Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Aeginetia indica
(forest ghost flower)

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Datasheet

Aeginetia indica (forest ghost flower)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 28 May 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Documented Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Aeginetia indica
  • Preferred Common Name
  • forest ghost flower
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Aeginetia indica is not considered as an invasive species in its native range and it is not known to occur as an introduced species elsewhere. It has a wide distribution in Asia and Oceania (Papua New Guinea),...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Aeginetia indica (forest ghost flower); flowering habit. Khao Yai N.P. Nakhon Rachasima, Thailand. August 2012.
TitleHabit
CaptionAeginetia indica (forest ghost flower); flowering habit. Khao Yai N.P. Nakhon Rachasima, Thailand. August 2012.
Copyright©Len Worthington/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Aeginetia indica (forest ghost flower); flowering habit. Khao Yai N.P. Nakhon Rachasima, Thailand. August 2012.
HabitAeginetia indica (forest ghost flower); flowering habit. Khao Yai N.P. Nakhon Rachasima, Thailand. August 2012.©Len Worthington/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Aeginetia indica (forest ghost flower); flowering habit. Mayyil, Kannur, Kerala, India. August 2016.
TitleHabit
CaptionAeginetia indica (forest ghost flower); flowering habit. Mayyil, Kannur, Kerala, India. August 2016.
Copyright©V.R. Vinayaraj/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Aeginetia indica (forest ghost flower); flowering habit. Mayyil, Kannur, Kerala, India. August 2016.
HabitAeginetia indica (forest ghost flower); flowering habit. Mayyil, Kannur, Kerala, India. August 2016.©V.R. Vinayaraj/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Aeginetia indica (forest ghost flower); flowering habit. Mayyil, Kannur, Kerala, India. August 2016.
TitleHabit
CaptionAeginetia indica (forest ghost flower); flowering habit. Mayyil, Kannur, Kerala, India. August 2016.
Copyright©V.R. Vinayaraj/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Aeginetia indica (forest ghost flower); flowering habit. Mayyil, Kannur, Kerala, India. August 2016.
HabitAeginetia indica (forest ghost flower); flowering habit. Mayyil, Kannur, Kerala, India. August 2016.©V.R. Vinayaraj/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Aeginetia indica L.

Preferred Common Name

  • forest ghost flower

Other Scientific Names

  • Aeginetia aeginetia Huth
  • Aeginetia boninensis Nakai
  • Aeginetia japonica Siebold & Zucc.
  • Aeginetia mairei H.Lév
  • Orobanche aeginetia L.
  • Phelipaea indica (L.) A.Spreng. ex Steud.

International Common Names

  • English: ghost flower; Indian broomrape; ye gu

Local Common Names

  • China: guan hen huang; guan-jen-huang
  • India: aankuri bankuri
  • Indonesia: rajatawa
  • Japan: ama outsibo; ki moura dake; namban-gisero; nan han guiserou; nanban-giseru; nousbi tono aki; nousbi tono aki; omoigusa; omoigusa; oranda gisero
  • Malaysia: keeripu
  • Myanmar: kauk-hlaing-ti
  • Nepal: aankuri bankuri; gaibyai; gaura parbata; nila jbar
  • Netherlands: Indische bremraap
  • Philippines: bangbangan-ti kiuing; Bbulaklak ng tubo; bulaklak; bulaklak sa puno; bunga ng tubo; cabrita; dagatan; dapong-tubo; kola; lapo; lapó; suako-ti-uak
  • Thailand: Ddok din daeng; kembang boemi; Kkembang pare; patjing dawa; patjingan; peupeutjangan; Ppaak cha khe; ramo poejoeh; sop laeng; so-suai
  • Vietnam: lệ duương; lêduong; tai dất; tai-dât án

Summary of Invasiveness

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Aeginetia indica is not considered as an invasive species in its native range and it is not known to occur as an introduced species elsewhere. It has a wide distribution in Asia and Oceania (Papua New Guinea), where it is reported as dispersed in scattered locations throughout its range. Although it is listed as common in Thailand, the species is rare and declining elsewhere throughout its native distribution. It has a local IUCN Red List status of “Critically Endangered/Possibly Extinct” in Sri Lanka, with only a small population known after not been recorded for 125 years.

