Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Albizia lebbeck
(Indian siris)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Albizia lebbeck (Indian siris)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 24 July 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Albizia lebbeck
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Indian siris
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Albizia lebbeck is a perennial, deciduous tree, native to Asia and introduced to tropical regions across the world as a shelter tree for cash crops, for erosion control, as a forage crop and as a source of hard...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Albizia lebbeck (Indian siris); habit. Launiupoko, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionAlbizia lebbeck (Indian siris); habit. Launiupoko, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2009.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Albizia lebbeck (Indian siris); habit. Launiupoko, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2009.
HabitAlbizia lebbeck (Indian siris); habit. Launiupoko, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2009.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Albizia lebbeck (Indian siris); habit, with Laysan albatross chicks (Phoebastria immutabilis). Midway Mall Town, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2017.
TitleInvasive habit
CaptionAlbizia lebbeck (Indian siris); habit, with Laysan albatross chicks (Phoebastria immutabilis). Midway Mall Town, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2017.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Albizia lebbeck (Indian siris); habit, with Laysan albatross chicks (Phoebastria immutabilis). Midway Mall Town, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2017.
Invasive habitAlbizia lebbeck (Indian siris); habit, with Laysan albatross chicks (Phoebastria immutabilis). Midway Mall Town, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2017.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Albizia lebbeck (Indian siris); flowers and leaves. Lahaina, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2009.
TitleFlowers and leaves
CaptionAlbizia lebbeck (Indian siris); flowers and leaves. Lahaina, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2009.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Albizia lebbeck (Indian siris); flowers and leaves. Lahaina, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2009.
Flowers and leavesAlbizia lebbeck (Indian siris); flowers and leaves. Lahaina, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2009.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Albizia lebbeck (Indian siris); flowers. Midway Mall Town Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2017.
TitleFlowers
CaptionAlbizia lebbeck (Indian siris); flowers. Midway Mall Town Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2017.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Albizia lebbeck (Indian siris); flowers. Midway Mall Town Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2017.
FlowersAlbizia lebbeck (Indian siris); flowers. Midway Mall Town Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2017.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Albizia lebbeck (Indian siris); habit, with flowers, leaves, and fruits. Lahaina, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2009.
TitleFlowers, leaves, and fruits
CaptionAlbizia lebbeck (Indian siris); habit, with flowers, leaves, and fruits. Lahaina, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2009.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Albizia lebbeck (Indian siris); habit, with flowers, leaves, and fruits. Lahaina, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2009.
Flowers, leaves, and fruitsAlbizia lebbeck (Indian siris); habit, with flowers, leaves, and fruits. Lahaina, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2009.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Albizia lebbeck (Indian siris); fruiting habit. West Maui, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2008.
TitleFruiting habit
CaptionAlbizia lebbeck (Indian siris); fruiting habit. West Maui, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2008.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Albizia lebbeck (Indian siris); fruiting habit. West Maui, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2008.
Fruiting habitAlbizia lebbeck (Indian siris); fruiting habit. West Maui, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2008.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Albizia lebbeck (Indian siris); seedpods on tree. Midway Mall Town Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2017.
TitleSeedpods
CaptionAlbizia lebbeck (Indian siris); seedpods on tree. Midway Mall Town Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2017.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Albizia lebbeck (Indian siris); seedpods on tree. Midway Mall Town Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2017.
SeedpodsAlbizia lebbeck (Indian siris); seedpods on tree. Midway Mall Town Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2017.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Albizia lebbeck (Indian siris); seedpod and seeds. Midway Mall Town Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2017.
TitleSeedpod and seeds
CaptionAlbizia lebbeck (Indian siris); seedpod and seeds. Midway Mall Town Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2017.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Albizia lebbeck (Indian siris); seedpod and seeds. Midway Mall Town Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2017.
Seedpod and seedsAlbizia lebbeck (Indian siris); seedpod and seeds. Midway Mall Town Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2017.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Albizia lebbeck (Indian siris); fallen seedpods. Lahainaluna Road, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2007.
TitleSeedpods
CaptionAlbizia lebbeck (Indian siris); fallen seedpods. Lahainaluna Road, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2007.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Albizia lebbeck (Indian siris); fallen seedpods. Lahainaluna Road, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2007.
SeedpodsAlbizia lebbeck (Indian siris); fallen seedpods. Lahainaluna Road, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2007.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Albizia lebbeck (Indian siris); habit. Wyndham, Western Australia.
TitleTree habit
CaptionAlbizia lebbeck (Indian siris); habit. Wyndham, Western Australia.
Copyright©David Lea/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
Albizia lebbeck (Indian siris); habit. Wyndham, Western Australia.
Tree habitAlbizia lebbeck (Indian siris); habit. Wyndham, Western Australia.©David Lea/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth.

Preferred Common Name

  • Indian siris

Other Scientific Names

  • Acacia lebbek (L.) Willd.
  • Acacia macrophylla Bunge
  • Acacia speciosa (Jacq.) Willd
  • Albizia latifolia B.Boivin
  • Feuilleea lebbeck (L.) Kuntze
  • Inga borbonica Hassk.
  • Inga leucoxylon Hassk.
  • Mimosa lebbeck L.
  • Mimosa sirissa Roxb.
  • Mimosa speciosa Jacq.
  • Pithecellobium splitgerberianum Miq.

International Common Names

  • English: acacia-tree; Broome raintree; East Indian walnut; frywood; koko; lebbeck; lebbeck tree; powderpuff-tree; rain tree; raom tree; silver raintree; siris rain tree; siris tree; soros-tree; white siris; woman's tongue
  • Spanish: acacia; acacia amarilla; algarrobo de olor; amor platónico; aroma; aroma francesa; barba de caballero; cabellos de ángel; canjuro; carbonero de sombra; casia amarilla; chachá; coracáo de negro; dormilón; lengua de mujer; lengua viperina; muche; músico
  • French: acacia lebbeck; bois noir; ebénier d'Orient
  • Chinese: kuo jia he huan

Local Common Names

  • Australia: shack-shack; singer-tree; siris; Tibet lebbeck
  • Bahamas: whistling-bean; woman's-tongue tree
  • Brazil: coração-de-negro; ébano-oriental; língua-de-mulher; língua-de-sogra
  • Cambodia: chreh
  • Caroline Islands: gumorningabchey; ngumormingobchey; schepil kalaskas
  • Cook Islands: 'arapitia
  • Cuba: faurestina; forestina; marabú; whistling-bean
  • Dominican Republic: acasia; lengua de suegra
  • Fiji: vaivai; vaivai ni vavalagi; vaivai ni vavalangi
  • French Polynesia: amurumura; kāsia; paina
  • Germany: Andamanen-Kokko; Lebachbaum
  • Guam: kalaskas; mamis; trongkon kalaskas; trongkon-mames
  • Haiti: bois saane; bois savane; cha-cha; tcha-tcha; tchia-tchia; tia-tia
  • India: bage; baghemera; bengha; beymada; bhandir; chinchola; darshana; dieng-salvrin; dirasan; dirasanam; diriina; dirisana; doddabagi; gachoda; garso; goddahunse; harreri; hirih; kalbaghi; kalshish; kalsis; karuvagei; katu vagai; katvaghe; kinhi; kokko; koko; kona; kothia koroi; lasrin; mathirsi; moroi; munipriva; salaunjal; samkesar sirisha; sarin; sarshio; seleyadamara sirsul; shirish; shirson; shrin; sirai; sirar; siras; sirin; siris; sirish; sirisha; sirissa; sirsa; tantia; tinia; vaga; vagai; vage; vagei; vaka; vakai; vellavaka; velvgai; voghe
  • Indonesia: kitoke; tarisi
  • Indonesia/Java: tekik
  • Italy: albizia indiana
  • Jamaica: woman's-tongue tree
  • Japan: birumanemu
  • Lesser Antilles: langue-à-viefemme; shack-shack; vieille fille; woman's-tongue tree
  • Madagascar: bano-oriental; bonara; bwar nwar; fany; faux mendoravina
  • Myanmar: anya-koko; hamakal; kokko; mai-kokko; tama-kai; zo-fek
  • Panama: mataraton
  • Philippines: aninapala; langil
  • Samoa: tamaligi
  • South Africa: lebbekboom
  • Sri Lanka: kona; mara; suriya mara; vageri; vakai siridam
  • Thailand: chamchuri; ka se; kampu; khago
  • United States Virgin Islands: Thibet tree
  • USA/Florida: shack-shack; singer-tree; Tibet lebbeck
  • USA/Hawaii: 'ohai
  • Venezuela: acacia; baile de caballero
  • Vietnam: bo ket tay; lim xanh; trat

EPPO code

  • ALBLE (Albizia lebbeck)

Trade name

  • East Indian walnut
  • Indian siris
  • kokko

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

Albizia lebbeck is a perennial, deciduous tree, native to Asia and introduced to tropical regions across the world as a shelter tree for cash crops, for erosion control, as a forage crop and as a source of hardwood. The species can tolerate a wide range of climates and soil types. It reproduces by seed or vegetatively by cuttings or coppicing. It has a range of invasive traits, which include high seed production, a high growth rate and nitrogen fixation, that allow it to invade disturbed areas and natural forests.

