Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Phellinus igniarius
(hardwood trunk rot)

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Datasheet

Phellinus igniarius (hardwood trunk rot)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 28 March 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Phellinus igniarius
  • Preferred Common Name
  • hardwood trunk rot
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •       Subphylum: Agaricomycotina
  •         Class: Agaricomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Fruit bodies of P. igniarius on Salix (willow) spp.
TitleFruit bodies
CaptionFruit bodies of P. igniarius on Salix (willow) spp.
CopyrightMichael Fischer
Fruit bodies of P. igniarius on Salix (willow) spp.
Fruit bodiesFruit bodies of P. igniarius on Salix (willow) spp.Michael Fischer
Vegetative cultures of P. igniarius on malt extract agar after a 3-week incubation period.
TitleVegetative cultures
CaptionVegetative cultures of P. igniarius on malt extract agar after a 3-week incubation period.
CopyrightMichael Fischer
Vegetative cultures of P. igniarius on malt extract agar after a 3-week incubation period.
Vegetative culturesVegetative cultures of P. igniarius on malt extract agar after a 3-week incubation period.Michael Fischer

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Phellinus igniarius (L.) Quél.

Preferred Common Name

  • hardwood trunk rot

Other Scientific Names

  • Boletus igniarius L.
  • Fomes igniarius (L.) Cooke
  • Fomes trivialis (Fr.) Bres.
  • Ochroporus igniarius (L.) J. Schröt.
  • Phellinus igniarius var. alni (Bondartsev) Niemelä
  • Phellinus nigricans (Fr.) P. Karst.
  • Placodes ignarius (L.) Quél.
  • Polyporus igniarius (L.) Fr.

International Common Names

  • English: white heart rot of trees
  • Spanish: apoplejia parasitaria; yesca parasitaria
  • French: carie blanche du tronc du pommier; faux amadouvier

Local Common Names

  • Finland: arinakääpä
  • Germany: Falscher Zunderschwamm; Feuerschwamm; Feuerschwamm: Obstgehoelze; Weissfaeule: Laubhoelzer
  • Poland: Czyren ogniowy

EPPO code

  • PHELIG (Phellinus igniarius)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •             Subphylum: Agaricomycotina
  •                 Class: Agaricomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Agaricomycetidae
  •                         Order: Hymenochaetales
  •                             Family: Hymenochaetaceae
  •                                 Genus: Phellinus
  •                                     Species: Phellinus igniarius

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AzerbaijanPresentHüseyin and Selcuk, 2001
ChinaRestricted distributionDai, 1999; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-HeilongjiangPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-JilinPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-XinjiangPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
IndiaPresentSingh et al., 2006
-RajasthanPresentSingh et al., 2006
JapanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
KazakhstanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
TaiwanPresentTsai et al., 2007
TurkeyPresentNiemelõ & Uotila, 1977; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
UzbekistanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014

Africa

EritreaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
EthiopiaPresentDomanski et al., 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
LibyaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
MadagascarPresentDomanski et al., 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentRyvarden and Gilbertson, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
ZambiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014

North America

CanadaWidespreadLarsen and Cobb-Poulle, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-AlbertaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-British ColumbiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-New BrunswickPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-Newfoundland and LabradorPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-Nova ScotiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-OntarioPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-QuebecPresentNiemelõ, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-Yukon TerritoryPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
MexicoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
USAWidespreadGilbertson and Ryvarden, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-AlabamaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-AlaskaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-ArizonaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-ArkansasPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-CaliforniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-ColoradoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-ConnecticutPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-District of ColumbiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-FloridaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-GeorgiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-IdahoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-IllinoisPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-IndianaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-IowaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-KentuckyPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-LouisianaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-MainePresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-MarylandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-MassachusettsPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-MichiganPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-MinnesotaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-MississippiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-MissouriPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-MontanaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-NebraskaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-NevadaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-New HampshirePresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-New JerseyPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-New MexicoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-New YorkPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-North CarolinaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-North DakotaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-OhioPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-OklahomaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-OregonPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-PennsylvaniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-South CarolinaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-South DakotaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-TennesseePresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-TexasPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-UtahPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-VermontPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-VirginiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-WashingtonPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-West VirginiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-WisconsinPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-WyomingPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014

Central America and Caribbean

NicaraguaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014

South America

ArgentinaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
VenezuelaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014

