper tree)AnacardiaceaeUnknown
Spathodea campanulata (African tulip tree)BignoniaceaeUnknown
Spondias dulcis (otaheite apple)AnacardiaceaeUnknown
Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (Jamaica vervain)VerbenaceaeUnknown
Sterculia foetida (Java olive)SterculiaceaeUnknown
Ann et al. (1999)
Sterculia lanceolataUnknown
Swietenia macrophylla (big leaved mahogany)MeliaceaeUnknown
Swietenia mahagoni (Cuban mahogany)MeliaceaeMain
Ann et al. (1999); Chang and Yang (1998)
SyzygiumLithomyrtusUnknown
Syzygium inophylloidesLithomyrtusUnknown
Syzygium samarangense (water apple)LithomyrtusUnknown
Ann et al. (1999); Ann et al. (1999); Tsai et al. (2017)
Taiwania cryptomerioides (taiwania)ChrysomelidaeUnknown
Ann et al. (1999); Chang and Yang (1998)
Tectona grandis (teak)LamiaceaeMain
Farid et al. (2005); Mohd et al. (2009); Mohd et al. (2005); Farid et al. (2005)
Terminalia catappa (Singapore almond)CombretaceaeUnknown
Terminalia richiiCombretaceaeUnknown
Theobroma cacao (cocoa)MalvaceaeMain
Thespesia populnea (portia tree)MalvaceaeUnknown
Toona sinensis (Chinese Toona)MeliaceaeUnknown
Toxicodendron succedaneum (wax tree)AnacardiaceaeUnknown
Trachelospermum asiaticumApocynaceaeUnknown
Trema orientalis (charcoal tree)UlmaceaeUnknown
Ulmus parvifolia (lacebark elm)UlmaceaeUnknown
Ann et al. (1999); Chang and Yang (1998)
Urena lobata (caesar weed)MalvaceaeUnknown
Ann et al. (1999)
Vernicia fordii (tung-oil tree)EuphorbiaceaeUnknown
Ann et al. (1999); Chang and Yang (1998)
Virola surinamensis (banak)MyristicaceaeUnknown
Vitis (grape)VitaceaeUnknown
Ann et al. (1999)
Vitis vinifera (grapevine)VitaceaeUnknown
Ann et al. (1999); Tsai et al. (2017)
Wikstroemia pseudoretusaThymelaeaceaeUnknown
Zanthoxylum ailanthoidesRutaceaeUnknown
Ziziphus mauritiana (jujube)RhamnaceaeUnknown

Growth Stages

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Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

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P. noxius attacks a wide range of tropical plants, although mostly trees. The leaves of an infected tree yellow and wilt and typical dieback symptoms result. Symptoms may develop slowly or the tree may wilt and become defoliated in only a few days.

The most characteristic symptom of this disease is the brown encrustation covering the surface of the diseased roots. This consists of brown mycelium in which soil and small stones are firmly embedded. The fungus moves towards the collar of the tree and occasionally the encrustation may be visible above ground level. In the diseased wood, dark lines are visible due to the presence of the fungal hyphae. In advanced stages of decay, the wood becomes light, dry and friable and honeycombed. It is one of several fungi associated with heart or butt rots of forest and timber trees (Ivory, 1996).

Sporophores are very rare, large, hard purplish-brown bracts with yellowish-white growing margins and concentric blackish zones towards the edges. They are formed above ground on the encrustation on the trunk. Unlike other similar fungi, there are no rhizomorphs. Spread is by physical contact with the root encrustations.

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / wilting
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Roots / 'dirty' roots
Roots / soft rot of cortex

Biology and Ecology

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P. noxius is spread in two main ways. The first is by windborne spores which can infect freshly cut tree stumps or fresh wounds (Sujan-Singh and Pandey, 1989). The second is by root-to-root contact (Lewis and Arentz, 1988). The leading edge of the mycelial sleeve will infect healthy roots of other trees if they touch. Infected root pieces can remain viable for many years in the soil. Differences in virulence have been detected in isolates both from the same host species and from different host species (Nandris et al., 1985, 1987b).