It is naturalized in many parts of the tropics including the Caribbean, Central America and South America; in some places it has also become invasive. For example, in Puerto Rico, it appears on a government invasive species list and is a category 2 invasive species in the Bahamas. The species is reportedly one of the 100 most serious invasive species, and a transformer species, in Cuba. In Florida, the species has been listed as a category 1 invasive species (most serious concern) since 1999.

It is also invasive in parts of Africa. In South Africa, A. lebbeck invades coastal bush and riverbanks, displacing native plants, and is a category 1 weed under the Conservation of Agricultural Resources Act, 1983. It is cultivated on Pacific Islands and sometimes naturalized and invasive along roadsides and in forest patches. For example, on Chuuk Island in the Federated States of Micronesia it is classed as invasive or potentially invasive and is monitored for spread, potentially requiring control.

Although it is native to Australia, it is spreading southward and becoming more common in southeast Queensland where it is now regarded as an environmental weed by some local authorities. It is also regarded as an environmental weed in some parts of north and northwest Western Australia.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Fabales
  •                         Family: Fabaceae
  •                             Subfamily: Mimosoideae
  •                                 Genus: Albizia
  •                                     Species: Albizia lebbeck

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

The genus Albizia comprises approximately 150 species, mostly trees and shrubs native to tropical and subtropical regions of Asia and Africa (Parrotta, 2002). The genus is placed within the subfamily Mimosoideae, which comprises 82 genera and about 3335 species of shrubs and trees (rarely herbs) in which nitrogen fixing is common (Stevens, 2012).

The genus Albizia was named after Filippo del Albizzi, a Florentine nobleman who in 1749 introduced A. julibrissin into cultivation. The species A. lebbeck (L.) Benth. was described in Hooker's London J. of Botany 3: 87 (1844). The species name is from 'laebach', the Arabic name for this plant. The species has sometimes been spelt in the literature as 'lebbek'. Related species are A. canescens and A. procera. The use of `albizia' as a common name for this species is to be avoided, as it is often applied to Falcataria moluccana, which is very different from A. lebbeck.

Description

Top of page

A. lebbeck is a deciduous tree that can grow to 30 m in height with a stem diameter of 1 m, but more commonly it is 15-20 m tall and 50 cm in diameter at maturity, with grey fissured corky bark, somewhat flaky; inner bark reddish. It is multi-stemmed when grown in the open but capable of producing a single straight stem when grown in plantations (Lowry et al., 1994). It is described and illustrated by Verdcourt (1979), Brock (1988), Lowry et al. (1994), Doran and Turnbull (1997) and in many other texts. The compound leaves are bipinnate, glabrous or slightly hairy on the axis, pinnae in 2-4 pairs, each with 2-11 pairs of obliquely oblong to elliptic-oblong leaflets, 15-65 x 5-35 mm, shortly stalked, initially bright green and maturing to a duller glaucous green and folding at night (Nielsen, 1985; Lowry et al., 1994). It is fully deciduous but for only a brief period (4-6 weeks) in the dry season (Lowry et al., 1994). The glabrous glands are raised, elliptic to circular, on the upper side of the stalk, close to the base and between most pairs of leaflets (Hyland and Whiffin, 1993). The inflorescence consists of large clusters 5-7.5 cm wide of fragrant pedunculate globular flower heads, 15-40, on stalks 5-10 cm long. The corolla is 5.5-9 mm long, glabrous, cream, white or green, with numerous pale green stamens on filaments 15-30 mm long. The entire inflorescence is 'fluffy' in appearance, 60 mm in diameter, yellow-green with a pleasant fragrance. The pods are pale straw to light brown at maturity, narrow-oblong 12-35 x 3-6 cm, papery-leathery, swollen over the seeds and not constricted between them, indehiscent and borne in large numbers. Seeds are brown, flat, orbicular or elliptic, 8-10 x 6-7 mm, transversely placed with 3-12 in each pod.

Plant Type

Top of page Broadleaved
Perennial
Seed propagated
Tree
Vegetatively propagated
Woody

Distribution

Top of page

The native distribution range of A. lebbeck is obscure due to its extensive cultivation. This species is probably indigenous to the Indian subcontinent and to those areas of South East Asia with a marked dry season, such as northeastern Thailand, parts of Malaysia and in the eastern islands of Indonesia (Little, 1983; `t Mannetje and Jones, 1992; Lowry et al., 1994). There are also natural populations in Australia occurring in the Kimberley region of Western Australia, the extreme north of the Northern Territory and far northern Queensland (i.e. the Cook pastoral district) (Doran and Turnbull, 1997; Weeds of Australia, 2016). In India it occurs throughout most regions, except in Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Sikkim (India Biodiversity Portal, 2016).

Naturalized populations of A. lebbeck can be found in Africa, tropical South America, southern USA (California, Florida and Texas), the Caribbean and on some islands in the Indian and Pacific Ocean (Orwa et al., 2009; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; ILDIS, 2016; PIER, 2016; PROTA, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanPresentILDIS, 2016
BangladeshPresentCook et al., 2005; Orwa et al., 2009; Ecocrop, 2016; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016Likely to be native but also reported as introduced in the Flora of China
BhutanPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2016
CambodiaPresentILDIS, 2016
Chagos ArchipelagoPresentIntroduced Invasive ILDIS, 2016; PIER, 2016Listed as invasive on Diego Garcia Island
ChinaPresentIntroducedMorton, 1983; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016; ILDIS, 2016; PIER, 2016
-FujianPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2016
-GuangdongPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2016
-GuangxiPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2016
-HainanPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2016
-Hong KongPresentIntroducedPIER, 2016
Cocos IslandsPresentNativeMorton, 1983
IndiaPresentNativeCook et al., 2005; Orwa et al., 2009; India Biodiversity Portal, 2016Throughout India, except Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentNativeCook et al., 2005
-Andhra PradeshPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2016
-Arunachal PradeshPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2016
-AssamPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2016
-BiharPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2016
-ChandigarhPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2016
-ChhattisgarhPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2016
-Dadra and Nagar HaveliPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2016
-DamanPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2016
-DelhiPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2016
-DiuPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2016
-GoaPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2016
-GujaratPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2016
-HaryanaPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2016
-Indian PunjabPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2016
-JharkhandPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2016
-KarnatakaPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2016
-KeralaPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2016
-Madhya PradeshPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2016
-MaharashtraPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2016
-ManipurPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2016
-MeghalayaPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2016
-MizoramPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2016
-NagalandPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2016
-OdishaPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2016
-PuducherryPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2016
-RajasthanPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2016
-Tamil NaduPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2016
-TripuraPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2016
-Uttar PradeshPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2016
-UttarakhandPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2016
-West BengalPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2016
IndonesiaPresentHanelt et al., 2001; Orwa et al., 2009; PIER, 2016Recorded as both native and introduced
-JavaPresentIntroducedMorton, 1983
IranPresentILDIS, 2016
IraqPresentILDIS, 2016
JapanPresentIntroducedPIER, 2016
-Ryukyu ArchipelagoPresentILDIS, 2016
LaosPresentILDIS, 2016
MalaysiaPresentOrwa et al., 2009; ILDIS, 2016; PIER, 2016Recorded as both native and introduced
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentNativeCook et al., 2005
MaldivesPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2016; PIER, 2016'one tree seen in open flat at end of islands' in 1957
MyanmarPresentCook et al., 2005; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016; ILDIS, 2016Recorded as both native and introduced
NepalPresentMorton, 1983; Lowry et al., 1994; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016Recorded as both native and introduced
OmanPresentILDIS, 2016
PakistanPresentCook et al., 2005; Orwa et al., 2009; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016Recorded as both native and introduced
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedPIER, 2016
Saudi ArabiaPresentILDIS, 2016
SingaporePresentIntroducedChong et al., 2009; PIER, 2016Cultivated
Sri LankaPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2016; ILDIS, 2016
TaiwanPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2016; ILDIS, 2016; PIER, 2016
ThailandPresentNativeCook et al., 2005; Orwa et al., 2009; PIER, 2016
VietnamPresentILDIS, 2016
YemenPresentILDIS, 2016

Africa

AldabraPresentILDIS, 2016
AlgeriaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
AngolaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
BeninPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
BotswanaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
Burkina FasoPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
BurundiPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
CameroonPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
Cape VerdePresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
Central African RepublicPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
ChadPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
ComorosPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2016Listed as invasive on Moheli (Mwali) Island
CongoPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
Côte d'IvoirePresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
DjiboutiPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2016
EgyptPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2016
Equatorial GuineaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
EritreaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
EthiopiaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
GabonPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
GambiaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
GhanaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
GuineaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
Guinea-BissauPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
KenyaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
LesothoPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
LiberiaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
LibyaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
MadagascarPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009; Madagascar Catalogue, 2016Provinces of Antsiranana, Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliara; protected areas include Ankarafantsika, Loky Manambato (Daraina), Masoala.
MalawiPresentIntroduced Invasive Orwa et al., 2009; Witt and Luke, 2017
MaliPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
MauritaniaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
MauritiusPresentIntroduced Invasive Orwa et al., 2009; PIER, 2016Listed as invasive on Mauritius Island
MayottePresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2016
MoroccoPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
MozambiquePresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
NamibiaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
NigerPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
NigeriaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
RéunionPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2016
Rodriguez IslandPresentIntroducedPIER, 2016
RwandaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009; Witt and Luke, 2017
Sao Tome and PrincipePresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
SenegalPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2016
SeychellesPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009; ILDIS, 2016
Sierra LeonePresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
SomaliaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
South AfricaPresentIntroduced Invasive Henderson, 2001; Randall, 2012; ILDIS, 2016
SudanPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
SwazilandPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
TanzaniaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
TogoPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
TunisiaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
UgandaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
ZambiaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
ZimbabwePresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009

