Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Ipomoea purpurea
(tall morning glory)

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Datasheet

Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 29 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Ipomoea purpurea
  • Preferred Common Name
  • tall morning glory
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • I. purpurea is an annual, fast growing vine widely introduced throughout the tropics where it has become naturalized and invasive. This species has a weedy behaviour that facilitates it to colonize new areas. I...

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    Compendia
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    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); scrambling, invasive habit.  Porto, Portugal. September, 2014.
TitleInvasive habit
CaptionIpomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); scrambling, invasive habit. Porto, Portugal. September, 2014.
Copyright©A.R. Pittaway-2014
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); scrambling, invasive habit.  Porto, Portugal. September, 2014.
Invasive habitIpomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); scrambling, invasive habit. Porto, Portugal. September, 2014.©A.R. Pittaway-2014
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); scrambling, invasive habit.  Porto, Portugal. September, 2014.
TitleInvasive habit
CaptionIpomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); scrambling, invasive habit. Porto, Portugal. September, 2014.
Copyright©A.R. Pittaway-2014
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); scrambling, invasive habit.  Porto, Portugal. September, 2014.
Invasive habitIpomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); scrambling, invasive habit. Porto, Portugal. September, 2014.©A.R. Pittaway-2014
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); scrambling, invasive habit.  Porto, Portugal. September, 2014.
TitleInvasive habit
CaptionIpomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); scrambling, invasive habit. Porto, Portugal. September, 2014.
Copyright©A.R. Pittaway-2014
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); scrambling, invasive habit.  Porto, Portugal. September, 2014.
Invasive habitIpomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); scrambling, invasive habit. Porto, Portugal. September, 2014.©A.R. Pittaway-2014

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth

Preferred Common Name

  • tall morning glory

Other Scientific Names

  • Ipomoea diversifolia Lindl.
  • Ipomoea glandulifera Ruiz & Pav.
  • Ipomoea hirsutula J. Jacq.
  • Ipomoea hispida Zucc.
  • Ipomoea purpurea var. diversifolia (Lindl.) O'Donell
  • Ipomoea purpurea var. purpurea
  • Pharbitis diversifolius Lindl.
  • Pharbitis hispida (Zucc.) Choisy
  • Pharbitis nil var. diversifolia (Lindl.) Choisy
  • Pharbitis purpurea (L.) Voigt
  • Pharbitis purpurea Asch. in Schweinf.

International Common Names

  • English: common morning glory; tall morning-glory
  • Spanish: bejuco; campanilla morada; correhuela anual; gloria; maravilla; suspiro; tortillera; trompillo
  • French: ipomee pourpre; liseron pourpre
  • Chinese: yuan ye qian niu

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: bons-dias; campainha; campainha; corda-da-viola; corriola; glória-da-manhã; jitirana
  • Cuba: aguinaldo purpúreo; aguinaldo purpúreo
  • Czech Republic: povijnice nachová; povojník purpurový
  • France: volubilis
  • Germany: Purpur- Trichterwinde
  • Guatemala: campanilla; quiebra-cajete; quilamul
  • Haiti: liane médecine
  • Italy: campanella turchina
  • Japan: marubaasagao
  • Lithuania: purpurinis sukutis
  • Mexico: batatilla; bejuquillo; campanilla; gloria de la mañana; manto de la virgen; quiebraplato
  • Netherlands: dagbloem
  • South Africa: morning glory; trompettertjier
  • Spain: maravillas; suspiros
  • USA: common morning-glory; morning-glory

EPPO code

  • IPOHS (Ipomoea hispida)
  • PHBPU (Pharbitis purpurea)