A study in Japan (Hattori et al., 1996) showed that clonal populations, indicative of vegetative spread, were common between adjacent trees and covered areas of 20 m² but clones varied over larger areas indicating multiple basidiospore infection. Long-term survival in soil is mainly through infected woody debris and 80-90% survival in soils of lower moisture content has been recorded (Chang, 1996).

The fungus is confined mainly to tropical areas. In Taiwan at the limit of the northern tropics it is found mostly at lower altitudes on sandier soils in the southern areas, but not in the north (Chang and Yang, 1998).

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes fungi/hyphae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Roots fungi/hyphae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches fungi/fruiting bodies; fungi/hyphae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Leaves
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)

Impact

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Due to the extremely diverse host range and geographical distribution, the economic impact of P. noxius is highly variable. The impact can vary from insignificant losses to the loss of 60% of rubber trees in a plantation after 21 years (Nandris et al., 1987a). Once present in a plantation, the disease has the potential to cause tremendous devastation if allowed to proceed, due to its growth habit of spreading from root to root. It is one of several basidiomycetes causing damaging heart rots of Acacia mangium plantations in South-East Asia (See et al., 1996).

Diagnosis

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Field symptoms combined with the presence of encrustation (see Detection and Inspection Methods) are the most practical diagnostic features of this disease. In culture on malt agar forms, P. noxius raised white and brown plaques, which are characteristic of the species (Nandris et al., 1987a). Recently, a selective medium has been developed consisting of 20 g/l malt-extract, 20 g/l agar, 10 mg/l benomyl, 10 mg/l dichloran, 100 mg/l ampicillin, 500 mg/l gallic acid and 1000 mg/l tergitol NP-7 (Chang, 1995b). Induction of sporulation and collection of basidiospores for the purpose of establishing single-spore colonies has been demonstrated (Bolland et al., 1984).

Tsai et al. (2007) developed specific primers which can be used in the PCR-based diagnosis of P. noxius.

Detection and Inspection

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Early detection of the pathogen before the typical wilt symptoms are visible is very difficult and time consuming. Methods include scraping away the soil around the collar and the main roots and looking for the distinctive mycelial sleeve, or baiting out the pathogen by placing sticks of a susceptible host in the soil and retrieving for laboratory examination after 3 weeks (Nandris et al., 1987a). The only practical method in a plantation situation is to examine the roots of dead or dying trees looking for the mycelial encrustation. Infected roots can be cleared of soil and the infection traced to roots of other trees by simply following the encrustation.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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P. lamaensis, a closely related species with comparable geographic distribution, is readily separated from P. noxius by the presence of hymenial setae and narrow (up to 7 µm diameter only) setal hyphae of the dissepiment trama similar to those in the context.

Above-ground symptoms are similar to other root rot fungi (such as Rigidoporous lignosus of rubber) and collar rot fungi (such as Phytophthora palmivora of cocoa), and pathogen identification cannot be made on these symptoms alone. The soil-encrusted mycelium sleeve is unique to P. noxius and is used to rapidly distinguish this from other pathogens in the field.

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Control measures depend on routine inspection and removal of diseased trees. Recommendations in the past have concentrated on digging exclusion trenches around the infected tree and digging along infected roots until the infection front is located. This, however, has proved to be of limited practical value on a large scale. Various fungicides have been found to have activity against the pathogen (Lim et al., 1990; Mappes and Hiepko, 1984), but routine field treatments with these fungicides are not economical.

The establishment of a good ground cover to hasten the decay of root fragments is recommended when clearing land. This will enhance the breakdown of any infected root fragments which otherwise would provide an inoculum source for the following crop.

Spore infection can be prevented by the chemical poisoning of stumps with compounds which are not toxic to this pathogen (Anon., 1976). Spores require a freshly cut surface, and cannot infect a dead surface.

Other chemicals which have been found to be effective eradicants are soil fumigants (Ram and Venkataram, 1975), but are not used on a plantation scale due to prohibitive cost, and potential danger to users. Volatile ammonia generated from urea is fungicidal to P. noxius in infested wood (Chang and Chang, 1999).