North America

BermudaPresentIntroducedKairo et al., 2003; ILDIS, 2016Naturalized
MexicoPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2016; Flora Mesoamericana, 2017Naturalized and cultivated
USAPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2016Naturalized
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedPIER, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-FloridaPresentIntroduced Invasive CAIP, 2002; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016
-TexasPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016

Central America and Caribbean

AnguillaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Antigua and BarbudaPresentIntroducedKairo, 2003; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Antigua
ArubaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; Van der Burg et al., 2012
BahamasPresentIntroduced Invasive Kairo et al., 2003; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
BarbadosPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
BelizePresentIntroducedILDIS, 2016
BonairePresentIntroducedVan der Burg et al., 2012Naturalized
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Rojas-Sandoval and Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2015Tortola
CubaPresentIntroduced Invasive Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012; ILDIS, 2016
CuraçaoPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; Van der Burg et al., 2012Naturalized
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced Invasive Kairo et al., 2003; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2016; PIER, 2016
GrenadaPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
GuadeloupePresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
GuatemalaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2016; PIER, 2016
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
JamaicaPresentIntroducedKairo, 2003; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
MartiniquePresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Netherlands AntillesPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012St. Eustatius, St. Martin, Bonaire, Saba
PanamaPresentIntroducedFlora of Panama, 2016; ILDIS, 2016
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced Invasive Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; Rojas-Sandoval and Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2016
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentIntroducedLindsay et al., 2009Nevis
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; Krauss, 2012
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Sint EustatiusPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Trinidad
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; Rojas-Sandoval and Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2016

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2016
BoliviaUnconfirmed recordBolivia Catalogue, 2016; ILDIS, 2016Possibly present but no confirmed herbarium specimen
BrazilPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2016
-MaranhaoPresentILDIS, 2016
-Minas GeraisPresentILDIS, 2016
-Rio de JaneiroPresentIntroduced Invasive I3N-Brasil, 2016
ColombiaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2016; PIER, 2016; Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2016
French GuianaPresentIntroducedFunk et al., 2007; ILDIS, 2016Naturalized and cultivated
GuyanaPresentIntroducedFunk et al., 2007; ILDIS, 2016Naturalized and cultivated
ParaguayPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2016
PeruPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2016
SurinamePresentIntroducedFunk et al., 2007Naturalized and cultivated
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedCronk and Fuller, 1995; ILDIS, 2016

Oceania

Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2016
AustraliaPresentNativeWeeds of Australia, 2016
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentNativeWeeds of Australia, 2016Possibly also naturalized beyond its native range
-QueenslandPresentNativeWeeds of Australia, 2016Native to far north Queensland but also widely naturalised beyond its native range
-Western AustraliaPresentNativeWeeds of Australia, 2016Possibly also naturalized beyond its native range
Cook IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2016
FijiPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2016
French PolynesiaPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016
GuamPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2016
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2016
New CaledoniaPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2016
New ZealandPresentIntroducedRandall, 2012; ILDIS, 2016
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive ILDIS, 2016; PIER, 2016
PalauPresentIntroducedPIER, 2016
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2016; PIER, 2016
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER, 2016
TongaPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2016
US Minor Outlying IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2016
Wallis and Futuna IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER, 2016

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page

During the last two centuries A. lebbeck has been widely introduced throughout the seasonally dry tropics of Africa, Asia, the Caribbean and South America, mainly as an ornamental and plantation tree, and has become naturalized in many places (Lowry et al., 1994; Parrotta, 2002).

The tree may have been introduced to Egypt from the East Indies by 1807, with later introductions to other parts of Africa (Morton, 1983). When the Suez Canal was opened in 1869, A. lebbeck trees were planted on a 5-mile avenue from the Nile to the Great Pyramids; the famous botanist Dr. David Fairchild, who admired the trees, sent seeds to the US Department of Agriculture in Washington DC and the species was subsequently adopted as a street tree in places such as southern Florida (Morton, 1983). By 1933, it was recognized as invading tropical hammocks in the Florida Keys. By 1990, the species was reported as a fast-growing colonizer of disturbed areas in Florida (Nelson, 1994; Langeland and Craddock Burks, 1998; Langeland et al., 2009), and since 1999 it has been listed as a Category I invasive species in Florida (FLEPPC, 2015). In the US state of Tennessee the species was apparently previously included on the state’s invasive exotic pest plant list in 1999 (Randall, 2012) but it has since been removed and is not on the most recent list (TN-EPPC, 2009).

It was introduced into the British Caribbean islands in 1782 (Howard, 1954) and it appears in herbarium collections made in 1869 in Martinique, 1871 in Dominican Republic, in 1876 in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, and 1800 in Haiti (Urban, 1898; Rojas-Sandoval and Acevedo Rodríguez, 2015; US National Herbarium). This species was introduced to Brazil by 1934 where it has escaped from cultivation and it is now known to grow spontaneously there (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016).

Risk of Introduction

Top of page

A. lebbeck is actively promoted, particularly in relation to agroforestry where it is regarded as having potential for use in silvopastoral systems in dry and semi-arid regions (Lowry et al., 1989). This interest stems from its apparent ability to improve pasture production and quality, in addition to providing a food supplement in the form of the leaves, flowers and pods (Lowry et al., 1989). It has naturalized or become invasive in a number of locations and its future introduction to other sites has the potential to increase the number of locations where it is invasive.

Habitat

Top of page

A. lebbeck can be found growing in deciduous and semi-deciduous monsoon forests, rain forests and humid forests, but it is also adapted to dry forests and semi-arid habitats in tropical and subtropical regions (Cook et al., 2005; Orwa et al., 2009). Within its native range, A. lebbeck is often found on riverbanks and in savannas, forests and bushy areas (PIER, 2016). In its Australian range, A. lebbeck is a dominant species in semi-evergreen vine forests (monsoon forest) in areas with a mean annual rainfall of 1300-1500 mm and a very dry winter but is known to naturalize in coastal forests, savanna woodlands and riparian areas (Beadle, 1981Hocking, 1993; Lowry et al., 1994; Parrotta, 2010; Ecocrop, 2016; Weeds of Australia, 2016; Purdue University, 2017). It is also in semi-deciduous microphyll vine thickets on scree slopes of quartz sandstone mountains (Miles et al., 1975), with a closed canopy of emergent trees 9-15 m tall. On lateritic plateaux, A. lebbeck grows with Hakea arborescens and Grevillea mimosoides in the shrub layer beneath low woodland and low open-forest. In India, it is found in tropical evergreen, semi-evergreen and deciduous forests in areas with a mean rainfall of 600 to 2500 mm (Troup and Joshi, 1983).

Habitat List

Top of page
CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Natural
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural
Natural forests Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal areas Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

Genetics

The chromosome number reported for A. lebbeck is 2n = 26 (`t Mannetje and Jones, 1992).

Variation in height and diameter growth, branch number, biomass and chemical contents of seed and foliage were observed among twelve provenances of A. lebbeck collected throughout India (Kumar and Toky, 1994; Toky et al., 1996). Provenances from northwestern and central India, in general, were superior to those from south India. Apart from these reports, there is little information on its genetic variability and there are apparently no other programmes systematically screening provenances or undertaking selection and breeding activities. The value of A. lebbeck is critically dependent upon resistance to insect attack and this should be the first objective of developmental work on the species (`t Mannetje and Jones, 1992). Although the species has a very wide natural distribution and in that sense is not endangered, the blurring of boundaries between indigenous populations and those established from exotic germplasm is a conservation issue.

Reproductive Biology

The flowers of A. lebbeck are hermaphroditic, fragrant, white to greenish-yellow and borne in rounded, axillary clusters, 2-3.8 cm in diameter at the ends of lateral stalks. They have narrow, tubular, white corollas and numerous stamens. Wind is apparently the principal pollen vector, although the fragrant flowers attract large numbers of bees, which are likely to contribute to pollination (Parrotta, 1988Lowry et al., 1994).

In cultivation, A. lebbeck can be established by direct sowing, using container-grown stock or as bare-rooted seedlings or stump plants (`t Mannetje and Jones, 1992Gupta, 1993MacDicken, 1994). The seeds are relatively large. Hocking (1993) reports 7000-12,000 seeds/kg while Lowry et al. (1994) note 7000-8000 seeds/kg. A. lebbeck is amenable to vegetative propagation by several means including tissue culture (Archna and Nangia, 1992), air layering (Misra et al., 1992Misra and Jaiswal, 1995), stem cuttings (Rawat and Joshi, 1995), root explants (Miah and Rao, 1996) and as stump plants (Hocking, 1993).

