Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Phellinus noxius
(brown tea root disease)

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Datasheet

Phellinus noxius (brown tea root disease)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 11 December 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Phellinus noxius
  • Preferred Common Name
  • brown tea root disease
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •       Subphylum: Agaricomycotina
  •         Class: Agaricomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Left: a stump of a Leucaena tree with sporophores emerging from the mycelial sleeve above ground level. Right: cocoa tree with typical wilt symptoms caused by degradation of the root system due to infection with P. noxius.
TitleSymptoms (on trunk and leaves)
CaptionLeft: a stump of a Leucaena tree with sporophores emerging from the mycelial sleeve above ground level. Right: cocoa tree with typical wilt symptoms caused by degradation of the root system due to infection with P. noxius.
CopyrightAnon.
Left: a stump of a Leucaena tree with sporophores emerging from the mycelial sleeve above ground level. Right: cocoa tree with typical wilt symptoms caused by degradation of the root system due to infection with P. noxius.
Symptoms (on trunk and leaves)Left: a stump of a Leucaena tree with sporophores emerging from the mycelial sleeve above ground level. Right: cocoa tree with typical wilt symptoms caused by degradation of the root system due to infection with P. noxius.Anon.

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Phellinus noxius (Corner) G. Cunn.

Preferred Common Name

  • brown tea root disease

Other Scientific Names

  • Fomes noxius Corner

International Common Names

  • English: brown cocoa root rot; brown root rot; stem rot of Hevea spp.; stem rot of oil palm

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Braune Wurzelfaeule

EPPO code

  • PHELNO (Phellinus noxius)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •             Subphylum: Agaricomycotina
  •                 Class: Agaricomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Agaricomycetidae
  •                         Order: Hymenochaetales
  •                             Family: Hymenochaetaceae
  •                                 Genus: Phellinus
  •                                     Species: Phellinus noxius

Description

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Basidioma perennial, solitary or imbricate, sessile with a broad basal attachment, commonly resupinate. Pileus 5-13 x 6-25 x 2-4 cm, applanate, dimidiate or appressed-reflexed; upper surface deep reddish-brown to umbrinous, soon blackening, at first tomentose, glabrescent, sometimes with narrow concentric zonation, developing a thick crust; margin white then concolorous, obtuse. Context up to 1 cm thick, golden brown, blackening with KOH, silky-zonate fibrous, woody. Pore surface greyish-brown to umbrinous; pores irregular, polygonal, 6-8/mm, 75-175 µm diameter, dissepiments 25-100 µm thick, brittle and lacerate; tubes stratified, developing 2-5 layers, 1-4 mm to each layer, darker than context, carbonaceous. Basidiospores c. 4 x 3 µm, ovoid to broadly ellipsoid, hyaline, with a smooth, slightly thickened wall, and irrgular guttulate contents. Basidia 12-16 x 4-5 µm, short clavate, 4-spored. Setae absent. Setal hyphae present both in the context and the dissepiment trama. Context setal hyphae radially arranged, up to 600 x 4-13 µm, unbranched or rarely branching, with a thick dark chestnut brown wall and capillary lumen; apex acute to obtuse, occasionally nodulose. Tramal setal hyphae diverging to project into the tube cavity, 55-100 x 9-18 µm, with a thick dark chestnut-brown wall (2.5-7.5 µm thick) and a broad obtuse apex. Hyphal system dimitic with generative and skeletal hyphae, non-agglutinated in the context, but strongly agglutinated in the dissepiments. Generative hyphae 1-6.5 µm diameter, hyaline or brownish, wall thin to somewhat thickening, freely branching, simple septate. Skeletal hyphae 5-9 µm diameter, unbranched, of unlimited growth, with a thick reddish-brown wall (up to 2.5 µm thick) and continuous lumen, non-septate.

Distribution

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To date, P. noxius has been recorded only from tropical regions of the world, although it is found in Japan and Australia (NSW), but is absent from South America. Many of the host crops, such as cocoa, have been grown extensively in South American countries such as Brazil, so it is unlikely that the disease would not have been detected if present.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 17 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresent
BeninPresent
Burkina FasoPresent
CameroonPresent
Central African RepublicPresent
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresent
Côte d'IvoirePresent
GabonPresent
GhanaPresent
KenyaPresent
NigeriaPresent
Sierra LeonePresent
TanzaniaPresent
TogoPresent
UgandaPresent

Asia

ChinaPresent
Hong KongPresent
IndiaPresent
-AssamPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-KeralaPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-TripuraPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
IndonesiaPresent
-JavaPresent
-SumatraPresent
JapanPresent
-Bonin IslandsPresent
-Ryukyu IslandsPresent
MalaysiaPresent
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent
-SabahPresent
-SarawakPresent
MyanmarPresent
PakistanPresent
PhilippinesPresent
SingaporePresent
Sri LankaPresent
TaiwanPresent
VietnamPresent

North America

Costa RicaPresent
CubaPresent
Puerto RicoPresent

Oceania

American SamoaPresent
AustraliaPresent
-New South WalesPresent
-QueenslandPresent
Federated States of MicronesiaPresent
-PohnpeiPresent
FijiPresent
NiuePresent
Northern Mariana IslandsPresent
Papua New GuineaPresent
SamoaPresent
Solomon IslandsPresent
VanuatuPresent

Risk of Introduction

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There are only two risks to consider. Firstly, infection by spores is through freshly cut stumps. Therefore, preventing stumps being susceptible to infection by either poisoning the stump or removing it eliminates this risk. The second risk is from infected root fragments which may harbour viable fungus for up to 4 years in buried roots 3 inches in diameter. The accidental movement of such fragments in soil poses a risk of spreading the disease, and soil should not be removed from infested areas. Non-susceptible annual crops can assist in the breakdown of these fragments, and it is recommended that infested soil should not be re-planted with susceptible trees for a period of several years. This is often ignored in the redevelopment of old plantations due to economic pressures, but the earlier re-planting may be a false saving if this disease is still present, as it will destroy the new planting very quickly.