Biocontrol with species of Trichoderma is recognised as a method to prevent spore infection of freshly cut stumps (Anon., 1993). P. noxius is not a strong competitor and is unable to colonize a stump if another organism, such as a species of Trichoderma, is already present. But the method is technically more demanding than poisoning stumps, and is not currently widely used. The potential for biocontrol in the rhizosphere has been demonstrated, particularly with species of Trichoderma (Lim and Teh, 1990; Jacob et al., 1991; Kothandaraman et al., 1991).

References

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Agustini, L., Francis, A., Glen, M., Indrayadi, H., Mohammed, C. L., 2014. Signs and identification of fungal root-rot pathogens in tropical Eucalyptus pellita plantations. Forest Pathology, 44(6), 486-495. doi: 10.1111/efp.12145

Akiba, M., Ota, Y., Tsai, I. J., Hattori, T., Sahashi, N., Kikuchi, T., 2015. Genetic differentiation and spatial structure of Phellinus noxius, the causal agent of brown root rot of woody plants in Japan. PLoS ONE, 10(10), e0141792. http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0141792

Ann PaoJen, Chang TunTschu, Ko, W. H., 2002. Phellinus noxius brown root rot of fruit and ornamental trees in Taiwan. Plant Disease, 86(8), 820-826. doi: 10.1094/PDIS.2002.86.8.820

Ann PJ, Lee HL, Huang TC, 1999. Brown root rot of 10 species of fruit trees caused by Phellinus noxius in Taiwan. Plant Disease, 83(8):746-750; 12 ref

Ann, P. J., Lee, H. L., Tsai, J. N., 1999. Survey of brown root disease of fruit and ornamental trees caused by Phellinus noxius in Taiwan. Plant Pathology Bulletin, 8(2), 51-60.

Anon, 1976. Annual Report, 1975, Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia, 133-139

Anon, 1993. Annual Report Rubber Research Institute of India 1991-1992, 26-33

AVA, 2001. Diagnostic records of the Plant Health Diagnostic Services, Plant Health Centre, Agri-food & Veterinary Authority, Singapore

Bolland L, Griffin DM, Heather WA, 1984. Induction of sporulation in basidiomes of Phellinus noxius and preparation of single spore isolates. Bulletin of the British Mycological Society, 18(2):131-133

Brooks, F. E., 2002. Brown root rot disease in American Samoa's tropical rain forests. Pacific Science, 56(4), 377-387. doi: 10.1353/psc.2002.0031

Burcham, D. C., Wong, J. Y., Ali, M. I. M., Abarrientos, N. V., Jr., Fong, Y. K., Schwarze, F. W. M. R., 2015. Characterization of host-fungus interactions among wood decay fungi associated with Khaya senegalensis (Desr.) A. Juss (Meliaceae) in Singapore. Forest Pathology, 45(6), 492-504. doi: 10.1111/efp.12199

CABI, EPPO, 1997. Pheilinus noxius. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, December (Edition 5). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, Map 104

Chang TT, 1995. Decline of nine tree species associated with brown root rot caused by Phellinus noxius in Taiwan. Plant Disease, 79(9):962-965

Chang TT, Chang RJ, 1999. Generation of volatile ammonia from urea fungicidal to Phellinus noxius in infested wood in soil under controlled conditions. Plant Pathology, 48(3):337-344; 37 ref

Chang TT, Yang WW, 1998. Phellinus noxius in Taiwan: distribution, host plants and the pH and texture of the rhizosphere soils of infected hosts. Mycological Research, 102(9):1085-1088; 17 ref

Chang TunTschu, 1995. A selective medium for Phellinus noxius. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 25(4):185-190

Chang TunTschu, 1996. Survival of Phellinus noxius in soil and in the roots of dead host plants. Phytopathology, 86(3):272-276; 20 ref

Dann, E. K., Smith, L. A., Pegg, K. G., 2011. Soilborne diseases impacting avocado production in Australia. In: Proceedings of the Sixth Australasian Soilborne Diseases Symposium, Twin Waters, Queensland, Australia, 9-11 August 2010 [Proceedings of the Sixth Australasian Soilborne Diseases Symposium, Twin Waters, Queensland, Australia, 9-11 August 2010], [ed. by Stirling, G. R. ]. Toowoomba, Australia: Australasian Plant Pathology Society Inc. 40.