Seeds of A. lebbeck may be sown without pre-germination treatment, although soaking the seeds in boiling water for 1 minute, followed by cool water for 24 hours, increases the germination rate. Germination of freshly extracted seeds in Puerto Rico was 60 to 90 percent; after 1 year of cold storage at 5 to 10°C, percentage germination dropped to 12 percent (Parrotta, 1988). However, seeds can be stored for up to 5 years in sealed containers at room temperature with only moderate reduction in percentage viability. Germination is epigeal, and generally occurs between 4 to 20 days after sowing, with peak germination at 12 to 18 days (Parrotta, 1988). In Puerto Rico, seedlings raised in plastic sleeves under light shade reached 20 to 30 cm height in 3 months (Parrotta, 1988). Seedlings develop a long, stout taproot at an early age, are drought-tolerant, and require only minimal weeding during the first months after planting (Parrotta, 2002). 

Physiology and Phenology

A. lebbeck is a perennial, deciduous tree. Annual height and stem diameter growth range from 0.5-2.0 m and 1.0-2.5 cm, respectively during the first 2-5 years of growth. Under suitable environmental conditions plants can grow 5 m/year. Trees usually attain a maximum height of up to 18 m (Parrotta, 1988). Trees growing in the dry tropics show a crown diameter expansion of 2-2.2 m/year until mature. Flowering can occur on plants as young as 10 months old (Cook et al., 2005).

A. lebbeck has a growth pattern strongly dependent on seasonal changes (`t Mannetje and Jones, 1992). It stops growing early in the dry season, loses its leaves in the middle of the dry season some 2 to 3 months later, remains leafless for 1 to 2 months, with new growth appearing towards the end of the dry season. Heavy flowering follows shortly afterwards, but seed set is initially poor (`t Mannetje and Jones, 1992). Further growth accompanied by flowering and good seed set occurs into the wet season. In northern Australia (within its natural distribution), flowering occurs from September to October and pods mature in May-July at the beginning of the dry season (Brock, 1988). Pods can remain on the tree for 3 to 4 months (`t Mannetje and Jones, 1992). In India, flowering occurs mainly from March to May, and fruits grow to their full size from August to October (Troup and Joshi, 1983). In Sudan, it flowers March-May and fruits May-August. In Tanzania, ripe pods can be found in July-December with a peak in August-October (PROTA, 2016). In Florida and the Caribbean, it flowers from April to September, but primarily in spring (or the onset of the rainy season), with pods held nearly throughout the year (Little and Wadsworth, 1964; Langeland et al., 2009). In China, it has been recorded flowering from May to September and fruiting from October to May of the following year (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016).

Associations

In the tropical dry and mixed deciduous forest of northern and central India, A. lebbeck is typically associated with the commonly dominant species Hardwickia binate and Tectona grandis. In West Bengal and Bangladesh, it is usually associated with species such as Salmalia malabarica [Bombax ceiba], Hymenodictyon excelsum [Hymenodictyon orixense] and Adina cordifolia. In the dry, deciduous scrub forests of southern India, it is often found with Santalum album, other Albizia species, and members of the genera Acacia, Ziziphus, Cassia and Terminalia. It also occurs as an aggressive colonizer in the dry forests of Punjab (both in Pakistan and India) dominated by Prosopis spicigera [Prosopis cineraria], Salvadora oleoides, and Capparis decidua (Venkataramany, 1968).

In Australia, associated dominants in semi-evergreen vine forests include Adansonia gregorii and Alphitonia excelsa. In semi-deciduous microphyll vine thicket on scree slopes of quartz sandstone mountains associate species include Paramygnia trimera, Celtis philippensis and Pouteria sericea (Miles et al., 1975). On lateritic plateaux, A. lebbeck grows with Hakea arborescens and Grevillea mimosoides in the shrub layer beneath low woodland and low open-forest. Dominant species are Eucalyptus tetrodonta, E. nesophila [Corymbia nesophila], Ficus spp. and Canarium australianum.

A. lebbeck fixes nitrogen after nodulating with a range of Rhizobium strains in many tropical soils, and does so at a rate that makes it an attractive hedgerow species for use in alley cropping (Kadiata and Mulongoy, 1995Kadiata et al., 1996). This species is not Rhizobium specific and naturalized forms will produce nodules easily (Lowry et al., 1994). This species also forms symbiotic mycorrhizal associations between its roots and various fungi.

Environmental Requirements

A. lebbeck grows at elevations from sea level to 1500 m in a variety of climatic zones where annual rainfall ranges from 600 mm to 2500 mm, yet it will survive in areas with low and irregular rainfall receiving only 300 mm annually (`t Mannetje and Jones, 1992; Hocking, 1993; Lowry et al., 1994). In Australia, the distribution is in the hot humid climatic zone. Elsewhere it favours semi-arid to sub-humid areas (`t Mannetje and Jones, 1992). In Australia, the mean maximum of the hottest month is 30-35°C and the mean minimum of the coolest month is 19-31°C (Doran and Turnbull, 1997). The occurrence in the northern part of Australia has a marked monsoonal incidence of rainfall, with the 50th percentile rainfall being 1030-1755 mm, the 10th percentile being 720-1230 mm, while the lowest on record is 385-1050 mm. There are 75-125 days of rain per year; and the area is frost-free. In India, it is found in areas which experience temperatures up to 49°C, but it is also found in areas which experience frost, with an absolute minimum temperature of -5°C (Hocking, 1993).

Outside of Australia, it grows well on fertile, well-drained loamy soils but poorly on heavy cracking clays, and can tolerate moderately alkaline, saline and sodic (pH<9, ESP<35, ECe<4 dS/m) and lateric soils (Tomar and Yadav, 1982; Hocking, 1993MacDicken, 1994; Singh, 1994; Parrotta, 2010; PIER, 2016). In Australia, the species occurs on the Kimberley plateau on soils overlying basalts (Miles et al., 1975) and amongst sandstone boulders and basalt outcrops on breakaway slopes. It is also found on the banks of streams on riverine sites (Beard, 1979), and on stabilized dunes or low lateritic ledges above the beach (Brock, 1988). Soil types include laterite and shallow sandy soils.

Climate

Top of page
ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

Top of page
Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
31 27 0 1500

Air Temperature

Top of page
Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -5
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 19 35
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 26 46
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 5 20

Rainfall

Top of page
ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration27number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall6002500mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal
Summer

Soil Tolerances

Top of page

Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • saline
  • sodic

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page

The timber of A. lebbeck is subject to borer and fungal attack while sapwood is liable to borers and termites but resistant to dry rot (Purdue University, 2017).

Damping off of seedlings in nurseries by Rhizoctonia solani [Thanatephorus cucumeris] has been recorded in India (Mehrotra, 1989) and Sri Lanka (Bandara, 1987) and by Fusarium spp. in India (Harsh, 1993). Occurrence of an unnamed virus disease on nursery plants of A. lebbeck has been reported by Chowdhery et al. (1992). Root rots, cankers, heart rots, spot fungi and rusts (e.g. Ravenelia) can cause damage (Sharma and Bhardwaj, 1988; Gupta, 1993; Lenné and Boa, 1994). Defoliation by Endothella albizae has been recorded in Africa, the Philippines and Pakistan (Gibson, 1975). Leaf blotch and foliar necrosis of A. lebbeck caused by Camptomeris albizae has been reported in tropical Africa, India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, the Dominican Republic and Bangladesh (Browne, 1968; Gibson, 1975). Uromycladium tepperianum and Sphaerophragmium acaciae are found on A. lebbeck, as well as on other hosts including Acacia spp., but their importance has not been determined (Browne, 1968; Gibson, 1975; Bakshi, 1976). The leaf spot, Cercospora glauca was recorded on A. lebbeck in USA, China and Nepal, and C. albizae was recorded on A. lebbeck in India, Sudan and Tanzania (Gibson, 1975; Bakshi, 1976). A common spot disease, Colletotrichum lebbeck has been widely recorded on pods and leaves of A. lebbeck in Pakistan, the Philippines and Jamaica (Gibson, 1975). Young plantations in India may suffer serious defoliation by Phyllosticta albizinae (Bakshi, 1976). Dieback and canker are caused by Nectria ditissima [Neonectria ditissima] on A. lebbeck in Madagascar (Gibson, 1975). Fusarium solani [Haematonectria haematococca] causes greyish-black cankers and a severe infection will cause drying of the crown in 15-20 year-old trees in India (Bakshi, 1976). The most important disease of A. lebbeck is vascular wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. perniciosum. It is widespread in the USA and reported from Argentina and Puerto Rico (Gibson, 1975).

There is also a wide range of insect pests including sap suckers, wood and seed borers (such as Bruchidius spp.) and defoliators such as psyllids (probably Heteropsylla) (Hegde and Relwani, 1988; Ahmed et al., 1995). Insect predators associated with three species of psyllids infesting A. lebbeck in forest nurseries in India are reported by Thirumurthi and Annamali (1995). In Nigeria, damage has been caused by the striped mealy bug, Ferrisia virgata (Kadiata et al., 1992). Young leaves may be subject to heavy predation by the larvae of the grass yellow butterfly (Eurema hecabe) (Lowry et al., 1994); the effect is short-lived. Bark-feeding larvae of the longicorn beetle cause serious damage when complete girdling of stems 40-100 mm in diameter causes dieback (Lowry et al., 1994); little effect is seen in small and large stems. Individual trees exhibit considerable variation and may be more susceptible under water stress.