Summary of Invasiveness

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I. purpurea is an annual, fast growing vine widely introduced throughout the tropics where it has become naturalized and invasive. This species has a weedy behaviour that facilitates it to colonize new areas. It is included in the Global Compendium of Weeds, where is listed as an agricultural and environmental weed (Randall, 2012). In cultivated areas, the occurrence of I. purpurea results in reduced yield, along with causing difficulties during harvesting of crops (Vibrans, 2009). In ruderal areas, disturbed sites, and natural forests, it behaves as an environmental weed which has the potential to outcompete native species for nutrients, water and sunlight. It climbs using other plants for support, and grows forming a dense canopy that shades out native vegetation. I. purpurea is listed as invasive in Australia, South Africa, Namibia, Spain, China, the United States, Cuba and the Dominican Republic (Randall, 2012; Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014; PIER, 2014; University of Queensland, 2014). It is also separately reported as present/naturalized in Malawi and as invasive in Ethiopia.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Solanales
  •                         Family: Convolvulaceae
  •                             Genus: Pharbitis
  •                                 Species: Ipomoea purpurea

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The family Convolvulaceae includes about 57 genera and 1625 species (Stevens, 2012). Ipomoea is one of the dominant genera within this family with approximately 650 species mainly distributed in tropical and warm temperate regions of the world and known as “morning glories” (Miller et al., 1999). Most of the species within this genus are twining climbing plants and include annual and perennial herbs, lianas, shrubs and small trees (Miller et al., 1999).

The genus name Ipomoea comes from the Greek words “ips” which means “worm”, and the word “homois” which means “similar to” referring to the genus wormlike twining habit. The species name “purpurea” means “purple” which refers to the colour of its flowers (Davidse et al., 2012). 

Description

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Herbaceous vine, twining, 2-3 m in length. Stems cylindrical, slender, pilose or hirsute.

Leaves alternate; blades simple, 2-10 × 2-10 cm, cordiform or deeply trilobed, the lobes ovate orlanceolate, chartaceous, strigulose on both surfaces, the apex acuminate, the base cordiform, the margins entire or slightly sinuate, ciliate; upper and lower surface with the veins slightly prominent; petioles 2.5-6 cm long, slender, strigulose, sulcate. Flowers solitary or in simple dichasia, axillary; peduncles longer than the petioles; bracts subulate, approximately 3 mm long, not forming an involucre. Calyx green, of 5 subequal sepals, 8-16 mm long, chartaceous, oblong lanceolate, the outer ones slightly broader than the inner ones, acute at the apex, hirsute outside on the basal portion; corolla blue, purple, pink, or with lines (forming a star) of these colours on a white background, 4-4.5 cm long, the throat white, limb with shallow, rounded lobes; stamens and stigmas pink, not exserted. Capsule, 9-10 mm in diameter, glabrous, the pericarp thin, with the chartaceous sepals persistent at the base; seeds 4 per fruit, pyriform, 3-4 mm long, black, glabrous (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005). 

Plant Type

Top of page Annual
Herbaceous
Seed propagated
Vine / climber

Distribution

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The exact native range of I. purpurea is obscure; however it is thought to have originated in tropical America. It now also occurs in Asia, Africa, Europe and Australia (PIER, 2014; PROTA, 2014; University of Queensland, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014). 

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014Occurring in most provinces of China
-AnhuiWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-BeijingWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-FujianWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-GansuWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-GuangdongWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-GuangxiWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-GuizhouWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-HainanWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-HebeiWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-HeilongjiangWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-HenanWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-Hong KongWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-HubeiWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-HunanWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-JiangsuWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-JiangxiWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-JilinWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-LiaoningWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-MacauWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-Nei MengguWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-NingxiaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-QinghaiWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-ShaanxiWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-ShandongWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-ShanghaiWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-ShanxiWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-SichuanWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-TianjinWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-TibetWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-XinjiangWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-YunnanWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-ZhejiangWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
IndiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Arunachal PradeshPresentIntroduced Invasive Chandra, 2012
-AssamPresentIntroduced Invasive Chandra, 2012
-Himachal PradeshPresentIntroduced Invasive Chandra, 2012
-Jammu and KashmirPresentIntroduced Invasive Chandra, 2012
-ManipurPresentIntroduced Invasive Chandra, 2012
-MeghalayaPresentIntroduced Invasive Chandra, 2012
-MizoramPresentIntroduced Invasive Chandra, 2012
-SikkimPresentIntroduced Invasive Chandra, 2012
-TripuraPresentIntroduced Invasive Chandra, 2012
-UttarakhandPresentIntroduced Invasive Chandra, 2012
-West BengalPresentIntroduced Invasive Chandra, 2012
IndonesiaPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
JapanPresentIntroducedMito and Uesugi, 2004
NepalPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
Sri LankaPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
TaiwanWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
TurkeyPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2014Istanbul