Because A. indica is a holoparasite affecting a number of crops, it is a species of concern for some countries outside of its native range. It is designated as a noxious weed in the USA, even without the species being present in the New World. Possible distribution models for A. indica show that the species has a broad invasive potential in tropical and subtropical areas of all continents where potential host crops are grown. The germination requirements and host-specificity of A. indica could be a deterrent for the species expanding outside its native range.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Scrophulariales
  •                         Family: Orobanchaceae
  •                             Genus: Aeginetia
  •                                 Species: Aeginetia indica

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The Orobanchaceae family includes about 100 genera and 2000 species of plants; almost all root parasites (POWO, 2020). Most of the species are native to the Old World and about 10% are found in the tropics (Theeret, 1971).

Aeginetia is a small genus with 6-8 accepted species from Cameroon, Asia, and Papua New Guinea (World Flora Online, 2019; POWO, 2020). The genus is distinguished by having a spathaceous calyx. Two of the species, A. indica and A. pedunculata, are well known, while the others are poorly recorded and defined (Parnell, 2012).

Description

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The following description is from Flora of China Editorial Committee (2019):

Plants 15-40(-50) cm tall. Roots slightly fleshy, with small branches. Stems unbranched or branched from near base. Leaves red, ovate-lanceolate or lanceolate, 5-10 X 3-4 mm, glabrous. Flowers usually solitary. Pedicel usually erect, 10-30(-40) cm, ca. 3 mm in diam. Calyx apex acute or acuminate. Corolla purple-red striate, indistinctly bilabiate, tubular-campanulate, 2-4.5 cm; tube slightly curved; lobes subentire. Filaments purple, 7-9 mm, glabrous; anthers yellow. Ovary 1-locular; parietal placentas 4. Style 1-1.5 cm; stigma pale yellow. Capsule conical, or long ovoid-globose, 2-3 cm. Seeds yellow, ellipsoid, ca. 0.04 mm.

Plant Type

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Herbaceous
Parasitic
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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Aeginetia indica is a parasitic herb native to tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, from India to China and Japan, and throughout southeast Asia into Oceania (Papua New Guinea) (Lemmens, 2003; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2019; Useful Tropical Plants, 2019; POWO, 2020). According to Ekanayake et al. (2015), A. indica is widely dispersed in scattered locations in its native range.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 06 May 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Asia

BangladeshPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2019)
BhutanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2019)
CambodiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2019)
ChinaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2019)
-AnhuiPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2019)
-FujianPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2019)
-GuangdongPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2019)
-GuangxiPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2019)
-GuizhouPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2019)
-HunanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2019)
-JiangsuPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2019)
-JiangxiPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2019)
-SichuanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2019)
-TibetPresentNativePOWO (2020)
-YunnanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2019)
-ZhejiangPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2019)
IndiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2019)
-AssamPresentNativePOWO (2020)
-KarnatakaPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal (2019)
-KeralaPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal (2019)
-MeghalayaPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal (2019)
-Tamil NaduPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal (2019)
IndonesiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2019)
-JavaPresentNativePOWO (2020)
JapanPresentNativePOWO (2020)
-Bonin IslandsPresentNativePOWO (2020)
-Ryukyu IslandsPresentNativePOWO (2020)
LaosPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2019)
MalaysiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2019)
MyanmarPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2019)
NepalPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2019)
PhilippinesPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2019)
South KoreaPresentNativePOWO (2020)
Sri LankaPresent, Few occurrencesNativeEkanayake et al. (2015); POWO (2020)Critically endangered/possibly extinct designation
TaiwanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2019)
ThailandPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2019)
VietnamPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2019)

Europe

BelgiumAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)Meise Botanic Garden (2019)Meise Botanical Garden

Oceania

Papua New GuineaPresentNativePOWO (2020)

History of Introduction and Spread

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Aeginetia indica is a parasitic herb not known to be present or spreading outside its native range. There is a record of a herbarium specimen apparently made from its cultivation in Belgium, but the locality label information is not clear (Meise Botanic Garden, 2019). Although the herbarium specimen is a positive identification of an Aeginetia species, some photos attributed from the living specimen are not from A. indica but of other unidentified species.