Hosts/Species Affected

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The list of hosts provided concentrates on species of significant economic importance to individual countries. P. noxius appears to be non host-specific (Chang, 1995a) behaving more like an opportunistic pathogen; the only restriction being its very slow growth rate which means it is unlikely to cause problems in annual crops. As new plantation industries are established, it will not be surprising to see the host range increase. Currently, it occurs on trees belonging to over 50 tropical genera.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Acacia confusaFabaceaeMain
Acacia mangium (brown salwood)FabaceaeUnknown
Adenanthera pavonina (red-bead tree)FabaceaeUnknown
Albizia lebbeck (Indian siris)FabaceaeUnknown
Alstonia scholaris (white cheesewood)ApocynaceaeUnknown
Anacardium occidentale (cashew nut)AnacardiaceaeUnknown
Annona montanaAnnonaceaeUnknown
  • Ann et al. (1999)
Annona squamosa (sugar apple)AnnonaceaeUnknown
Araucaria cunninghamii (colonial pine)AraucariaceaeMain
Araucaria heterophylla (norfolk Island pine)AraucariaceaeUnknown
Ardisia sieboldiiPrimulaceaeUnknown
Artemisia capillarisAsteraceaeUnknown
Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit)MoraceaeMain
Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit)MoraceaeUnknown
  • Ann et al. (1999)
Averrhoa carambola (carambola)OxalidaceaeUnknown
Azadirachta excelsaMeliaceaeUnknown
Barringtonia asiatica (sea poison tree)LecythidaceaeUnknown
Barringtonia samoensisUnknown
Bauhinia (camel's foot)FabaceaeUnknown
Bauhinia purpurea (purple bauhinia)FabaceaeUnknown
Bauhinia variegata (mountain ebony)FabaceaeMain
Bischofia javanica (bishop wood)EuphorbiaceaeUnknown
Bombax ceiba (silk cotton tree)BombacaceaeUnknown
Calocedrus formosanaCupressaceaeUnknown
Calophyllum inophyllum (Alexandrian laurel)ClusiaceaeMain
Calophyllum neoebudicumUnknown
Camellia japonica (camellia)TheaceaeUnknown
Camellia sinensis (tea)TheaceaeMain
  • Ann et al. (1999)
Cananga odorata (ylang-ylang)AnnonaceaeUnknown
Canarium harveyiStrombidaeUnknown
Cassia fistula (Indian laburnum)FabaceaeUnknown
Casuarina (beefwood)CasuarinaceaeUnknown
Casuarina equisetifolia (casuarina)CasuarinaceaeMain
Ceiba speciosaUnknown
Celtis boninensisUnknown
Celtis sinensis (Chinese elm)UlmaceaeUnknown
Cerbera manghasApocynaceaeUnknown
Chorisia speciosa (floss-silk tree)BombacaceaeUnknown
  • Ann et al. (1999)
Cinnamomum camphora (camphor laurel)LauraceaeUnknown
Cinnamomum doederleiniiLauraceaeUnknown
Cinnamomum japonicumLauraceaeUnknown
Cinnamomum kanehiraiLauraceaeUnknown
Cinnamomum kotoenseUnknown
Cinnamomum osmophloeum (native cassia bark tree)LauraceaeUnknown
Cinnamomum pseudopedunculatumUnknown
Cinnamomum verum (cinnamon)LauraceaeUnknown
Cinnamomum yabunikkeiUnknown
CitrusRutaceaeUnknown
Citrus limon (lemon)RutaceaeUnknown
Codiaeum variegatum (garden croton)EuphorbiaceaeUnknown
  • Ann et al. (1999)
Coffea (coffee)RubiaceaeMain
    Coffea arabica (arabica coffee)RubiaceaeUnknown
    • Ann et al. (1999)
    Cordia alliodora (Ecuador laurel)BoraginaceaeUnknown
    Cordia asperaUnknown
    Cordia dichotoma (Indian cherry)BoraginaceaeUnknown
    Corymbia citriodora (lemon-scented gum)MyrtaceaeUnknown
    Crossostylis bifloraUnknown
    Cycas taitungensisCycadaceaeUnknown
    Dalbergia sissooFabaceaeUnknown
    • Ann et al. (1999)
    Delonix regia (flamboyant)FabaceaeUnknown
    Dimocarpus longan (longan tree)SapindaceaeUnknown
    Diospyros decandraUnknown
    • Ann et al. (1999)
    Diospyros kaki (persimmon)EbenaceaeUnknown
    Diospyros samoensisEbenaceaeUnknown
    Diospyros veraEbenaceaeUnknown
    Distylium lepidotumHamamelidaceaeUnknown
    Distylium racemosum (isu)HamamelidaceaeUnknown
    Duranta erecta (golden dewdrop)VerbenaceaeUnknown
    Dypsis lutescens (yellow butterfly palm)ArecaceaeUnknown
    Dysoxylum samoenseMeliaceaeUnknown
    Ehretia philippinensisUnknown
    Elaeagnus rotundataUnknown
    Elaeis guineensis (African oil palm)ArecaceaeMain
    Elaeocarpus serratusElaeocarpaceaeUnknown
    Elaeocarpus sylvestrisElaeocarpaceaeUnknown
    Elattostachys falcataUnknown
    Eriobotrya japonica (loquat)RosaceaeUnknown
    ErythrinaFabaceaeUnknown
    Erythrina variegata (Indian coral tree)FabaceaeUnknown
    Eucalyptus camaldulensis (red gum)MyrtaceaeUnknown
    Eucalyptus grandis (saligna gum)MyrtaceaeUnknown
    Eucalyptus pellita (red mahogany)MyrtaceaeUnknown
    Eucalyptus spp.MyrtaceaeUnknown
    • Ann et al. (1999)
    Eugenia uniflora (Surinam cherry)MyrtaceaeUnknown
    Euonymus boninensisUnknown
    FicusMoraceaeUnknown
    Ficus awkeotsang (jelly fig)MoraceaeUnknown
    Ficus benghalensis (banyan)MoraceaeUnknown
    Ficus benjamina (weeping fig)MoraceaeUnknown
    Ficus elastica (rubber plant)MoraceaeUnknown
    Ficus microcarpa (Indian laurel tree)MoraceaeMain
    Ficus obliquaUnknown
    Ficus pumila (creeping fig)MoraceaeUnknown
    Ficus punctataUnknown
    • Ann et al. (1999)
    Ficus religiosa (sacred fig tree)MoraceaeUnknown
    Ficus tinctoriaUnknown
    Ficus virgataMoraceaeUnknown
    Firmiana simplexSterculiaceaeUnknown
    Flueggea flexuosaEuphorbiaceaeUnknown
    Fraxinus formosanaOleaceaeUnknown
    Garcinia mangostana (mangosteen)ClusiaceaeMain
      Garcinia subellipticaClusiaceaeUnknown
      Gardenia jasminoides (cape jasmine)RubiaceaeUnknown
      • Ann et al. (1999)
      Glochidion obovatumEuphorbiaceaeUnknown
      Glochidion ramiflorumUnknown
      Gmelina arborea (candahar)LamiaceaeUnknown
      Grevillea robusta (silky oak)ProteaceaeUnknown
      • Ann et al. (1999)
      Hernandia nymphaeifoliaHernandiaceaeUnknown
      Hevea brasiliensis (rubber)EuphorbiaceaeMain
      Hibiscus glaberMalvaceaeUnknown
      Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (China-rose)MalvaceaeUnknown
      Hibiscus schizopetalus (fringed hibiscus)MalvaceaeUnknown
      • Ann et al. (1999)
      Hibiscus tiliaceus (coast cottonwood)MalvaceaeUnknown