High seedling mortality may be caused by animal browsing and trampling (Hocking, 1993). In Australia, establishment can be adversely affected by grazing of young plants by mice, rabbits and other wildlife (`t Mannetje and Jones, 1992). Cheetal deer damage to nursery stock has been noted in Dehra Dun, India (Kumar and Thakur, 1993).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page

Natural Dispersal

A. lebbeck spreads by seed. Each mature tree produces large amounts of seeds that are mainly dispersed by wind. Strong winds can carry intact pods for considerable distances (Lowry et al., 1994). Seed can also be dispersed by cattle, squirrels and birds (Lowry et al., 1989; Langeland et al., 2009). A. lebbeck also produces root suckers and once established, it forms dense stands (PIER, 2016).

Intentional Introduction

A. lebbeck is a popular species that has been intentionally introduced beyond its native range in Asia, Africa and America. It is valued for its timber, as an ornamental and as a shade tree. It is also used a source of forage and fodder in agroforestry and silvopastoral systems. It is often introduced as a nitrogen-fixing species for reforestation and improvement of degraded sites (Parrotta, 2002).

Pathway Causes

Top of page
CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop productionNitrogen-fixing species; has been intentionally planted for shade for livestock and for cash crops such as coffee and tea, erosion control, and as an ornamental tree Yes Yes Ecocrop, 2016
Escape from confinement or garden escapeEscaped from agroforestry systems and gardens Yes Yes Langeland et al., 2009
ForageLeaves and stems are used as forage Yes Yes PROTA, 2016
Habitat restoration and improvementNitrogen-fixing species Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
HorticultureWidely used in agroforestry systems Yes Yes PROTA, 2016
Intentional releaseWidely introduced in agroforestry sysyems Yes Yes PROTA, 2016
Landscape improvementOften planted as a shade tree Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Medicinal useLeaves and seeds are used in traditional medicine Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Ornamental purposes Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Timber trade Yes Yes PROTA, 2016

Pathway Vectors

Top of page
VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesPods, seeds and stem fragments Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
LivestockSeeds are eaten and dispersed by cattle Yes Yes `t Mannetje and Jones, 1992; Lowry, 1994
WindSeed dispersal in strong winds. Intact pods can be carried hundreds of metres Yes Yes `t Mannetje and Jones, 1992; Lowry, 1994

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative

Environmental Impact

Top of page

This species currently holds a PIER weed risk assessment score of 7 in the Pacific Islands, where any score above 6 indicates the species is likely to be of high risk upon introduction to a new geographic area; in Australia, the species has a risk score of 4, indicating that more information is required to determine its potential impact (PIER, 2016). 

The species is known as an ecological threat in Florida, USA, as reports indicate that A. lebbeck has invaded tropical hammocks in the Florida Keys, as well as national parks such as the Big Cypress National Preserve and Everglades National Park (UF-IFAS, 2016).

As a nitrogen fixing species, A. lebbeck has the potential to change soil nitrogen levels with negative impacts on nutrient balances and cycling in invaded areas. Consequently it is considered a potential habitat transformer species (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012).

Impact: Biodiversity

Top of page

Invasive traits for A. lebbeck include its known status as a colonizer and invader that threatens native flora, its tolerance of a wide range of soil conditions and climates, its known status as an environmental and congenital weed, and its ability to propagate by both seed and by cuttings (Gupta, 1993Hocking, 1993; Lowry et al., 1994Randall, 2012PIER, 2016). Under suitable environmental conditions, A. lebbeck forms dense thickets that outcompete native plant species by inhibiting the germination and establishment of seedlings, with a consequent reduction in native species diversity (PIER, 2016). 

The species is known to be aggressive in Florida, where it has been reported invading conservation areas in southern and central Florida, as well as parts of coastal and sub-coastal Queensland, Australia, where it poses an environmental threat to native vegetation (FLEPPC, 2015Weeds of Australia, 2016). Across the Caribbean islands monospecific thickets of A. lebbeck are degrading the native flora of Caribbean dry forests, one of the most threatened ecosystems in the world (Murphy and Lugo, 1986). In South Africa, the species was listed as a Category 1 invasive alien species, meaning it ‘displaces indigenous plants/ serious invader of native ecosystems’ (MacDonald et al, 2003).

Threatened Species

Top of page
Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Linum carteri (Carter's small-flowered flax)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesFloridaCompetition - smotheringUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010

Social Impact

Top of page

This species was originally introduced beyond its native range, for example in Florida, USA where it was imported in the 1880s for use as an ornamental street tree. It has since, however, become a Category 1 invader in the state (Morton, 1983; Lowry et al., 1994).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact outcomes
  • Altered trophic level
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of fire regime
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Competition - smothering
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Herbivory/grazing/browsing
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

Top of page

A. lebbeck is used in alley farming systems in Africa and India (e.g. Gupta, 1993; Tilander et al., 1995; Larbi et al., 1996) and this has also been trialled in Thailand (Gutteridge, 1988). Lowry et al. (1994) highlighted the fact that in northern Australia the species, as well as providing stock feed directly, appears to enhance pasture production and quality, probably due to shading and related improved soil moisture status and fertility from litter breakdown. The shade is also a benefit in animal production in the dry tropics. These considerations led Lowry et al. (1994) to suggest three management options for incorporating A. lebbeck in pastoral systems: (1) grow trees intensively in rows and woodlots, as a protein supplement, for feeding weaners or as a drought reserve, lopping annually or as necessary, (2) establish trees at low density in open woodland with no management once established, and (3) develop agroforestry regimes in which animal production benefits are combined with wood production. The shallow, lateral rooting habit may mean that A. lebbeck competes with understorey crops in some circumstances (Hocking, 1993).

A. lebbeck is an attractive tree and is widely planted for shade in gardens, and as a roadside tree in India (Gupta, 1993) and Pakistan (Iqbal and Rahmati, 1992). Due to its extensive, shallow root system, A. lebbeck is a good soil binder and is recommended for soil conservation and erosion control (e.g. Shaikh, 1992; Sreemannarayana et al., 1994; Devarnavadagi and Murthy, 1995; Gabhane et al., 1995). The nitrogen-rich leaves are valuable as mulch and green manure (e.g. Tilander, 1993) and in Kerala, India, it is grown specifically for this use in paddy fields (Hocking, 1993). The species is commonly grown as a shade tree in coffee and tea gardens and along avenues (Everist, 1969). It can be planted in exposed coastal situations and as quick-growing shelter for less hardy plants (Hearne, 1975). An extensive literature on the trialling of A. lebbeck for land reclamation after mining and revegetation of fly-ash dumps indicates that there are alternative, better adapted species available for this purpose.

Keating and Bolza (1982) describe the characteristics and uses of siris (A. lebbeck) wood. The sapwood is pale yellow and distinct and the heartwood dark walnut streaked with darker bands. It is moderately heavy and hard, strong and fairly durable, kiln-seasons well and works and polishes easily, but filler is required. The timber can be used for furniture, panelling, flooring, turnery and light construction. It is suitable for decorative sliced veneer but not for plywood. India has a well-developed trade in sawn timber of A. lebbeck. There it is used for tea boxes, sugar-cane crushers, rice pounders, wheels, agricultural implements and house posts (Gupta, 1993). The wood is also suitable for pulping for writing and printing paper (Kalra, 1990), and it is an excellent fuelwood and charcoal species.

A. lebbeck is regarded as a valued forage for ruminants (`t Mannetje and Jones, 1992). Green leaves, fallen flowers and dry leaves are palatable. The foliage is highly digestibility early in the season, or in regrowth after cutting, and when mature it is of moderate digestibility, although it is still more digestible than mature grass. Young leaves taste bitter and intake may be limited when offered as the whole diet. The leaves do not contain phenolics; however, the pods contain saponin, and in Australia are not eaten in large amounts by sheep, although cattle eat them readily (Lowry, 1991; Burrows and Prinsen, 1992; `t Mannetje and Jones, 1992). All fractions fed as supplements increased the digestibility of dry matter intake of low quality basal diet (Schlink et al., 1990). The species is often grown as fodder for cattle, camels and water buffalo (MacDicken, 1994).

Flowers are a rich source of light-coloured honey (Gupta, 1993). The bark, which contains 7-11% tannin, as well as saponin (Pal et al., 1995), is used locally in India for tanning and when dried and pounded can be used for soap (Watt and Breyer-Brandwijk, 1962). The reddish gum (Martinez et al., 1995) is a substitute for gum arabic. Extracts from the seed, flowers, fruit, bark and leaves have been used medicinally (e.g. Watt and Breyer-Brandwijk, 1962; Tripathi et al., 1979; Ganguli and Bhatt, 1993). The nutritional value of A. lebbeck seed as human food has been studied (Sotelo et al., 1995).

Uses List

Top of page

Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed
  • Forage
  • Invertebrate food for lac/wax insects

Environmental

  • Agroforestry
  • Boundary, barrier or support
  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Revegetation
  • Shade and shelter
  • Soil improvement

Fuels

  • Charcoal
  • Fuelwood

Human food and beverage

  • Honey/honey flora

Materials

  • Carved material
  • Dye/tanning
  • Gum/resin
  • Miscellaneous materials
  • Wood/timber

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • garden plant
  • Potted plant
  • Propagation material
  • Seed trade

Wood Products

Top of page

Charcoal

Containers

  • Boxes

Furniture

Roundwood

  • Posts

Sawn or hewn building timbers

  • Flooring
  • For light construction
  • Wall panelling

Vehicle bodies

Veneers

Woodware

  • Industrial and domestic woodware
  • Tool handles
  • Turnery
  • Wood carvings

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page

Albizia is very similar to Acacia. The former has stamens that are fused at the base, as opposed to free in Acacia (Lowry et al., 1994).