Risk of Introduction

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There are insufficient data to properly assess the risk of introduction of A. indica. The species is a recognised holoparasite of various crops, which is a major concern for its spread (Auttachoat, 2003). Although Mohamed et al. (2006) present a model with the possible areas worldwide where A. indica could grow, the species is not known in the wild outside its native habitat. The germination requirements, including low conditioning temperatures and specific host relations are an apparent constraint to the spread of the species (French and Sherman, 1976). Nevertheless, due to the possible introduction of the seeds as contaminants of various crops, it has been declared as a noxious weed in USA (USDA-ARS, 2019). A. indica is valued for medicinal purposes in various Asian countries which may facilitate its spread into other countries (Darbyshire and Prasad, 2009).

Habitat

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Aginetia indica is a gregarious root parasite that can be found on shaded forest floor covered with leaf litter in India (Flowers of India, 2019). In Thailand, the species occurs in a wide range of habitats including roadsides, hills and evergreen, bamboo, pterocarpus and pine forests, at elevations from sea level to 1,600 m (Parnell, 2012). It is also reported growing in grassy places in lowlands and low mountains, mixed evergreen-deciduous forests, and in mostly alluvial areas beside or near streams, in hummus soils and slopes (Chavan et al., 1961; Auttachoat, 2003; Ekanayake et al., 2015; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2019; Useful Tropical Plants, 2019; Zheng et al., 2019).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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Aginetia indica is reported as a holoparasite of various species, including some crops (Useful Tropical Plants, 2019). Host species include Imperata sp., dryland rice (Oryza sativa), sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum), Miscanthus sp., millet (Panicum miliaceum), Italian millet (Setaria italica), maize (Zea mays), Carex spp., Dioscorea sp., Luzula spp., Japanese ginger (Zingibermioga) and Canna spp. (Chavan et al., 1961; Lemmens, 2003; Ray and Dasgupta, 2010a; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2019). In Thailand, the species grows under shady areas of bamboo (Auttachoat, 2003).

Nickrent and Musselman (2004) consider the species as only causing minor problems on monocots. It is reported as being able to be a destructive parasite of rice without further details (Lemmens, 2003; EPPO, 2019). The species causes damage to sugarcane plantations by lowering the sucrose content of healthy sugarcane from 13% to 5% (Hunsingi, 2012).

Growth Stages

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Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for A. indica is 2n = 30 (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2019). The species is not threatened by genetic erosion due to its large area of distribution (Lemmens, 2003). It is morphologically variable throughout its range (Parnell, 2012).

Reproductive Biology

Aginetia indica is a holoparasite native to Asia and Oceania (Useful Tropical Plants, 2019). The species reproduces by seeds. A. indica probably self-pollinates, as the flower’s corolla is bent down with the stigma and anthers situated at the same level (Tiagi, 1952). Although the species produces seeds in abundance, many of the seeds lack an embryo or endosperm. The seeds will not germinate unless they are in contact with root exudates of another plant species. Seedling development only occurs in contact with the roots of the host species, mostly Poaceae (Auttachoat, 2003).

Physiology and Phenology

In India the species appears during the rainy season and grows until October when it set seeds (Tiagi, 1952). It is reported as flowering from April to August and fruiting from August to October in China (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2019). In Thailand, flowering occurs during the rainy season (September to October) (Auttachoat, 2003).

The seeds are reported as being short lived, although other species in Orobanchaceae have long live seeds (Barnes, 1909; Auttachoat, 2003). The seeds will germinate only under the stimulus of root exudates from some specific vascular plant species. The germination occurs by the development of large globular cells at the radicular end of the embryo. These cells develop into a germ tube which will penetrate the host root to produce a haustorium. The part that remains outside the root forms a tubercule from which the plant body develops (Barnes, 1909; Auttachoat, 2003). Seedling development is host-specific (Auttachoat, 2003).