      Hydrangea chinensisUnknown
      • Ann et al. (1999)
      Ilex rotunda (kurogane holly)AquifoliaceaeUnknown
      Inocarpus fagiferFabaceaeUnknown
      Intsia bijuga (Moluccan ironwood)FabaceaeUnknown
      Ipomoea pes-caprae (beach morning glory)ConvolvulaceaeUnknown
      Jatropha integerrima (peregrina)EuphorbiaceaeUnknown
      Juniperus chinensis var. kaizukaCupressaceaeUnknown
      Keteleeria davidiana var. formosanaUnknown
      Khaya senegalensis (dry zone mahogany)MeliaceaeUnknown
      Kigelia africana (sausage tree)BignoniaceaeUnknown
      Koelreuteria elegans var. formosanaSapindaceaeMain
      Koelreuteria paniculata (golden rain tree)SapindaceaeHabitat/association
        Lactuca indica (Indian lettuce)AsteraceaeUnknown
        Lagerstroemia speciosa (Pride of India)LythraceaeUnknown
        • Ann et al. (1999)
        Lagerstroemia subcostataLythraceaeUnknown
        Lagerstroemia turbinataUnknown
        Lannea coromandelicaAnacardiaceaeUnknown
        Lantana camara (lantana)VerbenaceaeUnknown
        Leptopetalum grayiUnknown
        Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena)FabaceaeUnknown
        Ligustrum japonicum (Japanese privet)OleaceaeUnknown
        Ligustrum micranthumOleaceaeUnknown
        Liquidambar formosana (beautiful sweetgum)HamamelidaceaeUnknown
        Litchi chinensis (lichi)SapindaceaeUnknown
        Litsea glutinosa (Indian laurel)LauraceaeUnknown
        Litsea hypophaeaUnknown
        • Ann et al. (1999)
        Litsea japonicaLauraceaeUnknown
        Macaranga harveyanaUnknown
        Macaranga stipulosaUnknown
        Macaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree)EuphorbiaceaeUnknown
        Maesa teneraMyrsinaceaeUnknown
        • Ann et al. (1999)
        Malpighia emarginataMalpighiaceaeUnknown
        Mangifera indica (mango)AnacardiaceaeUnknown
        Melaleuca bracteataMyrtaceaeUnknown
        Melaleuca leucadendra (long-leaved paperbark)MyrtaceaeUnknown
        Melia azedarach (Chinaberry)MeliaceaeUnknown
        Michelia compressaMagnoliaceaeUnknown
        Michelia figoMagnoliaceaeUnknown
        • Ann et al. (1999)
        Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry)RubiaceaeUnknown
        Morus australisMoraceaeUnknown
        Murraya paniculata (orange jessamine)RutaceaeUnknown
        Nandina domestica (Nandina)BerberidaceaeUnknown
        Neolitsea sericeaLauraceaeUnknown
        Neonauclea forsteriRubiaceaeUnknown
        Nerium oleander (oleander)ApocynaceaeUnknown
        Ochrosia nakaianaApocynaceaeUnknown
        Osmanthus fragransOleaceaeUnknown
        Osmanthus insularisUnknown
        Pachira aquatica (pachira nut)BombacaceaeUnknown
        Palaquium formosanumSapotaceaeUnknown
        Pandanus boninensisUnknown
        Persea thunbergiiLauraceaeUnknown
        Persea zuihoensisLauraceaeUnknown
        • Ann et al. (1999)
        Pinus thunbergii (Japanese black pine)PinaceaeUnknown
        Pipturus argenteusUrticaceaeUnknown
        Pistacia chinensis (chinese pistachio)AnacardiaceaeUnknown
        Pittosporum tobira (Japanese pittosporum)PittosporaceaeUnknown
        Planchonella grayanaUnknown
        Planchonella obovataSapotaceaeUnknown
        Planchonella torricellensisSapotaceaeUnknown
        Podocarpus macrophyllus (Long-leaf podocarpus)PodocarpaceaeMain
        Pometia pinnata (fijian longan)SapindaceaeUnknown
        Pongamia pinnata (Indian beech)FabaceaeUnknown
        Populus deltoides (poplar)SalicaceaeUnknown
        Prunus armeniaca (apricot)RosaceaeUnknown
        Prunus campanulata (Taiwan cherry)RosaceaeUnknown
        Prunus mume (Japanese apricot tree)RosaceaeUnknown
        Prunus persica (peach)RosaceaeUnknown
        Psidium cattleianum (strawberry guava)MyrtaceaeUnknown
        Psidium guajava (guava)MyrtaceaeUnknown
        Pterocarpus indicus (red sandalwood)FabaceaeUnknown
        Pyrus communis (European pear)RosaceaeUnknown
        • Ann et al. (1999)
        Pyrus pyrifolia (Oriental pear tree)RosaceaeUnknown
        Rhaphiolepis indica var. umbellataUnknown
        Roystonea regia (cuban royal palm)ArecaceaeUnknown
        • Ann et al. (1999)
        Salix babylonica (weeping willow)SalicaceaeMain
        Samanea samanUnknown
        Schinus terebinthifolius (Brazilian pepper tree)AnacardiaceaeUnknown
        Spathodea campanulata (African tulip tree)BignoniaceaeUnknown
        Spondias dulcis (otaheite apple)AnacardiaceaeUnknown
        Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (Jamaica vervain)VerbenaceaeUnknown
        Sterculia foetida (Java olive)SterculiaceaeUnknown
        • Ann et al. (1999)
        Sterculia lanceolataUnknown
        Swietenia macrophylla (big leaved mahogany)MeliaceaeUnknown
        Swietenia mahagoni (Cuban mahogany)MeliaceaeMain
        SyzygiumMyrtaceaeUnknown
        Syzygium inophylloidesMyrtaceaeUnknown
        Syzygium samarangense (water apple)MyrtaceaeUnknown
        Taiwania cryptomerioides (taiwania)ChrysomelidaeUnknown
        Tectona grandis (teak)LamiaceaeMain
        Terminalia catappa (Singapore almond)CombretaceaeUnknown
        Terminalia richiiCombretaceaeUnknown
        Theobroma cacao (cocoa)MalvaceaeMain
        Thespesia populnea (portia tree)MalvaceaeUnknown
        Toona sinensis (Chinese Toona)MeliaceaeUnknown
        Toxicodendron succedaneum (wax tree)AnacardiaceaeUnknown
        Trachelospermum asiaticumApocynaceaeUnknown
        Trema orientalis (charcoal tree)UlmaceaeUnknown
        Ulmus parvifolia (lacebark elm)UlmaceaeUnknown
        Urena lobata (caesar weed)MalvaceaeUnknown
        • Ann et al. (1999)
        Vernicia fordii (tung-oil tree)EuphorbiaceaeUnknown
        Virola surinamensis (banak)MyristicaceaeUnknown
        Vitis (grape)VitaceaeUnknown
        • Ann et al. (1999)
        Vitis vinifera (grapevine)VitaceaeUnknown
        Zanthoxylum ailanthoidesRutaceaeUnknown
        Ziziphus mauritiana (jujube)RhamnaceaeUnknown