Farid, A. M., Lee, S. S., Rosli, H. M., Maziah, Z., Norwati, M., 2005. Incidence of teak basal root rot caused by Phellinus noxius in Malaysia. Australasian Plant Pathology, 34(2), 277-278. doi: 10.1071/AP05008

Glen, M., Yuskianti, V., Puspitasari, D., Francis, A., Agustini, L., Rimbawanto, A., Indrayadi, H., Gafur, A., Mohammed, C. L., 2014. Identification of basidiomycete fungi in Indonesian hardwood plantations by DNA barcoding. Forest Pathology, 44(6), 496-508. doi: 10.1111/efp.12146

Hattori T, Abe Y, Usugi T, 1996. Distribution of clones of Phellinus noxius in a windbreak on Ishigaki Island. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 26(2):69-80; 23 ref

Hodges CS, Tenorio JA, 1984. Root disease of Delonix regia and associated tree species in the Mariana Islands caused by Phellinus noxius. Plant Disease, 68(4):334-336

Huang HuaZhi, Sun LongHua, Bi Keke, Zhong GuoHua, Hu MeiYing, 2016. The effect of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid on the morphological, physiological, and molecular characteristics of Phellinus noxius. Molecules, 21(5), 613. doi: 10.3390/molecules21050613

Huang YuChing, Chang TunTschu, Chung ChiaLin, Liou RueyFen, 2015. Genetic diversity of Phellinus noxius from Taipei and Yilan of Taiwan. Plant Pathology Bulletin, 24(2), 77-88.

Ivory MH, 1996. Diseases of forest trees caused by the pathogen Phellinus noxius. In: Raychaudhuri SP, ed. Forest Trees and Palms: Diseases and Control. New Delhi, India: Oxford & IBH Publishing Co, 111-133

Jacob CK, Annajutty Joseph, Jayarathnam K, 1991. Effect of fungal antagonists on Phellinus noxius causing brown root disease of Hevea. Indian Journal of Natural Rubber Research, 4(2):142-145

Kothandaraman R, Kochuthresiamma Joseph, Mathew J, Rajalakshmi VK, 1991. Actinomycete population in the rhizosphere of Hevea and its inhibitory effect on Phellinus noxius. Indian Journal of Natural Rubber Research, 4(2):150-152

Lewis DJ, Arentz F, 1988. Technical note on a computer intensive analysis method. Klinkii Lp, Papua New Guinea; Forestry Society of Papua New Guinea University of Technology, 3(4):60-61

Liloqula R, Johnson CM, 1987. Brown root rot of cocoa caused by Phellinus noxius. Annual Report 1985, Research Department, Agriculture Quarantine Service, Ministry of Agriculture & Lands, Solomon Islands Honiara, Solomon Islands; Dodo Creek Research Station, 38-43

Lim TK, Hamm RT, Mohamad RB, 1990. Persistency and volatile behaviour of selected chemicals in treated soil against three basidiomycetous root disease pathogens. Tropical Pest Management, 36(1):23-26

Lim TK, Teh BK, 1990. Antagonism in vitro of Trichoderma species against several basidiomycetous soil-borne pathogens and Sclerotium rolfsii. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 97(1):33-41

Mappes D, Hiepko G, 1984. New possibilities for controlling root diseases of plantation crops. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen Rijksuniversiteit Gent, 49(2a):283-292

Mohd Farid, A., Lee, S. S., Maziah, Z., Patahayah, M., 2009. Pathogenicity of Rigidoporus microporus and Phellinus noxius against four major plantation tree species in Peninsular Malaysia. Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 21(4), 289-298. http://info.frim.gov.my/cfdocs/infocenter_application/jtfsonline/jtfs/V21n4/289-298.pdf