The isolation of the exudates that stimulate germination in Orobanchaceae has been difficult due t: the amount of stimulatory compound produced per root being very low, the compounds being unstable at high temperatures and the exudates being a mixture of compounds varying among the different host species. Some of the exudates that have been isolated appear to be unsaturated lactones (Auttachoat, 2003).

The seeds germinate slowly and show distinct dormancy (Lemmens, 2003). Treating the seeds with sodium hypochlorite has proven to be successful in breaking dormancy. Stratification of the seeds for about eight days at 3-5°C, or by brief exposures (15 min) to 50°C will break the dormancy. Continuous light, even if it is low, inhibits the germination completely. After breaking dormancy, the seeds have a high germination percentage when incubated at 25-30˚C (French and Sherman, 1976; Auttachoat, 2003).

Longevity

Aginetia indica is an annual (Auttachoat, 2003).

Associations

The seeds of A. indica will not germinate unless they are in contact with the roots of certain vascular plants. Germination has been recorded near the roots of the following species: Corchorus capsularis, Raphanus sativus,Glycine max, Helianthus annuus, Pisum sativum, Sorghum bicolor, Sorghum halepense, Triticum aestivum, Zea mays, Phaseolus vulgaris, Ipomoea purpurea, Oryza sativa and Beta vulgaris (French and Sherman, 1976). The seedlings only grow in contact with the roots of specific species, mostly Poaceae (Wolf, 1912). Host species include Imperata sp., Oryza sativa, Saccharum officinarum, Miscanthus sp., Panicum miliaceum, Setaria italica, Zea mays, Carex spp., Dioscorea sp., Luzula spp., Zingibermioga and Canna spp. (Chavan et al., 1961; Lemmens, 2003; Ray and Dasgupta, 2010a; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2019).

Environmental Requirements

The Orobanchaceae in general grow in poor soils and the addition of fertilisers is detrimental to the species as they have a low ability to detoxify chemicals. There is very little information on the environmental requirements for A. indica. In Thailand the species is reported as growing in acidic soils (pH 4.49), with low phosphorus, low potassium and high calcium (Auttachoat, 2003).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
33 -7

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 3
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 3 30

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall7252500mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal
Summer
Uniform
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil reaction

  • acid

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile

Notes on Natural Enemies

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In the Philippines, Platyptilia moth species have been reported damaging the flower buds of A. indica. Moths in the Daulia genus are also herbivores that affect young stems (Ray and Dasgupta, 2010b). Takano (1934) reports the following insects attacking A. indica in Taiwan: Daulia afralis, Platyptilia sp., Pericallia sp., and Amsacta lactinea.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Botanical gardens and zoosA collection at Botanical Garden in Belgium Yes Meise Botanic Garden, 2019
Crop productionNot mentioned in references but could be a possible way of seed movement Yes
HitchhikerNot mentioned in references but could be a possible way of seed movement Yes Yes
Medicinal useThe species is used for traditional medicinal purposes Yes Yes Lemmens, 2003
People foragingNot mentioned in references but foraging for medicinal purposes could be a possible cause of dispersal Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Clothing, footwear and possessionsNot mentioned in references but could be a possible way of seed movement Yes
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesNot mentioned in references but could be a possible way of seed movement Yes
Soil, sand and gravelNot mentioned in references but could be a possible way of seed movement Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Positive

Impact: Economic

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Parasitic weeds are considered to be among the most serious and economically important agricultural pests in many parts of the world (Elzein and Kroschel, 2003). Although A. indica is reported as causing problems in various crops, very little detailed information is available on its impact (Auttachoat, 2003; Nickrent and Musselman, 2004). Wilt has been reported as one of the problems caused by A. indica in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) plants. Most of the information available is related to other genera in the Orobanchaceae. For example, Orobanche is reported as causing about 32% yield losses on legume crops, equalling to US$8.6 million.