        Growth Stages

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        Vegetative growing stage

        Symptoms

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        P. noxius attacks a wide range of tropical plants, although mostly trees. The leaves of an infected tree yellow and wilt and typical dieback symptoms result. Symptoms may develop slowly or the tree may wilt and become defoliated in only a few days.

        The most characteristic symptom of this disease is the brown encrustation covering the surface of the diseased roots. This consists of brown mycelium in which soil and small stones are firmly embedded. The fungus moves towards the collar of the tree and occasionally the encrustation may be visible above ground level. In the diseased wood, dark lines are visible due to the presence of the fungal hyphae. In advanced stages of decay, the wood becomes light, dry and friable and honeycombed. It is one of several fungi associated with heart or butt rots of forest and timber trees (Ivory, 1996).

        Sporophores are very rare, large, hard purplish-brown bracts with yellowish-white growing margins and concentric blackish zones towards the edges. They are formed above ground on the encrustation on the trunk. Unlike other similar fungi, there are no rhizomorphs. Spread is by physical contact with the root encrustations.

        List of Symptoms/Signs

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        SignLife StagesType
        Leaves / abnormal colours
        Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
        Leaves / wilting
        Leaves / yellowed or dead
        Roots / 'dirty' roots
        Roots / soft rot of cortex

        Biology and Ecology

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        P. noxius is spread in two main ways. The first is by windborne spores which can infect freshly cut tree stumps or fresh wounds (Sujan-Singh and Pandey, 1989). The second is by root-to-root contact (Lewis and Arentz, 1988). The leading edge of the mycelial sleeve will infect healthy roots of other trees if they touch. Infected root pieces can remain viable for many years in the soil. Differences in virulence have been detected in isolates both from the same host species and from different host species (Nandris et al., 1985, 1987b).