Mohd Farid, A., Lee, S. S., Maziah, Z., Rosli, H., Norwati, M., 2005. Basal Root Rot, a new Disease of Teak (Tectona grandis) in Malaysia caused by Phellinus noxius. Malaysia Journal of Microbiology, 1(2), 40-45. doi: 10.21161/mjm.120507

Nandris D, Nicole M, Geiger JP, 1987. Root rot disease of rubber trees. Plant Disease, 71(4):298-306

Nandris D, Nicole M, Geiger JP, 1987. Variation in virulence among Rigidoporus lignosus and Phellinus noxius isolates from West Africa. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 17(4-5):271-281

Nandris, D., Nicole, M., Geiger, J. P., 1988. Root-rot diseases of the rubber tree in the Ivory Coast. 1. Severity, dynamics and characterization of epidemics. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 18(10), 1248-1254. doi: 10.1139/x88-192

Nicole M, Nandris D, Geiger JP, Rio B, 1985. Variability among African populations of Rigidoporus lignosus and Phellinus noxius. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 15(5/6):293-300

Pinruan, U., Rungjindamai, N., Choeyklin, R., Lumyong, S., Hyde, K. D., Jones, E. B. G., 2010. Occurrence and diversity of basidiomycetous endophytes from the oil palm, Elaeis guineensis in Thailand. Fungal Diversity, 41(1), 71-88. doi: 10.1007/s13225-010-0029-1

Ram CSV, 1975. Brown root disease of tea. Planters' Chronicle, 70(88):217-218

Sahashi N, Akiba M, Ota Y, Masuya H, Hattori T, Mukai A, Shimada R, Ono T, Sato T, 2015. Brown root rot caused by Phellinus noxius in the Ogasawara (Bonin) islands, southern Japan - current status of the disease and its host plants. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 10(1):33. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13314-015-0183-0/fulltext.html

Sahashi, N., Akiba, M., Ishihara, M., Abe, Y., Morita, S., 2007. First report of the brown root rot disease caused by Phellinus noxius, its distribution and newly recorded host plants in the Amami Islands, southern Japan. Forest Pathology, 37(3), 167-173. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0329.2007.00491.x

Sahashi, N., Akiba, M., Ishihara, M., Miyazaki, K., Kanzaki, N., 2010. Cross inoculation tests with Phellinus noxius isolates from nine different host plants in the Ryukyu Islands, Southwestern Japan. Plant Disease, 94(3), 358-360. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-94-3-0358

Sahashi, N., Akiba, M., Takemoto, S., Yokoi, T., Ota, Y., Kanzaki, N., 2014. Phellinus noxius causes brown root rot on four important conifer species in Japan. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 140(4), 869-873. doi: 10.1007/s10658-014-0503-9

See LS, Zakaria Ibrahim, Hashim MohdNoor, Wan Razali Wan Mohd, 1996. Impact of heart rot in Acacia mangium Willd. plantations of Peninsular Malaysia. Impact of diseases and insect pests in tropical forests. Proceedings of the IUFRO Symposium, Peechi, India, 23-26 November 1993., 1-10; 14 ref

Sujan Singh, Bola, I., Kumar, J., 1980. Diseases of plantation trees in Fiji islands I. Brown root rot of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King). Indian Forester, 106(8), 526-532.

Sujan Singh, Pandey PC, 1989. Brown root-rot of poplars. Indian Forester, 115(9):661-669

Supriadi, Adhi, E. M., Wahyuno, D., Rahayuningsih, S., Karyani, N., Dahsyat, M., 2004. Brown root rot disease of cashew in West Nusa Tenggara: distribution and its causal organism. Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science, 5(1), 32-36.