Impact: Biodiversity

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Aginetia indica is reported as being a parasite in rice (Oryza sativa), sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) and other crops (Auttachoat, 2003; Lemmens, 2003).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Has a broad native range
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Gregarious
Impact outcomes
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
Impact mechanisms
  • Parasitism (incl. parasitoid)
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally

Uses

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Economic Value

Studies into the medicinal properties of A. indica have been carried out, partly to promote its use and support local economies (Auttachoat, 2003).

Social Benefit

The main use of A. indica is in traditional medicine (Auttachoat, 2003). Medicinal uses reported for the species include: to treat diabetes, hepatitis, impotence, sterility, dysmenorrhea, swelling, fever, as a tonic, to stimulate hormonal secretions and to clear heat and toxic materials (Auttachoat, 2003; Liu et al., 2012; DeFilipps and Krupnick, 2018; Philippine Alternative Medicine, 2019; Useful Tropical Plants, 2019). Studies suggest that A. indica has a high potential use for cancer treatment because its antitumor activity and immune-stimulatory properties (Auttachoat, 2003; Lemmens, 2003; Liu et al., 2012). Extracts of the plants also show activity against the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) (Lin et al., 2018).

Flower extracts are used to colour a Thai dessert known as “Kanom dok din”, and the whole plant is cooked with sugar and nutmeg and eaten as an antiscorbutic (Useful Tropical Plants, 2019). The species is used in rituals in Nepal, as it is considered a symbol of Shiva and Parvati (Philippine Alternative Medicine, 2019).

Uses List

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General

  • Botanical garden/zoo
  • Ritual uses
  • Sociocultural value

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Detection and Inspection

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Early Warning Systems

Although A. indica is not known to occur outside its native range, the species is listed in USA as a noxious weed due to its possible negative impact to the agriculture (USDA-ARS, 2019).

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Aginetia indica is similar to A. flava. This species differs from A. indica by having conspicuous scale leaves near the base of the stems. The flowers of A. flava are yellow with broadly spreading dentate lobes while in A. indica the corolla is purplish, not dentate and slightly to not spreading (Parnell, 2012). The species is also confused with A. pedunculata but the later has shorter pedicels and larger whitish or yellowish flowers with purplish or bluish corolla lobes (Lemmens, 2003).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Cultural Control and Sanitary Measures

Almost no information is available on the control of A. indica. Elzein and Kroschel (2003) published a technical report on the control of other Orobanchaceae that parasitize various crops. They recommend an integrated control approach with a combination of various methods.

Some cultural methods tried with other Orobanchaceae are: transplanting the host on seeding stages, crop rotating with a “trap crop” species that stimulates the seed germination, and intercropping with species not susceptible to the parasite’s infestation.

Physical/Mechanical Control

Hand Pulling and solarisation are methods recommended as part of an integrated control approach (Elzein and Kroschel, 2003).

Chemical Control

Glyphosate and Dicamba had been used in other Orobanchaceae species to control post emergence stages and control seed production. The application of germination stimulants (e.g. ethylene, ethephon, strigol) to induce suicidal seed germination has also been investigated (Elzein and Kroschel, 2003).

Host resistance

Large scale replacement of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) varieties with field resistant cv. NCo 310 had been successful for the control of A. indica in Taiwan (Ray and Dasgupta, 2012).

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Various authors discuss the need for more information on A. indica or the Orobanchaceae in general, including: the ecology, morphology, development, host relationships, longevity, pollination and dispersal (Theeret, 1971; Auttachoat, 2003). Although reported as affecting various crops there are no details of the effects and economical losses caused by the species. Also needed is information about the medicinal potential of A. indica (Lemmens, 2003).

References

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Auttachoat MS, 2003. Study of immunotoxicological effects of dok din daeng (Aeginetia idica Roxb.). PhD Thesis. Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand: Suranaree University of Technology. 212pp.

Barnes CR, 1909. Development of Aeginetia. Botanical Gazette, 48(1), 75-76.