        A study in Japan (Hattori et al., 1996) showed that clonal populations, indicative of vegetative spread, were common between adjacent trees and covered areas of 20 m² but clones varied over larger areas indicating multiple basidiospore infection. Long-term survival in soil is mainly through infected woody debris and 80-90% survival in soils of lower moisture content has been recorded (Chang, 1996).

        The fungus is confined mainly to tropical areas. In Taiwan at the limit of the northern tropics it is found mostly at lower altitudes on sandier soils in the southern areas, but not in the north (Chang and Yang, 1998).

        Plant Trade

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        Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
        Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes hyphae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
        Roots hyphae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
        Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches fruiting bodies; hyphae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
        Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
        Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
        Fruits (inc. pods)
        Leaves
        Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
        True seeds (inc. grain)

        Impact

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        Due to the extremely diverse host range and geographical distribution, the economic impact of P. noxius is highly variable. The impact can vary from insignificant losses to the loss of 60% of rubber trees in a plantation after 21 years (Nandris et al., 1987a). Once present in a plantation, the disease has the potential to cause tremendous devastation if allowed to proceed, due to its growth habit of spreading from root to root. It is one of several basidiomycetes causing damaging heart rots of Acacia mangium plantations in South-East Asia (See et al., 1996).

        Diagnosis

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        Field symptoms combined with the presence of encrustation (see Detection and Inspection Methods) are the most practical diagnostic features of this disease. In culture on malt agar forms, P. noxius raised white and brown plaques, which are characteristic of the species (Nandris et al., 1987a). Recently, a selective medium has been developed consisting of 20 g/l malt-extract, 20 g/l agar, 10 mg/l benomyl, 10 mg/l dichloran, 100 mg/l ampicillin, 500 mg/l gallic acid and 1000 mg/l tergitol NP-7 (Chang, 1995b). Induction of sporulation and collection of basidiospores for the purpose of establishing single-spore colonies has been demonstrated (Bolland et al., 1984).

        Tsai et al. (2007) developed specific primers which can be used in the PCR-based diagnosis of P. noxius.

        Detection and Inspection

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        Early detection of the pathogen before the typical wilt symptoms are visible is very difficult and time consuming. Methods include scraping away the soil around the collar and the main roots and looking for the distinctive mycelial sleeve, or baiting out the pathogen by placing sticks of a susceptible host in the soil and retrieving for laboratory examination after 3 weeks (Nandris et al., 1987a). The only practical method in a plantation situation is to examine the roots of dead or dying trees looking for the mycelial encrustation. Infected roots can be cleared of soil and the infection traced to roots of other trees by simply following the encrustation.

        Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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        P. lamaensis, a closely related species with comparable geographic distribution, is readily separated from P. noxius by the presence of hymenial setae and narrow (up to 7 µm diameter only) setal hyphae of the dissepiment trama similar to those in the context.

        Above-ground symptoms are similar to other root rot fungi (such as Rigidoporous lignosus of rubber) and collar rot fungi (such as Phytophthora palmivora of cocoa), and pathogen identification cannot be made on these symptoms alone. The soil-encrusted mycelium sleeve is unique to P. noxius and is used to rapidly distinguish this from other pathogens in the field.

        Prevention and Control

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        Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

        Control measures depend on routine inspection and removal of diseased trees. Recommendations in the past have concentrated on digging exclusion trenches around the infected tree and digging along infected roots until the infection front is located. This, however, has proved to be of limited practical value on a large scale. Various fungicides have been found to have activity against the pathogen (Lim et al., 1990; Mappes and Hiepko, 1984), but routine field treatments with these fungicides are not economical.

        The establishment of a good ground cover to hasten the decay of root fragments is recommended when clearing land. This will enhance the breakdown of any infected root fragments which otherwise would provide an inoculum source for the following crop.

        Spore infection can be prevented by the chemical poisoning of stumps with compounds which are not toxic to this pathogen (Anon., 1976). Spores require a freshly cut surface, and cannot infect a dead surface.

        Other chemicals which have been found to be effective eradicants are soil fumigants (Ram and Venkataram, 1975), but are not used on a plantation scale due to prohibitive cost, and potential danger to users. Volatile ammonia generated from urea is fungicidal to P. noxius in infested wood (Chang and Chang, 1999).

        Biocontrol with species of Trichoderma is recognised as a method to prevent spore infection of freshly cut stumps (Anon., 1993). P. noxius is not a strong competitor and is unable to colonize a stump if another organism, such as a species of Trichoderma, is already present. But the method is technically more demanding than poisoning stumps, and is not currently widely used. The potential for biocontrol in the rhizosphere has been demonstrated, particularly with species of Trichoderma (Lim and Teh, 1990; Jacob et al., 1991; Kothandaraman et al., 1991).

        References

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        Agustini, L., Francis, A., Glen, M., Indrayadi, H., Mohammed, C. L., 2014. Signs and identification of fungal root-rot pathogens in tropical Eucalyptus pellita plantations. Forest Pathology, 44(6), 486-495. doi: 10.1111/efp.12145

        Akiba, M., Ota, Y., Tsai, I. J., Hattori, T., Sahashi, N., Kikuchi, T., 2015. Genetic differentiation and spatial structure of Phellinus noxius, the causal agent of brown root rot of woody plants in Japan. PLoS ONE, 10(10), e0141792. http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0141792

        Ann PJ; Lee HL; Huang TC, 1999. Brown root rot of 10 species of fruit trees caused by Phellinus noxius in Taiwan. Plant Disease, 83(8):746-750; 12 ref.