A. lebbeck shares similarities with A. retusa, which has fewer, white flowers in each of the flower clusters and narrower pods (Cowan, 2017).

Prevention and Control

Top of page

Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Control

Physical/Mechanical Control

Seedlings and saplings can be pulled out by hand or dug out, while larger, established trees are difficult to remove and must be cut and treated with herbicide (GISD, 2016; PIER, 2016). This species is known to be intolerant of continuous grazing by cattle (Lowry et al., 1994).

Chemical Control

For larger trees, chemical control is recommended in combination with cutting, by treating stumps with herbicide to prevent regeneration (GISD, 2016; PIER, 2016). In Brazil, the herbicide triclopyr has been recommended to control areas invaded by A. lebbeck (I3N-Brasil, 2016).

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

Top of page

Research and the implementation of methods of prevention and intervention are urgently needed, especially considering the popularity of A. lebbeck as an ornamental and its potential for aggressive invasiveness.

References

Top of page

`t Mannetje L, Jones RM, eds, 1992. Plant Resources of South-East Asia. No. 4. Forages. Wageningen, Netherlands; Pudoc/PROSEA

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany. 98. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institute.1192 pp.

Ahmed SI, Kumar S, Gaur M, 1995. Seasonal fluctuations in the population of Bruchidius albizziae Arora and its effects on seeds of Albizzia lebbeck (L.) Benth. in an Indian desert. Antenna (London), 19(3):106

Anon, 1970. Kokko (siris). Indian Timber Information Series No. 6, Dehra Dun, India: Forest Research Institute and Colleges.

Archna, Nangia S, 1992. Clonal propagation of Albizzia lebbeck Benth. by tissue culture. Annals of Biology Ludhiana, 8(2):146-150; 11 ref

Aswathanarayana SC, Mahadevappa M, Kalappa VP, Kurdikeri MB, Paramesh R, 1993. Mechanical scarification for hard seed coat tree species. Indian Agriculturist, 37(3):163-166; 7 ref

Bakshi BK, 1976. Forest pathology: principles and practice in forestry. Forest pathology: principles and practice in forestry. Controller of Publications. New Delhi India, 400 pp

Bandara PDMGD, 1987. Insects and diseases of forest plantations in Sri Lanka. In: Hitacharen C, MacDicken KG, Ivory MH, Nair KSS, eds. Proceedings of the IUFRO Workshop-Pests and Diseases of Forest Plantations. Regional Office for Asia and Pacific, FAO, Bangkok, 81-85

Beadle NCW, 1981. The vegetation of Australia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1981, 690pp.; 19pp. of ref

Beard JS, 1979. The vegetation of the Kimberley area. In: Vegetation survey of Western Australia. Explanatory notes to Sheet 1. Nedlands, Western Australia: University of Western Australia Press

BEST Commission, 2003. Invasive plant species. Bahamas Environment, Science and Technology (BEST) Commission. http://www.best.bs/Invasive_plant_species.htm

Binggeli P, 1999. Invasive woody plants. http://members.lycos.co.uk/WoodyPlantEcology/invasive/index.html

Bolivia Catalogue, 2016. Bolivia Catalogue. (Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Bolivia). St Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.https://www.tropicos.org/Project/BC

Booth TH, Jovanovic T, 2000. Improving descriptions of climatic requirements in the CABI Forestry Compendium. A report for the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research. CSIRO - Forestry and Forest Products, Client Report No. 758

Brock J, 1988. Top end native plants. Winnellie, Darwin: John Brock

Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies.http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Browne FG, 1968. Pests and diseases of forest plantation trees: an annotated list of the principal species occurring in the British Commonwealth. Clarendon Press, Oxford University Press, Oxford

Burg WJ van der, Freitas J de, Debrot AO, Lotz LAP, 2012. Naturalised and invasive alien plant species in the Caribbean Netherlands: status distribution, threats, priorities and recommendations. Report of a joint IMARES/CARMABI/PRI project. Wageningen, Netherland: Plant Research International, 82 pp. http://www.ciasnet.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/C185-11%20Invasive%20plants%20Dutch%20Caribbean.pdf

Burrows D, Prinsen J, 1992. Performance and palatability of various Australian trees and shrubs. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Research Reports, 10:33-35; 4 ref

Buss CM, 2002. The potential threat of invasive tree species in Botswana. Department of Crop Production and Forestry, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of Botswana, 40 pp

CAIP, 2002. Aquatic, Wetland and Invasive Plant Particulars and Photographs. Albizia lebbeck. University of Florida Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants. http://aquat1.ifas.ufl.edu/albleb.html

Cameron DM, Jermyn D, 1991. Review of plantation performance of high value rainforest species. ACIAR Working Paper No. 36, September 1991

Chong KY, Tan HTW, Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore.273 pp. https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/app/uploads/2017/04/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Clark WC, Thaman RR, eds, 1993. Agroforestry in the Pacific Island: Systems for sustainability. Tokyo, Japan: United National University Press. 279 p

Cook BG, Pengelly BC, Brown SD, Donnelly JL, Eagles DA, Franco MA, Hanson J, Mullen BF, Partridge IJ, Peters M, Schultze-Kraft R, 2005. Tropical Forages: an interactive selection tool. Brisbane, Australia: CSIRO, DPI&F, CIAT, ILRI.http://www.tropicalforages.info/

Cowan RS, 2017. Albizia lebbeck. In: Flora of Australia . Canberra, Australia: Australian Biological Resources Study, Department of the Environment and Energy.https://profiles.ala.org.au/opus/foa/profile/Albizia%20lebbeck

Cronk QCB, Fuller JL, 1995. Plant invaders: the threat to natural ecosystems. London, UK; Chapman & Hall Ltd, xiv + 241 pp

Demel Teketay, 1996. Germination ecology of twelve indigenous and eight exotic multipurpose leguminous species from Ethiopia. Forest Ecology and Management, 80(1-3):209-223; 42 ref

Devarnavadagi SB, Murthy BG, 1995. Performance of different tree species on eroded soils of northern dry zone of Karnataka. Advances in Agricultural Research in India, 4: 73-77

Doran JC, Turnbull JW, 1997. Australian trees and shrubs: species for land rehabilitation and farm planting in the tropics. Australian trees and shrubs: species for land rehabilitation and farm planting in the tropics., viii + 384 pp.; [refs]

EcoCrop, 2016. FAO EcoCrop Online Database. Rome, Italy: Land and Water Development Division, Food and Agricultural Organization of the UN.http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/cropSearchForm

Everist SL, 1969. Use of fodder trees and shrubs. Advisory Leaflet 1024. Department of Primary Industries, Indooroopilly, Queensland

Faria MP de, Siqueira JO, Vale FR do, Curi N, 1995. Growth of woody leguminous trees in response to phosphorus, nitrogen, mycorrhizal fungi and Rhizobium. I. Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. Revista Arvore, 19: 293-307

Federal Highway Administration, 2001. Lista preliminar de plantas invasoras para Puerto Rico

FLEPPC, 2015. Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council Invasive Plant Lists. Years 1999-2015. USA: Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council.http://www.fleppc.org/list/list.htm

Flora Mesoamericana, 2016. Flora Mesoamericana. St Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.tropicos.org/Project/fm

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of Panama, 2016. Flora of Panama (WFO), Tropicos website. St. Louis, MO and Cambridge, MA, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.tropicos.org/Project/FOPWFO

Francis JK, Liogier HA, 1991. Naturalized exotic tree species in Puerto Rico. General Technical Report - Southern Forest Experiment Station, USDA Forest Service, No. SO-82:i + 12 pp.; 2 ref

Funk, V., Hollowell, T., Berry, P., Kelloff, C., Alexander, S. N., 2007. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Washington, USA: Department of Systematic Biology - Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution 55, 584 pp.

Gabhane VV, Pagar PC, Patil BN, Pattiwar VV, 1995. Impact of multipurpose tree species on nutrient status of black soil. Journal of Soils and Crops, 5(2):166-168; 5 ref

Ganguli NB, Bhatt RM, 1993. Mode of action of active principles from stem bark of Albizzia lebbeck Benth. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 31(2):125-129; 15 ref

Gibson IAS, 1975. Diseases of forest trees widely planted as exotics in the tropics and southern hemisphere. Part 1. Important members of the Myrtaceae, Leguminosae, Verbenaceae and Meliaceae. Diseases of forest trees widely planted as exotics in the tropics and southern hemisphere. Part 1. Important members of the Myrtaceae, Leguminosae, Verbenaceae and Meliaceae., xii + 51pp.; [8 pl., 1 tab.]

GISD, 2016. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/

Gupta RK, 1993. Multipurpose trees for agroforestry and wasteland utilisation. Multipurpose trees for agroforestry and wasteland utilisation., xv + 562 pp.; [18 pp. of ref + refs in text]

Gutteridge RC, 1988. Forage research in Thailand. ACIAR Forestry Newsletter No. 5, February 1988, 3

Hanelt P, Buttner R, Mansfeld R, 2001. Mansfeld's Encyclopedia of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops (except Ornamentals), Berlin, Germany: Springer.