Europe

AustriaPresentRyvarden and Gilbertson, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
BelarusPresentRyvarden and Gilbertson, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
BelgiumPresentRyvarden and Gilbertson, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
Bosnia-HercegovinaPresentRyvarden and Gilbertson, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
BulgariaPresentRyvarden and Gilbertson, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
CroatiaPresentRyvarden and Gilbertson, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
CyprusPresentRyvarden and Gilbertson, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
Czech RepublicPresentRyvarden and Gilbertson, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
Czechoslovakia (former)PresentRyvarden and Gilbertson, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2004
DenmarkPresentRyvarden and Gilbertson, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
EstoniaPresentRyvarden and Gilbertson, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
FinlandWidespreadRyvarden and Gilbertson, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
FrancePresentRyvarden and Gilbertson, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-CorsicaPresentRyvarden and Gilbertson, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2004
GermanyPresentRyvarden and Gilbertson, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
GreecePresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
HungaryPresentRyvarden and Gilbertson, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
ItalyPresentRyvarden and Gilbertson, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
LatviaPresentRyvarden and Gilbertson, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
LiechtensteinPresentRyvarden and Gilbertson, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
LithuaniaPresentRyvarden and Gilbertson, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
LuxembourgPresentRyvarden and Gilbertson, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
MacedoniaPresentRyvarden and Gilbertson, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
MoldovaPresentRyvarden and Gilbertson, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
NetherlandsPresentRyvarden and Gilbertson, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
NorwayPresentRyvarden and Gilbertson, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
PolandPresentRyvarden and Gilbertson, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
PortugalPresentRyvarden and Gilbertson, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-MadeiraPresentRyvarden and Gilbertson, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-Portugal (mainland)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2004
RomaniaPresentRyvarden and Gilbertson, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
Russian FederationWidespreadBondartsev, 1953; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-Central RussiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-Eastern SiberiaPresentParmasto, 1976; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-Northern RussiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-Russian Far EastPresentParmasto, 1976; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-Southern RussiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-Western SiberiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
SerbiaPresentRyvarden and Gilbertson, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
SlovakiaPresentRyvarden and Gilbertson, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
SloveniaPresentRyvarden and Gilbertson, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
SpainPresentRyvarden and Gilbertson, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-Balearic IslandsPresentRyvarden and Gilbertson, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2004
-Spain (mainland)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2004
SwedenPresentRyvarden and Gilbertson, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
SwitzerlandPresentRyvarden and Gilbertson, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
UKPresentRyvarden and Gilbertson, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
UkrainePresentRyvarden and Gilbertson, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
Yugoslavia (former)PresentRyvarden and Gilbertson, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2004
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2004

Oceania

AustraliaRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
-QueenslandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014
Papua New GuineaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2004; EPPO, 2014

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / wilting
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Stems / dead heart
Stems / discoloration
Stems / discoloration of bark
Stems / internal discoloration
Stems / internal feeding
Stems / mycelium present
Stems / necrosis
Stems / rot
Whole plant / cut at stem base
Whole plant / dead heart
Whole plant / internal feeding
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark spores Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches fruiting bodies; hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Wood fruiting bodies; hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Leaves
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)

Wood Packaging

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Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Loose wood packing material
Non-wood
Processed or treated wood
Solid wood packing material with bark
Solid wood packing material without bark

References

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Adams DH; Roth LF, 1969. Intraspecific competition among genotypes of Fomes cajanderi decaying young-growth Douglas fir. Forest Science, 15:327-331.

Adaskaveg JE; Ogawa JM, 1990. Wood decay pathology of fruit and nut trees in California. Plant Disease, 74(5):341-352

Agar T; Agar LP, 1980. Ethnobotany of the Eskimos of Nelson Island, Alaska. Arctic Anthropology, 17:27-48.

Blanchette RA, 2001. Fungus ashes and tobacco: the use of Phellinus igniarius by the indigenous people of North America. Mycologist, 15:4-9.

Boidin J, 1986. Intercompatibility and the species concept in the saprobic Basidiomycotina. Mycotaxon, 26:319-336.

Bondartsev AS, 1953. The Polyporaceae of the European USSR and Caucasia. Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem, Israel.

Bourdot H; Galzin A, 1927. Hymenomycetes de France. Paris, France: Paul Lechevalier.

Breitenbach J; Kranzlin F, 1986. Fungi of Switzerland, Vol. 2. Non gilled fungi Heterobasidiomycetes, Aphyllophorales, Gasteromycetes. Lucerne, Switzerland; Verlag Mykologia, 412 pp.

CABI/EPPO, 2004. Phellinus ignarius. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 930. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Chiarappa L, 1959. Wood decay of the grapevine and its relationships with the black measles disease. Phytopathology, 49:510-519.

Chiarappa L, 2000. Esca (black measles) of grapevine. An overview. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 39(1):11-15; 23 ref.