        Ann, P. J., Lee, H. L., Tsai, J. N., 1999. Survey of brown root disease of fruit and ornamental trees caused by Phellinus noxius in Taiwan. Plant Pathology Bulletin, 8(2), 51-60.

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        AVA, 2001. Diagnostic records of the Plant Health Diagnostic Services, Plant Health Centre, Agri-food & Veterinary Authority, Singapore.

        Bolland L; Griffin DM; Heather WA, 1984. Induction of sporulation in basidiomes of Phellinus noxius and preparation of single spore isolates. Bulletin of the British Mycological Society, 18(2):131-133

        Brooks, F. E., 2002. Brown root rot disease in American Samoa's tropical rain forests. Pacific Science, 56(4), 377-387. doi: 10.1353/psc.2002.0031

        Burcham, D. C., Wong, J. Y., Ali, M. I. M., Abarrientos, N. V., Jr., Fong, Y. K., Schwarze, F. W. M. R., 2015. Characterization of host-fungus interactions among wood decay fungi associated with Khaya senegalensis (Desr.) A. Juss (Meliaceae) in Singapore. Forest Pathology, 45(6), 492-504. doi: 10.1111/efp.12199

        CABI; EPPO, 1997. Pheilinus noxius. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, December (Edition 5). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, Map 104.

        Chang TT, 1995. Decline of nine tree species associated with brown root rot caused by Phellinus noxius in Taiwan. Plant Disease, 79(9):962-965

        Chang TT; Chang RJ, 1999. Generation of volatile ammonia from urea fungicidal to Phellinus noxius in infested wood in soil under controlled conditions. Plant Pathology, 48(3):337-344; 37 ref.

        Chang TT; Yang WW, 1998. Phellinus noxius in Taiwan: distribution, host plants and the pH and texture of the rhizosphere soils of infected hosts. Mycological Research, 102(9):1085-1088; 17 ref.

        Chang TunTschu, 1995. A selective medium for Phellinus noxius. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 25(4):185-190

        Chang TunTschu, 1996. Survival of Phellinus noxius in soil and in the roots of dead host plants. Phytopathology, 86(3):272-276; 20 ref.

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        Farid, A. M., Lee, S. S., Rosli, H. M., Maziah, Z., Norwati, M., 2005. Incidence of teak basal root rot caused by Phellinus noxius in Malaysia. Australasian Plant Pathology, 34(2), 277-278. doi: 10.1071/AP05008

        Glen, M., Yuskianti, V., Puspitasari, D., Francis, A., Agustini, L., Rimbawanto, A., Indrayadi, H., Gafur, A., Mohammed, C. L., 2014. Identification of basidiomycete fungi in Indonesian hardwood plantations by DNA barcoding. Forest Pathology, 44(6), 496-508. doi: 10.1111/efp.12146

        Hattori T; Abe Y; Usugi T, 1996. Distribution of clones of Phellinus noxius in a windbreak on Ishigaki Island. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 26(2):69-80; 23 ref.

        Hodges CS; Tenorio JA, 1984. Root disease of Delonix regia and associated tree species in the Mariana Islands caused by Phellinus noxius. Plant Disease, 68(4):334-336

        Huang HuaZhi, Sun LongHua, Bi Keke, Zhong GuoHua, Hu MeiYing, 2016. The effect of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid on the morphological, physiological, and molecular characteristics of Phellinus noxius. Molecules, 21(5), 613. doi: 10.3390/molecules21050613

        Huang YuChing, Chang TunTschu, Chung ChiaLin, Liou RueyFen, 2015. Genetic diversity of Phellinus noxius from Taipei and Yilan of Taiwan. Plant Pathology Bulletin, 24(2), 77-88.

        Ivory MH, 1996. Diseases of forest trees caused by the pathogen Phellinus noxius. In: Raychaudhuri SP, ed. Forest Trees and Palms: Diseases and Control. New Delhi, India: Oxford & IBH Publishing Co, 111-133.

        Jacob CK; Annajutty Joseph; Jayarathnam K, 1991. Effect of fungal antagonists on Phellinus noxius causing brown root disease of Hevea. Indian Journal of Natural Rubber Research, 4(2):142-145

        Kothandaraman R; Kochuthresiamma Joseph; Mathew J; Rajalakshmi VK, 1991. Actinomycete population in the rhizosphere of Hevea and its inhibitory effect on Phellinus noxius. Indian Journal of Natural Rubber Research, 4(2):150-152

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        Liloqula R; Johnson CM, 1987. Brown root rot of cocoa caused by Phellinus noxius. Annual Report 1985, Research Department, Agriculture Quarantine Service, Ministry of Agriculture & Lands, Solomon Islands Honiara, Solomon Islands; Dodo Creek Research Station, 38-43

        Lim TK; Hamm RT; Mohamad RB, 1990. Persistency and volatile behaviour of selected chemicals in treated soil against three basidiomycetous root disease pathogens. Tropical Pest Management, 36(1):23-26

        Lim TK; Teh BK, 1990. Antagonism in vitro of Trichoderma species against several basidiomycetous soil-borne pathogens and Sclerotium rolfsii. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 97(1):33-41

        Mappes D; Hiepko G, 1984. New possibilities for controlling root diseases of plantation crops. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen Rijksuniversiteit Gent, 49(2a):283-292

        Mohd Farid, A., Lee, S. S., Maziah, Z., Patahayah, M., 2009. Pathogenicity of Rigidoporus microporus and Phellinus noxius against four major plantation tree species in Peninsular Malaysia. Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 21(4), 289-298. http://info.frim.gov.my/cfdocs/infocenter_application/jtfsonline/jtfs/V21n4/289-298.pdf