Tsai JN, Hsieh WH, Ann PJ, Yang CM, 2007. Development of specific primers for Phellinus noxius. Plant Pathology Bulletin, 16(4):193-202. http://www.pp.nchu.edu.tw/cpps/index.htm

Tsai JyhNong, Ann PaoJen, Liou RueyFen, Hsieh WenHsui, Ko WenHsiung, 2017. Phellinus noxius: molecular diversity among isolates from Taiwan and its phylogenetic relationship with other species of Phellinus based on sequences of the ITS region. Botanical Studies, 58(9), (16 January 2017). doi: 10.1186/s40529-017-0162-1

Wang, Y.-F., Meng, H., Gu, V. W., Gu, J.-D., 2016. Molecular diagnosis of the brown root rot disease agent Phellinus noxius on trees and in soil by rDNA ITS analysis. Applied Environmental Biotechnology, 1(1), 81-91. doi: 10.26789/AEB.2016.01.002

Zhang KM, Chee KH, 1989. Hevea diseases of economic importance in China. Planter, 65(754):3-8

Distribution References

Agustini L, Francis A, Glen M, Indrayadi H, Mohammed C L, 2014. Signs and identification of fungal root-rot pathogens in tropical Eucalyptus pellita plantations. Forest Pathology. 44 (6), 486-495. DOI:10.1111/efp.12145

Akiba M, Ota Y, Tsai I J, Hattori T, Sahashi N, Kikuchi T, 2015. Genetic differentiation and spatial structure of Phellinus noxius, the causal agent of brown root rot of woody plants in Japan. PLoS ONE. 10 (10), e0141792. http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0141792

Ann P J, Lee H L, Huang T C, 1999. Brown root rot of 10 species of fruit trees caused by Phellinus noxius in Taiwan. Plant Disease. 83 (8), 746-750. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.1999.83.8.746

Ann P J, Lee H L, Tsai J N, 1999a. Survey of brown root disease of fruit and ornamental trees caused by Phellinus noxius in Taiwan. Plant Pathology Bulletin. 8 (2), 51-60.

Ann P J, Tsai J N, Wang I T, Hsien M L, 1999b. Response of fruit trees and ornamental plants to brown root rot disease by artificial inoculation with Phellinus noxius. Plant Pathology Bulletin. 8 (2), 61-66.

Ann PaoJen, Chang TunTschu, Ko W H, 2002. Phellinus noxius brown root rot of fruit and ornamental trees in Taiwan. Plant Disease. 86 (8), 820-826. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2002.86.8.820

AVA, 2001. Diagnostic records of the Plant Health Diagnostic Services., Singapore: Plant Health Centre Agri-food & Veterinary Authority.

Brooks F E, 2002. Brown root rot disease in American Samoa's tropical rain forests. Pacific Science. 56 (4), 377-387. DOI:10.1353/psc.2002.0031

Burcham D C, Wong J Y, Ali M I M, Abarrientos N V Jr, Fong Y K, Schwarze F W M R, 2015. Characterization of host-fungus interactions among wood decay fungi associated with Khaya senegalensis (Desr.) A. Juss (Meliaceae) in Singapore. Forest Pathology. 45 (6), 492-504. DOI:10.1111/efp.12199

CABI, EPPO, 1997. Pheilinus noxius. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 104. DOI:10.1079/DMPD/20066500104

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Chang T T, 1995. Decline of nine tree species associated with brown root rot caused by Phellinus noxius in Taiwan. Plant Disease. 79 (9), 962-965. DOI:10.1094/PD-79-0962

Chang T T, Yang W W, 1998. Phellinus noxius in Taiwan: distribution, host plants and the pH and texture of the rhizosphere soils of infected hosts. Mycological Research. 102 (9), 1085-1088. DOI:10.1017/S0953756297005571

Farid A M, Lee S S, Rosli H M, Maziah Z, Norwati M, 2005. Incidence of teak basal root rot caused by Phellinus noxius in Malaysia. Australasian Plant Pathology. 34 (2), 277-278. DOI:10.1071/AP05008

Fu ChuenHsu, Hu BauYuan, Chang TunTschu, Hsueh KaiLeen, Hsu WeiTse, 2012. Evaluation of dazomet as fumigant for the control of brown root rot disease. Pest Management Science. 68 (7), 959-962. DOI:10.1002/ps.3303

Glen M, Yuskianti V, Puspitasari D, Francis A, Agustini L, Rimbawanto A, Indrayadi H, Gafur A, Mohammed C L, 2014. Identification of basidiomycete fungi in Indonesian hardwood plantations by DNA barcoding. Forest Pathology. 44 (6), 496-508. DOI:10.1111/efp.12146

Hodges C S, Tenorio J A, 1984. Root disease of Delonix regia and associated tree species in the Mariana Islands caused by Phellinus noxius. Plant Disease. 68 (4), 334-336. DOI:10.1094/PD-69-334

Liloqula R, Johnson C M, 1987. Brown root rot of cocoa caused by Phellinus noxius. In: Annual Report 1985, Research Department, Agriculture Quarantine Service, Ministry of Agriculture & Lands, Solomon Islands. Honiara, Solomon Islands: Dodo Creek Research Station. 38-43.