Cunningham GH, 1965. Polyporaceae of New Zealand. New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, 164: 1-303.

Dai YD, 1999. Phellinus sensu lato (Aphyllophorales, Hymenochaetaceae) in East Asia. Acta Botanica Fennica, 166:1-115.

Domanski S; Orlos H; Skirgiello A, 1973. Fungi. Polyporaceae II (pileatae), Mucronoporaceae II (pileatae), Ganodermataceae, Bondarzewiazeae, Boletopsidaceae, Fistulinaceae. Warsaw, Poland.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Erkillä R; Niemelä T, 1986. Polypores in the parks and forests of the city of Helsinki. Karstenia, 26:1-40.

Fiasson JL; Niemelä T, 1984. The Hymenochaetales: a revision of the European poroid taxa. Karstenia, 24:14-28.

Fischer M, 1987. Biosystematische Untersuchungen an den Porlingsgattungen Phellinus Quel. Und Inonotus Karst. Bibliotheca Mycologica, 107:1-131.

Fischer M, 1992. Phellinus torulosus: sexuality and evidence of intersterility groups. Mycologia, 84:823-833.

Fischer M, 1995. Phellinus igniarius and its closest relatives in Europe. Mycological Research, 99(6):735-744

Fischer M, 1996. On the species complexes within Phellinus: Fomitiporia revisited. Mycological Research, 100(12):1459-1467; 45 ref.

Fischer M, 2000. Grapevine wood decay and lignicolous basidiomycetes. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 39(1):100-106; 27 ref.

Fischer M, 2002. A new wood-decaying basidiomycete species associated with esca of grapevine: Fomitiporia mediterranea (Hymenochaetales). Mycological Progress, 1:314-324.

Fischer M; Binder M, 1995. Phellinus species on Betula. Mating tests, RFLP analysis of enzymatically amplified rDNA, and relations to Phellinus alni. Karstenia, 35:67-84.

Gilbertson RL; Ryvarden L, 1987. North American Polypores Vol. 2. Megasporoporia - Wrightoporia. Oslo, Norway; Fungiflora A/S, 437-885

Hansen L; Knudsen H, 1997. Nordic Macromycetes. Vol 3. Heterobasidioid, aphyllophoroid and gastromycetoid basidiomycetes. Nordsvamp, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Hnseyin E; Selcuk F, 2001. The xylotroph's macromycetes on beech in Azerbaijani forests. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 25(6):401-406; 22 ref.

Hytönen T, 1985. Puiden haavat ja niiden hoito. Puutarhauutiset, 19:512-513.

Jahn H, 1963. Mitteleuropäische Porlinge (Polyporaceae s.l.) und ihr Vorkommen in Westfalen (unter Ausschluß der resupinaten Arten). Westfälische Pilzbriefe, 4:1-143.

Jahn H, 1979. Pilze die an Holz wachsen. Herford, Germany.

Jahn H; Jahn MA, 1986. Konstanz und Fluktuation der Pilzvegetation in Norra Warleda (Uppland). Beobachtungen auf einem schwedischen Bauernhof. Westfälische Pilzbriefe, 10-11:352-378.

Jülich W, 1984. Die Nichtblätterpilze, Gallertpilze und Bauchpilze. G. Fischer, Stuttgart, New York.

Kreisel H, 1961. Die Phytopathogenen Großpilze Deutschlands. Jena, Germany: G. Fischer.

Kreisel H, 1987. Pilzflora der Deutschen Demokratischen republik. G. Fischer, Jena, Germany.

Larignon P; Dubos B, 1997. Fungi associated with esca disease in grapevine. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 103(2):147-157; 37 ref.

Larsen M; Cobb-Poulle LA, 1990. Phellinus (Hymenochaetaceae). A survey of the world wide taxa. Oslo, Norway: Fungiflora.

Mercer P, 1982. Basidiomycete decay of standing trees. In: Frankland J, ed. Decomposer Basidiomycetes, their Biology and Ecology, 143-160.

Mugnai L; Surico G; Esposito A, 1996. Microflora associated with esca grapevine disease in Tuscany. Informatore Fitopatologico, 46(11):49-55; 39 ref.

Murrill WA, 1904. The Polyporaceae of North America - IX. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, 31:593-610.

Murrill WA, 1905. The Polyporaceae of North America - XI. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, 32:353-371.

Murrill WA, 1907. (Agaricales) Polyporaceae. North American Flora, 9:1-131.

Niemelä T, 1972. On Fennoscandian polypores. II. Phellinus laevigatus (Fr.) Bourd. & Galz. and P. lundellii, n.sp. Annales Botanici Fennici, 12:93-122.