Harsh NSK, 1993. Fungicidal control of damping-off in seedlings of Albizia lebbek, Dalbergia sissoo and Leucaena leucocephala caused by Fusarium spp. Commonwealth Forestry Review, 72(1):53-56; 20 ref

Hearne DA, 1975. Trees for Darwin and northern Australia. Canberra, Australia: Australian Government Publishing Service

Hegde NG, Relwani LL, 1988. Psyllids attack Albizia lebbeck (Linn.) Benth. In India. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Research Reports, 6:43-44

Henderson L, 2001. Alien Weeds and Invasive Plants. Plant Protection Research Institute Handbook No. 12. Cape Town, South Africa: Paarl Printers

Hocking D, ed. , 1993. Trees for drylands. New Delhi, India: Oxford and IBH

Howard RA, A history of the botanic garden of St. Vincent, British West Indies. Geographical Review, 44(3), 381-393.

Hyland BPM, Whiffin T, 1993. Australian tropical rain forest trees. An interactive identification system. Volume 2. CSIRO, Australia

I3N-Brasil, 2016. National database of exotic invasive species. (Base de dados nacional de espécies exóticas invasora). Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil: I3N Brasil, Instituto Hórus de Desenvolvimento e Conservação Ambiental.http://i3n.institutohorus.org.br

IABIN, 2003. Listado de expertos y especies invasivas de Dominican Republic. United States Node of the Inter-American Biodiversity Information Net (IABIN). http://www.iabin-us.org/projects/i3n/i3n_documents/catalog_dominicanrep.html

ILDIS, 2016. International Legume Database and Information Service: World Database of Legumes (version 10). Reading, UK: School of Plant Sciences, University of Reading.http://www.ildis.org/

India Biodiversity Portal, 2016. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

Iqbal MZ, Rahmati K, 1992. Tolerance of Albizia lebbeck to Cu and Fe application. Ekologia, CSFR, 11(4):427-430; 18 ref

Jamaluddin, Dadwal VS, Chouhan JS, 1995. Efficacy of different Rhizobium strains of forest trees species on Albizia lebbek. Indian Forester, 121(7):647-650; 10 ref

Kadiata BD, Mulongoy K, 1995. Early nitrogen fixation and utilization in Albizia lebbeck, Leucaena leucocephala, and Gliricidia sepium using nitrogen (N) labelling. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 26(9/10):1397-1409; 23 ref

Kadiata BD, Mulongoy K, Isirimah NO, 1996. Time course of biological nitrogen fixation, nitrogen absorption and biomass accumulation in three woody legumes. Biological Agriculture & Horticulture, 13(3):253-266; 23 ref

Kadiata BD, Ntonifor NN, Mulongoy K, 1992. A severe mealybug infestation on some tree legumes. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Research Reports, 10:70-72

Kairo, M., Ali, B., Cheesman, O., Haysom, K., Murphy, S., 2003. Invasive species threats in the Caribbean region. Report to the Nature Conservancy. In: Invasive species threats in the Caribbean region. Report to the Nature Conservancy . Curepe, Trinidad and Tobago: CAB International.132 pp.

Kalra KK, 1990. Delignification of refiner mechanical pulps from Albizia lebbek and Eucalyptus hybrid by sulphate process. Indian Forester, 116(12):974-976; 2 ref

Keating WG, Bolza E, 1982. Characteristics, properties and uses of timbers. Volume 1. South-east Asia, Northern Australia and the Pacific. xxi + 362 pp.; 24 pl. (col.); 146 ref. Melbourne, Australia: Inkata Press

Ketaki Chowdhery, Khan SN, Mehrotra MD, 1992. Occurrence of virus disease on Albizia lebbeck. Indian Journal of Forestry, 15(3):283-284

Krauss U, 2012. 161 Invasive Alien Species present in Saint Lucia and their current status. Caribbean Alien Invasive Species Network (CIASNET), 12 pp. http://www.ciasnet.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/IAS-present-in-SLU-May-2012-revision.pdf

Kumar N, Toky OP, 1994. Variation in chemical contents of seed, and foliage in Albizia lebbek (L.) Benth. of different provenances. Agroforestry Systems, 25(3):217-225; 26 ref

Langeland KA, Craddock Burks K, 1998. Identification and biology of non-native plants in Florida's natural areas, Florida, USA: University of Florida.

Langeland KA, Ferrell B, Sellers GE, MacDonald RK, Stocker JA, 2009. Integrated management of nonnative plants in natural areas of Florida. SP 242, USA: University of Florida, IFAS Extention.

Larbi A, Smith JW, Kurdi IO, Adekunle IO, Raji AM, Ladipo DO, 1996. Feed value of multipurpose fodder trees and shrubs in West Africa: edible forage production and nutritive value of Millettia thonningii and Albizia lebbeck. Agroforestry Systems, 33(1):41-50; 29 ref

Lenné JM, Boa ER, 1994. Diseases of tree legumes. Forage tree legumes in tropical agriculture., 292-308; 6 pp. of ref

Lindsay KC, Bacle JP, Thomas C, Pearson M, 2009. Vegetation and Flora of Proposed Nevis Peak Protected Areas. Federation of St Kitts and Nevis.http://www.irf.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/NevisPeakProtectedAreaTerrestrialBiodiversity_2009.pdf

Little EL Jr, 1983. Common fuelwood crops. A handbook for their identification. Morgantown, WV: Commune-Tech Associates

Little EL, Wadsworth FH, 1964. Common Trees of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Agriculture Handbook 249, USA: USDA Forest Service.

Lowry JB, 1989. Agronomy and forage quality of Albizia lebbek in the semi-arid tropics. Tropical Grasslands, 23(2):84-91; 17 ref

Lowry JB, 1991. Integrated production from Albizia lebbeck trees and tropical pastures. Agricultural Science, 4: 36-38

Lowry JB, Lowry JBC, 1991. Canopy growth of Albizia lebbeck in the semiarid tropics. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Research Reports, 9: 92; 4 ref

Lowry JB, Prinsen JH, Burrows DM, 1994. Albizia lebbeck - a promising forage tree for semiarid regions. Forage tree legumes in tropical agriculture., 75-83; 24 ref

Luna RK, 1996. Plantation trees. Delhi, India: International Book Distributors

MacDicken KG, 1994. Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. In: Selection and management of nitrogen-fixing trees. FAO of the United Nations and Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development, 110-111

Macdonald IAW, Reaser JK, Bright C, Neville LE, Howard GW, Murphy SJ, Preston G, 2003. Invasive alien species in southern Africa: national reports & directory of resources. [ed. by Macdonald IAW, Reaser JK, Bright C, Neville LE, Howard GW, Murphy SJ, Preston G]. Cape Town, South Africa: Global Invasive Species Programme.http://www.the-eis.com/data/literature/Invasive%20alien%20species%20in%20southern%20Africa.pdf

Madagascar Catalogue, 2016. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Madagascar. St Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.tropicos.org/project/mada

Martinez M, Leon de Pinto G, Alvarez S, Gonzalez de Troconis N, Ocando E, Rivas C, 1995. Composition and properties of Albizia lebbeck gum exudate. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 23(7-8):843-848; 26 ref

Meena JN, Gupta GN, Ram T, 1995. Influence of soil working techniques on early growth of trees in arid region. Annals of Forestry, 3(2):120-128; 8 ref

Mehrotra MD, 1989. Rhizoctonia leaf web blight of Albizia lebbek, a destructive disease in forest nurseries in India. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 19(5-6):382-384

Miah SAR, Rao R, 1996. Regeneration of plantlets from excised roots of Albizia lebbeck Benth. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 34(2):188-189

Miles JM, Kenneally KF, George AS, 1975. Part III. The Prince Regent River reserve environment. WA Dept. of Fisheries and Wildlife, Wildlife Research Bulletin, No. 3: 17-30

Misra KK, Jaiswal HR, 1995. Effect of indole butyric acid on the rooting and survival of air layers on some agroforestry tree species. Indian Journal of Forestry, 18(1):95-96; 2 ref

Misra KK, Saini BC, Jaiswal HR, 1992. Air layering Albizia lebbeck and Dalbergia sissoo with the aid of indole butyric acid. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Research Reports, 10: 51-54; 8 ref

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016. Tropicos database. St Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.tropicos.org/

Morton J, 1983. Woman's Tongue, or cha-cha (Albizia lebbeck Benth.), a fast-growing weed tree in Florida is prized for timber, fuel and forage elsewhere. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society, 96, 173-178.

Murphy PG, Lugo AE, 1986. Ecology of tropical dry forests. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 17, 67-88.

Nasroun TH, Al Mana FA, 1992. The effect of pre-treatment of seeds of some arid zone tree species on their germination responses. Journal of King Saud University, Agricultural Sciences, 4(1):79-93; 5 ref

National Academy of Sciences, 1980. Firewood Crops: Shrub and Tree Species for Energy Production. Washington DC, USA; National Academy of Sciences

Nelson, G, 1994. The trees of Florida: a reference and field guide, Sarasota, Florida, USA: Pineapple Press Inc.

Nielsen I, 1985. The Malesian species of Acacia and Albizia (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae). Opera Botanica, 81:1-50

Nimbkar BV, Nimbkar N, Zende N, 1986. Desertification of western Maharashtra: causes and possible solutions. I. Comparative growth of eight tree species. Forest Ecology and Management, 16(1-4):243-251; 14 ref

Orwa C, Mutina A, Kindt R, Jamnadass R, Simons A, 2009. Agroforestree database: a tree species reference and selection guide version 4.0. Nairobi, Kenya: World Agroforestry Centre ICRAF.