Mohd Farid A, Lee S S, Maziah Z, Patahayah M, 2009. Pathogenicity of Rigidoporus microporus and Phellinus noxius against four major plantation tree species in Peninsular Malaysia. Journal of Tropical Forest Science. 21 (4), 289-298. http://info.frim.gov.my/cfdocs/infocenter_application/jtfsonline/jtfs/V21n4/289-298.pdf

Sahashi N, Akiba M, Ishihara M, Abe Y, Morita S, 2007. First report of the brown root rot disease caused by Phellinus noxius, its distribution and newly recorded host plants in the Amami Islands, southern Japan. Forest Pathology. 37 (3), 167-173. DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0329.2007.00491.x

Sahashi N, Akiba M, Ishihara M, Miyazaki K, Kanzaki N, 2010. Cross inoculation tests with Phellinus noxius isolates from nine different host plants in the Ryukyu Islands, Southwestern Japan. Plant Disease. 94 (3), 358-360. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-94-3-0358

Sahashi N, Akiba M, Ota Y, Masuya H, Hattori T, Mukai A, Shimada R, Ono T, Sato T, 2015. Brown root rot caused by Phellinus noxius in the Ogasawara (Bonin) islands, southern Japan - current status of the disease and its host plants. Australasian Plant Disease Notes. 10 (1), 33. DOI:10.1007/s13314-015-0183-0

Sahashi N, Akiba M, Takemoto S, Yokoi T, Ota Y, Kanzaki N, 2014. Phellinus noxius causes brown root rot on four important conifer species in Japan. European Journal of Plant Pathology. 140 (4), 869-873. DOI:10.1007/s10658-014-0503-9

Supriadi, Adhi E M, Wahyuno D, Rahayuningsih S, Karyani N, Dahsyat M, 2004. Brown root rot disease of cashew in West Nusa Tenggara: distribution and its causal organism. Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science. 5 (1), 32-36.

Tran T T, Glen M, Beadle C, Ratkowsky D, Mohammed C, 2019. Wood-rotting basidiomycetes are a minor component of fungal communities associated with Acacia hybrid trees grown for sawlogs in South Vietnam. Forest Pathology. 49 (2), e12498. DOI:10.1111/efp.12498

Tsai J N, Ann P J, Hsieh W H, 2005. Evaluation of fungicides for suppression of three major wood-decay fungi Phellinus noxius, Rosellinia necatrix and Ganoderma australe in Taiwan. Plant Pathology Bulletin. 14 (2), 115-124.

Tsai J N, Hsieh W H, Ann P J, 2008. Effects of nitrogen fertilizers and chemical fungicides on control of brown root rot of tree fruits and grapes caused by Phellinus noxius. Plant Pathology Bulletin. 17 (2), 119-126.

Tsai JyhNong, Ann PaoJen, Liou RueyFen, Hsieh WenHsui, Ko WenHsiung, 2017. Phellinus noxius: molecular diversity among isolates from Taiwan and its phylogenetic relationship with other species of Phellinus based on sequences of the ITS region. Botanical Studies. 58 (9), (16 January 2017). DOI:10.1186/s40529-017-0162-1

Wang Y-F, Meng H, Gu V W, Gu J-D, 2016. Molecular diagnosis of the brown root rot disease agent Phellinus noxius on trees and in soil by rDNA ITS analysis. Applied Environmental Biotechnology. 1 (1), 81-91. DOI:10.26789/AEB.2016.01.002

Zhang K M, Chee K H, 1989. Hevea diseases of economic importance in China. Planter. 65 (754), 3-8.

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