Niemelä T, 1974. On Fennoscandian polypores. III. Phellinus tremulae (Bond.) Bond. and Borisov. Annales Botanici Fennici, 11(3):202-215

Niemelä T, 1975. On Fennoscandian Polypores. IV. Phellinus igniarius, P. nigricans and P. populicola, n.sp. Annales Botanici Fennici, 12(3):93-122

Niemelä T, 1977. On Fennoscandian polypores 5. Phellinus pomaceus. Karstenia, 17(2):77-86

Niemelä T, 1985. Mycoflora of Poste-de-la Baleine, Northern Quebec polypores and the Hymenochaetales. Naturaliste Canadien, 112(4):445-472

Niemelä T; Kotiranta H, 1982. Polypore survey of Finland 2. The genus Phellinus. Karstenia, 22:27-42.

Niemelä T; Renvall P; Penttilä R, 1995. Interactions of fungi at late stages of wood decomposition. Annales Botanici Fennici, 32(3):141-152; 61 ref.

Niemelä T; Uotila P, 1977. Lignicolous macrofungi from Turkey and Iran. Karstenia, 17:22-39.

Nobles MK, 1958. Cultural characters as a guide to the taxonomy and phylogeny of the Polyporaceae. Canadian Journal of Botany, 883-926.

Nobles MK, 1965. Identification of cultures of wood-inhabiting Hymenomycetes. Canadian Journal of Botany, 43(9):1097-1139.

Núñez M; Ryvarden L, 2001. East Asian polypores. Vol 1. Ganodermataceae and Hymenochaetaceae. Oslo, Norway: Fungiflora.

Nuss I, 1986. Zur Ökologie der Porlinge II. Bibliotheca Mycologica, 105:1-300.

Parmasto E, 1976. Studies on Yakutian fungi. II. Eesti NSV Teaduste Akaademia toimetised / Bioloogine Seeria, 25:316-321.

Parmasto E, 1985. Species concept in Hymenochaetaceae (Fungi, Hymenomycetes). Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences, 94:369-380.

Parmasto E, 1988. What is Ochroporus ossatus (Hymenochaetaceae)? Mycotaxon, 32:219-222.

Plank S, 1978. Ökologie und Verbreitung holzabbauender Pilze im Burgenland. Wissenschaftliche Arbeiten aus dem Burgenland, 61:1-207.

Rajchenberg M, 1989. Polyporaceae (Aphyllophorales, Basidiomycetes) from southern South America, a mycogeographical view. Sydowia, 41:277-291.

Ryvarden L; Gilbertson RL, 1994. European polypores: Part 2: Meripilus-Tyromyces. Oslo, Norway; Fungiflora A/S, 394-743

Ryvarden L; Johansen I, 1980. A preliminary Polypore flora of East Africa. A preliminary Polypore flora of East Africa. Fungiflora. Oslo Norway, 636 pp.

Seehann G, 1979. Wood-destroying fungi on roadside and park trees in Hamburg. Mitteilungen der Deutschen Dendrologischen Gesellschaft, No. 71:193-221

Shigo A, 1982. A pictorial primer for proper pruning. Forest Notes, Society for the Protection of the New Hampshire Forest, 1-4.

Shigo A; McGinnes E; Funk D; Rogers N, 1979. Internal defects associated with pruned and nonpruned branch stubs in black walnut. USDA Forest Service Resarch Paper, NE-440, 1-27.

Singh SK; Anila Doshi; Yadav MC; Shwet Kamal, 2006. Molecular characterization of specialty mushrooms of western Rajasthan, India. Current Science, 91(9):1225-1230. http://www.ias.ac.in/currsci

Stalpers JA, 1978. Identification of wood-inhabiting Aphyllophorales in pure culture. Studies in Mycology, 166:1-248.

Tsai JN; Hsieh WH; Ann PJ; Yang CM, 2007. Development of specific primers for Phellinus noxius. Plant Pathology Bulletin, 16(4):193-202. http://www.pp.nchu.edu.tw/cpps/index.htm

Wagner T; Fischer M, 2001. Natural groups and a revised system for the European poroid Hymenochaetales (Basidiomycota) supported by nLSU rDNA sequence data. Mycological Research, 105(7):773-782; 59 ref.

Wagner T; Fischer M, 2002. Proceedings towards a natural classification of the worldwide taxa Phellinus s.l. and Inonotus s.l., and phylogenetic relationships of allied genera. Mycologia, 94(6):998-1016; many ref.

Distribution Maps

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