Chavan AR, Bedi SJ, Sabnis SD, 1961. Some observations on a root-parasite-Aeginetia indica Linn. Current Science, 30(5), 191-192.

Darbyshire SJ, Prasad R, 2009. Proceedings of the Weeds Across Borders 2008 Conference. [Weeds Across Borders], Alberta, Canada: Alberta Invasive Plants Council. 306 pp.

DeFilipps, R. A., Krupnick, G. A., 2018. The medicinal plants of Myanmar. PhytoKeys, (No.102), 1-341. https://phytokeys.pensoft.net/article/24380/

Ekanayake, SP, Jayarathne, S, Harischandra, S, Karunarathne, S, Weerakoon, B, Mahagedara, K, Thudugala, A, Ranawana, KB, 2015. Rediscovery of Aeginetia indica L. (Orobanchaceae) from Meegahakiula, Sri Lanka after 125 years. Taprobanica, 7(2), 101-102.

Elzein, A., Kroschel, J., 2003. Progress on management of parasitic weeds. In: FAO Plant Production and Protection Paper,(No.120(Add.1)) . Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 109-143.

EPPO, 2019. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database Paris, France: EPPO.https://gd.eppo.int/

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2019. Flora of China. In: Flora of China St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flowers of India, 2019. Flowers of India. In: Flowers of India . http://www.flowersofindia.net/

French, R. C., Sherman, L. J., 1976. Factors affecting dormancy, germination and seedling development of Aeginetia indica L. (Orobanchaceae). American Journal of Botany, 63(5), 558-570. doi: 10.2307/2441819

Hunsingi G, 2012. Production of sugarcane: theory and practice. Advanced Series in Agricultural Sciences 21, Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag.245 pp.

India Biodiversity Portal, 2019. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. In: Online Portal of India Biodiversity . http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

India Biodiversity Portal, 2019. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. In: Online Portal of India Biodiversity . http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

Khanna A, Raj K, 2018. Management of pineapple disease of sugarcane, incited by Ceratocystis paradoxa [De Seynes] Moreau. In: Research Trends in Agriculture Science, 13, New Delhi, India: AKINIK Publications. 123 pp.

Lemmens RHMJ, 2003. Aeginetia indica L. In: Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 12(3): Medicinal and poisonous plants 3, [ed. by Lemmens RHMJ, Bunyapraphatsara N]. Bogor, Indonesia: PROSEA Foundation.https://prota4u.org/prosea/

Lin ChengWei, Lo ChiehWen, Tsai ChiaNi, Pan TingChun, Chen PinYin, Yu MingJiun, 2018. Aeginetia indica decoction inhibits hepatitis C virus life cycle. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 19(1), 208. http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/19/1/208/htm

Liu YuHuei, Li MengLuen, Hsu MengYu, Pang YaYueh, Chen ILing, Chen ChingKuei, Tang SaiWen, Lin HsuanYuan, Lin JungYaw, 2012. Effects of a Chinese herbal medicine, Guan-Jen-Huang (Aeginetia indica Linn.), on renal cancer cell growth and metastasis. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2012, Article ID 935860. http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2012/935860/

Meise Botanic Garden, 2019. Meise, Belgium: Meise Botanic Garden.http://www.br.fgov.be/RESEARCH/COLLECTIONS/livingplantcollections.php

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
India Biodiversity Portalhttps://indiabiodiversity.org
Invasive Plant Atlas of the United Stateshttps://www.invasiveplantatlas.org/subject.html?sub=5041
Meise Botanical Garden Living Plant Collection Databasehttp://db.plantentuinmeise.be/RESEARCH/COLLECTIONS/LIVING/LIVCOL/lp-qry51.html
Philippine Alternative Medicinehttp://www.stuartxchange.org/Dapong-tubo.html
Plants of the World Onlinehttp://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/about
Useful Tropical Plantshttp://tropical.theferns.info/

Contributors

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30/09/19 Original text by:

Jeanine Vélez-Gavilán, UPR-RUM, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico

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