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff MG, et al. , 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96

Padma V, Satyanarayana G, Reddy BM, 1994. Effect of scarification treatments on the germination of Leucaena leucocephala, Albizia lebbeck and Samanea saman [Albizia saman]. Seed Research, 22(1):54-57; 9 ref

Pal BC, Achari B, Yoshikawa K, Arihara S, 1995. Saponins from Albizia lebbeck. Phytochemistry, 38(5):1287-1291; 13 ref

Parrotta JA, 1988. Early growth and yield of Albizia lebbeck at a coastal site in Puerto Rico. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Research Reports, 6: 47-49; 4 ref

Parrotta JA, 2002. Albizia lebbeck. In: Tropical Tree Seed Manual , Agriculture Handbook 721 [ed. by Vozzo JA]. Washington DC, USA: USDA Forest Service.899 pp.

Parrotta JA, 2010. Albizia lebbeck (species description). In: Tropical Tree Seed Manual [ed. by Vozzo JA]. Beltsville, USA: United States Department of Agriculture.274-275. http://www.rngr.net/publications/ttsm

PIER, 2016. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii.http://www.hear.org/pier/index.htm

Prasad KG, Rawat VRS, 1992. Fertilizer use efficiency of different tree species for higher biomass production. Indian Forester, 118(4):265-270; 8 ref

PROTA, 2016. PROTA4U web database. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.https://www.prota4u.org/database/

Purdue University, 2017. NewCROP: the New Crop Resource Online Program. Indiana, USA: Purdue University, Center for New Crops & Plant Products.

Puri DB, Gargya GR, 1995. Afforestation techniques for Albizia lebbeck Linn. (Benth.) on degraded lands. Indian Forester, 121(12):1102-1107; 4 ref

Randall, R. P., 2012. A global compendium of weeds, (Ed.2) [ed. by Randall, R. P. ]. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia.1124 pp. http://www.agric.wa.gov.au

Rawat K, Joshi AP, 1995. Tree structure, lopping pressure and regeneration in a riverine forest of Garhwal Himalaya. Journal of Hill Research, 8: 259-264

Rojas-Sandoval, J., Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., 2015. Naturalization and invasion of alien plants in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Biological Invasions, 17(1), 149-163. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10530-014-0712-3/fulltext.html doi: 10.1007/s10530-014-0712-3

Roy MM, 1992. Effect of seed pretreatment with potassium nitrate and thiourea on germination of Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. Indian Journal of Forestry, 15(4):356-357; 11 ref

Saleem M, Singh DP, 1995. Response of coppicing Albizia lebbek at different heights on regeneration and subsequent biomass production. Indian Forester, 121(1):59-62; 8 ref

Schlink AC, Lowry JB, Gibson DS, 1990. Products from the tree legume Albizia lebbeck as supplements for sheep in the dry tropics. Proceedings of the Australian Society of Animal Production, 18:546; 1 ref

SE-EPPC, 2002. Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council, Nashville, USA. http://www.se-eppc.org/

Seliskar CE, 1964. Virus and viruslike disorders of forest trees. Document, FAO/IUFRO Symposium on Internationally Dangerous Forest Diseases and Insects, Oxford No. FAO/FORPEST 64-5, 1966. pp. 44 + smries. [Many refs.]

Shaikh MHA, 1992. Ecological approach to waste land development. Myforest, 28(1):123-128; 1 ref

Sharma JK, Bhardwaj LN, 1988. Forest nursery diseases and their management. In: Ram Parkash, ed., Advances in Forestry in India, Vol. II, Debra Dun, India: International Book Distributors, 91-118

Sharma K, Mishra VK, 1995. Growth and biomass production of Albizia lebbeck in relation to nitrogen and phosphorus application. Advances in Horticulture and Forestry, 4: 181-189

Shyam Lal, Lal S, 1994. Rehabilitation of open-cast coal mines in Singrauli region of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. Indian Forester, 120(5):400-405

Singh K, 1994. Site suitability and tolerance limits of trees, shrubs and grasses on sodic soils of Ganga-Yamuna Doab. Indian Forester, 120(3):225-235

Sosef MSM, Hong LT, Prawirohatmodjo S, eds, 1998. Plant resources of southeast Asia. Timber trees: lesser-known timbers. Leiden, The Netherlands: Backhuys Publishers, 5(3)

Sotelo A, Contreras E, Flores S, 1995. Nutritional value and content of antinutritional compounds and toxics in ten wild legumes of Yucatan Peninsula. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 47(2):115-123; 12 ref

Space JC, Waterhouse B, Denslow JS, Nelson D, Mazawa TR, 2000. Invasive plant species in Chuuk, Federated States of Micronesia. USDA Forest Service, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry, Honolulu, Hawai'i, USA

Sreemannarayana B, Rao LGG, Joseph B, 1994. Evaluation of multipurpose tree species and their influence on soil fertility improvement. International conference: special issue. Range-Management-and-Agroforestry, 15(2):199-202; 10 ref

Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Sushil Kumar, Thakur ML, 1993. A note on cheetal, Axis axis (Erxleban) damage to nursery stock, at Satyanarayan forest nursery, Dehra Dun (U.P.). Indian Forester, 119(2):157-158; 2 ref

Taide YB, Babu LC, Abraham CC, 1994. Influence of host species in the initial growth and development of sandal (Santalum album Linn.). Indian Journal of Forestry, 17(4):288-292; 8 ref

Thirumurthi S, Annamali R, 1995. Insect predators associated with three species of psyllids infesting forest nurseries. Insect Environment, 1(1):8-9

Tilander Y, 1993. Effects of mulching with Azadirachta indica and Albizia lebbeck leaves on the yield of sorghum under semi-arid conditions in Burkina Faso. Agroforestry Systems, 24(3):277-293; 25 ref

Tilander Y, Ouedraogo G, Yougma F, 1995. Impact of tree coppicing on tree-crop competition in parkland and alley farming systems in semiarid Burkina Faso. Agroforestry Systems, 30(3):363-378; 25 ref

TN-EPPC, 2009. Invasive Exotic Pest Plants in Tennessee. USA: Tennessee Exotic Pest Plant Council.http://s3.amazonaws.com/tneppc2/uploads/619/original/tn-eppc-plant-list-ww-w09-final-1.pdf

Toky OP, Bisht RP, 1993. Above-ground and below-ground biomass allocation in important fuelwood trees from arid north-western India. Journal of Arid Environments, 25(3):315-320; 14 ref

Toky OP, Kumar N, Bisht RP, 1996. Variation in growth of 3-year old provenance trial of Albizia lebbek (L.) Benth. in arid India. Silvae Genetica, 45(1):31-33; 13 ref

Tomar OS, Yadav JSP, 1982. Effect of irrigation with saline and sodic waters on the growth of Albizia lebbeck and soil properties. Indian Journal of Forestry, 5(4):290-297; 18 ref

Tripathi RM, Sen PC, Das PK, 1979. Further studies in the mechanism of the anti-anaphylactic action of Albizia lebbeck an Indian indigenous drug. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 1: 397-406

Troup RS, Joshi HB, 1983. The Silviculture of Indian Trees. Vol IV. Leguminosae. Delhi, India; Controller of Publications

UF-IFAS, 2016. Plant Directory: Albizia lebbeck. Florida, USA: Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS), University of Florida.http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/plant-directory/albizia-lebbeck/

Urban I, 1898. Symbolae Antillanae seu Fundamenta Florae Indiae Occidentalis, Leipzig, Germany: Fratres Borntraeger.

USDA-ARS, 2016. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl

USDA-NRCS, 2016. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center.http://plants.usda.gov/

Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2016. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of the Department of Antioquia (Colombia), Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CV

Venkataramany P, 1968. Silviculture of genus Albizia and species. Silviculture of Indian trees, 22. Delhi, India: Manager of Publications.

Verdcourt B, 1979. A manual of New Guinea legumes. 1979. Botany Bulletin No. 11. Office of Forests, Division of Botany, Lae. pp. 645

von Maydell HJ, 1986. Trees and shrubs of the Sahel, their characteristics and uses. Schriftenreihe der GTZ, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit, German Federal Republic

Watt JM, Breyer-Brandwijk MG, 1962. The medicinal and poisonous plants of southern and eastern Africa. 2nd ed. (rev.) 1962. Edinburgh, UK: E.& S. Livingstone Ltd

Weeds of Australia, 2016. Weeds of Australia, Biosecurity Queensland Edition. http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/03030800-0b07-490a-8d04-0605030c0f01/media/Html/search.html?zoom_query=

Wheeler JR, Rye BL, Koch BL, Wilson AJG, 1992. Flora of the Kimberley region. Western Australian Herbarium, Perth: Department of Conservation and Land Management, 1327 p

Witt, A., Luke, Q., 2017. Guide to the naturalized and invasive plants of Eastern Africa, [ed. by Witt, A., Luke, Q.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI.vi + 601 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158959 doi:10.1079/9781786392145.0000

Contributors

Top of page

01/03/17 Updated by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Marianne Jennifer Datiles, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map