        Mohd Farid, A., Lee, S. S., Maziah, Z., Rosli, H., Norwati, M., 2005. Basal Root Rot, a new Disease of Teak (Tectona grandis) in Malaysia caused by Phellinus noxius. Malaysia Journal of Microbiology, 1(2), 40-45. doi: 10.21161/mjm.120507

        Nandris D; Nicole M; Geiger JP, 1987. Root rot disease of rubber trees. Plant Disease, 71(4):298-306

        Nandris D; Nicole M; Geiger JP, 1987. Variation in virulence among Rigidoporus lignosus and Phellinus noxius isolates from West Africa. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 17(4-5):271-281

        Nandris, D., Nicole, M., Geiger, J. P., 1988. Root-rot diseases of the rubber tree in the Ivory Coast. 1. Severity, dynamics and characterization of epidemics. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 18(10), 1248-1254. doi: 10.1139/x88-192

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        Sahashi N; Akiba M; Ota Y; Masuya H; Hattori T; Mukai A; Shimada R; Ono T; Sato T, 2015. Brown root rot caused by Phellinus noxius in the Ogasawara (Bonin) islands, southern Japan - current status of the disease and its host plants. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 10(1):33. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13314-015-0183-0/fulltext.html

        Sahashi, N., Akiba, M., Ishihara, M., Abe, Y., Morita, S., 2007. First report of the brown root rot disease caused by Phellinus noxius, its distribution and newly recorded host plants in the Amami Islands, southern Japan. Forest Pathology, 37(3), 167-173. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0329.2007.00491.x

        Sahashi, N., Akiba, M., Ishihara, M., Miyazaki, K., Kanzaki, N., 2010. Cross inoculation tests with Phellinus noxius isolates from nine different host plants in the Ryukyu Islands, Southwestern Japan. Plant Disease, 94(3), 358-360. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-94-3-0358

        Sahashi, N., Akiba, M., Takemoto, S., Yokoi, T., Ota, Y., Kanzaki, N., 2014. Phellinus noxius causes brown root rot on four important conifer species in Japan. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 140(4), 869-873. doi: 10.1007/s10658-014-0503-9

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        Supriadi, Adhi, E. M., Wahyuno, D., Rahayuningsih, S., Karyani, N., Dahsyat, M., 2004. Brown root rot disease of cashew in West Nusa Tenggara: distribution and its causal organism. Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science, 5(1), 32-36.

        Tsai JN; Hsieh WH; Ann PJ; Yang CM, 2007. Development of specific primers for Phellinus noxius. Plant Pathology Bulletin, 16(4):193-202. http://www.pp.nchu.edu.tw/cpps/index.htm

        Tsai JyhNong, Ann PaoJen, Liou RueyFen, Hsieh WenHsui, Ko WenHsiung, 2017. Phellinus noxius: molecular diversity among isolates from Taiwan and its phylogenetic relationship with other species of Phellinus based on sequences of the ITS region. Botanical Studies, 58(9), (16 January 2017). doi: 10.1186/s40529-017-0162-1

        Wang, Y.-F., Meng, H., Gu, V. W., Gu, J.-D., 2016. Molecular diagnosis of the brown root rot disease agent Phellinus noxius on trees and in soil by rDNA ITS analysis. Applied Environmental Biotechnology, 1(1), 81-91. doi: 10.26789/AEB.2016.01.002

        Zhang KM; Chee KH, 1989. Hevea diseases of economic importance in China. Planter, 65(754):3-8

        Distribution References

        Agustini L, Francis A, Glen M, Indrayadi H, Mohammed C L, 2014. Signs and identification of fungal root-rot pathogens in tropical Eucalyptus pellita plantations. Forest Pathology. 44 (6), 486-495. DOI:10.1111/efp.12145

        Akiba M, Ota Y, Tsai I J, Hattori T, Sahashi N, Kikuchi T, 2015. Genetic differentiation and spatial structure of Phellinus noxius, the causal agent of brown root rot of woody plants in Japan. PLoS ONE. 10 (10), e0141792. http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0141792

        Ann P J, Lee H L, Huang T C, 1999. Brown root rot of 10 species of fruit trees caused by Phellinus noxius in Taiwan. Plant Disease. 83 (8), 746-750. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.1999.83.8.746

        Ann P J, Lee H L, Tsai J N, 1999a. Survey of brown root disease of fruit and ornamental trees caused by Phellinus noxius in Taiwan. Plant Pathology Bulletin. 8 (2), 51-60.

        Ann P J, Tsai J N, Wang I T, Hsien M L, 1999b. Response of fruit trees and ornamental plants to brown root rot disease by artificial inoculation with Phellinus noxius. Plant Pathology Bulletin. 8 (2), 61-66.

        Ann PaoJen, Chang TunTschu, Ko W H, 2002. Phellinus noxius brown root rot of fruit and ornamental trees in Taiwan. Plant Disease. 86 (8), 820-826. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2002.86.8.820

        AVA, 2001. Diagnostic records of the Plant Health Diagnostic Services., Singapore: Plant Health Centre Agri-food & Veterinary Authority.

        Brooks F E, 2002. Brown root rot disease in American Samoa's tropical rain forests. Pacific Science. 56 (4), 377-387. DOI:10.1353/psc.2002.0031

        Burcham D C, Wong J Y, Ali M I M, Abarrientos N V Jr, Fong Y K, Schwarze F W M R, 2015. Characterization of host-fungus interactions among wood decay fungi associated with Khaya senegalensis (Desr.) A. Juss (Meliaceae) in Singapore. Forest Pathology. 45 (6), 492-504. DOI:10.1111/efp.12199

        CABI, EPPO, 1997. Pheilinus noxius. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 104. DOI:10.1079/DMPD/20066500104

        CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

        Chang T T, 1995. Decline of nine tree species associated with brown root rot caused by Phellinus noxius in Taiwan. Plant Disease. 79 (9), 962-965. DOI:10.1094/PD-79-0962

        Chang T T, Yang W W, 1998. Phellinus noxius in Taiwan: distribution, host plants and the pH and texture of the rhizosphere soils of infected hosts. Mycological Research. 102 (9), 1085-1088. DOI:10.1017/S0953756297005571

        Farid A M, Lee S S, Rosli H M, Maziah Z, Norwati M, 2005. Incidence of teak basal root rot caused by Phellinus noxius in Malaysia. Australasian Plant Pathology. 34 (2), 277-278. DOI:10.1071/AP05008

        Fu ChuenHsu, Hu BauYuan, Chang TunTschu, Hsueh KaiLeen, Hsu WeiTse, 2012. Evaluation of dazomet as fumigant for the control of brown root rot disease. Pest Management Science. 68 (7), 959-962. DOI:10.1002/ps.3303

        Glen M, Yuskianti V, Puspitasari D, Francis A, Agustini L, Rimbawanto A, Indrayadi H, Gafur A, Mohammed C L, 2014. Identification of basidiomycete fungi in Indonesian hardwood plantations by DNA barcoding. Forest Pathology. 44 (6), 496-508. DOI:10.1111/efp.12146

        Hodges C S, Tenorio J A, 1984. Root disease of Delonix regia and associated tree species in the Mariana Islands caused by Phellinus noxius. Plant Disease. 68 (4), 334-336. DOI:10.1094/PD-69-334

        Liloqula R, Johnson C M, 1987. Brown root rot of cocoa caused by Phellinus noxius. In: Annual Report 1985, Research Department, Agriculture Quarantine Service, Ministry of Agriculture & Lands, Solomon Islands. Honiara, Solomon Islands: Dodo Creek Research Station. 38-43.

        Mohd Farid A, Lee S S, Maziah Z, Patahayah M, 2009. Pathogenicity of Rigidoporus microporus and Phellinus noxius against four major plantation tree species in Peninsular Malaysia. Journal of Tropical Forest Science. 21 (4), 289-298. http://info.frim.gov.my/cfdocs/infocenter_application/jtfsonline/jtfs/V21n4/289-298.pdf

        Sahashi N, Akiba M, Ishihara M, Abe Y, Morita S, 2007. First report of the brown root rot disease caused by Phellinus noxius, its distribution and newly recorded host plants in the Amami Islands, southern Japan. Forest Pathology. 37 (3), 167-173. DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0329.2007.00491.x

        Sahashi N, Akiba M, Ishihara M, Miyazaki K, Kanzaki N, 2010. Cross inoculation tests with Phellinus noxius isolates from nine different host plants in the Ryukyu Islands, Southwestern Japan. Plant Disease. 94 (3), 358-360. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-94-3-0358

        Sahashi N, Akiba M, Ota Y, Masuya H, Hattori T, Mukai A, Shimada R, Ono T, Sato T, 2015. Brown root rot caused by Phellinus noxius in the Ogasawara (Bonin) islands, southern Japan - current status of the disease and its host plants. Australasian Plant Disease Notes. 10 (1), 33. DOI:10.1007/s13314-015-0183-0

        Sahashi N, Akiba M, Takemoto S, Yokoi T, Ota Y, Kanzaki N, 2014. Phellinus noxius causes brown root rot on four important conifer species in Japan. European Journal of Plant Pathology. 140 (4), 869-873. DOI:10.1007/s10658-014-0503-9

        Supriadi, Adhi E M, Wahyuno D, Rahayuningsih S, Karyani N, Dahsyat M, 2004. Brown root rot disease of cashew in West Nusa Tenggara: distribution and its causal organism. Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science. 5 (1), 32-36.

        Tran T T, Glen M, Beadle C, Ratkowsky D, Mohammed C, 2019. Wood-rotting basidiomycetes are a minor component of fungal communities associated with Acacia hybrid trees grown for sawlogs in South Vietnam. Forest Pathology. 49 (2), e12498. DOI:10.1111/efp.12498

        Tsai J N, Ann P J, Hsieh W H, 2005. Evaluation of fungicides for suppression of three major wood-decay fungi Phellinus noxius, Rosellinia necatrix and Ganoderma australe in Taiwan. Plant Pathology Bulletin. 14 (2), 115-124.

        Tsai J N, Hsieh W H, Ann P J, 2008. Effects of nitrogen fertilizers and chemical fungicides on control of brown root rot of tree fruits and grapes caused by Phellinus noxius. Plant Pathology Bulletin. 17 (2), 119-126.

        Tsai JyhNong, Ann PaoJen, Liou RueyFen, Hsieh WenHsui, Ko WenHsiung, 2017. Phellinus noxius: molecular diversity among isolates from Taiwan and its phylogenetic relationship with other species of Phellinus based on sequences of the ITS region. Botanical Studies. 58 (9), (16 January 2017). DOI:10.1186/s40529-017-0162-1

        Wang Y-F, Meng H, Gu V W, Gu J-D, 2016. Molecular diagnosis of the brown root rot disease agent Phellinus noxius on trees and in soil by rDNA ITS analysis. Applied Environmental Biotechnology. 1 (1), 81-91. DOI:10.26789/AEB.2016.01.002

        Zhang K M, Chee K H, 1989. Hevea diseases of economic importance in China. Planter. 65 (754), 3-8.

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