Africa

EthiopiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Witt and Luke, 2017
KenyaPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2014
LesothoPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2014
MalawiPresentIntroducedWitt and Luke, 2017Naturalized
MozambiquePresentIntroducedPROTA, 2014
NamibiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Bethune et al., 2004
South AfricaPresentIntroduced Invasive Foxcroft et al., 2007
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive DAISIE, 2014
SwazilandPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2014
TanzaniaPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2014
UgandaPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2014
ZambiaPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2014
ZimbabwePresentIntroducedPROTA, 2014

North America

CanadaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-OntarioWidespreadIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-QuebecWidespreadIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
MexicoPresentNativeVibrans, 2009Weed
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlabamaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-ArizonaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014Noxious weed
-ArkansasWidespreadIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014Noxious weed
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-ColoradoPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-ConnecticutPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-DelawarePresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-District of ColumbiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-FloridaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-GeorgiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-IllinoisPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-IndianaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-IowaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-KansasWidespreadIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2014Noxious weed
-KentuckyPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-MainePresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-MarylandPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-MassachusettsPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-MichiganPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-MinnesotaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-MississippiPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-MissouriPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-MontanaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-NebraskaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-NevadaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-New HampshirePresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-New JerseyPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-New MexicoPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-New YorkPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-North CarolinaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-North DakotaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-OhioPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-OklahomaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-OregonPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-Rhode IslandPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-South CarolinaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-South DakotaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-TennesseePresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-TexasPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-UtahPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-VermontPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-VirginiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-WashingtonPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-West VirginiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-WisconsinPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014

Central America and Caribbean

British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012Tortola
Costa RicaPresentNativeDavidse et al., 2012
CubaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012
Dominican RepublicWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Kairo et al., 2003
El SalvadorPresentNativeDavidse et al., 2012
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
HondurasPresentNativeDavidse et al., 2012
NicaraguaPresentNativeDavidse et al., 2012
PanamaPresentNativeDavidse et al., 2012
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012St Croix, St Thomas

South America

ArgentinaPresentNativeZuloaga et al., 2008Buenos Aires, Catamarca, Chaco, Córdoba, Corrientes, Distrito Federal, Entre Ríos, Formosa, Jujuy, La Pampa, La Rioja, Mendoza, Misiones, Salta, Sgo. del Estero, Santa Fe, San Juan, San Luis, Tucumán
BoliviaPresentDavidse et al., 2012
BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AcrePresentNativeSimão-Bianchini and Ferreira, 2014
-AmazonasPresentNativeSimão-Bianchini and Ferreira, 2014
-BahiaPresentNativeSimão-Bianchini and Ferreira, 2014
-Espirito SantoPresentNativeSimão-Bianchini and Ferreira, 2014
-MaranhaoPresentNativeSimão-Bianchini and Ferreira, 2014
-Mato GrossoPresentNativeSimão-Bianchini and Ferreira, 2014
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentNativeSimão-Bianchini and Ferreira, 2014
-Minas GeraisPresentNativeSimão-Bianchini and Ferreira, 2014
-ParaPresentNativeSimão-Bianchini and Ferreira, 2014
-ParanaPresentNativeSimão-Bianchini and Ferreira, 2014
-PernambucoPresentNativeSimão-Bianchini and Ferreira, 2014
-Rio de JaneiroPresentNativeSimão-Bianchini and Ferreira, 2014
-Rio Grande do SulPresentNativeSimão-Bianchini and Ferreira, 2014
-Santa CatarinaPresentNativeSimão-Bianchini and Ferreira, 2014
-Sao PauloPresentNativeSimão-Bianchini and Ferreira, 2014
-SergipePresentNativeSimão-Bianchini and Ferreira, 2014
ChilePresentIntroducedBelov, 2013
ColombiaPresentNativeDavidse et al., 2012
EcuadorPresentNativeDavidse et al., 2012
ParaguayPresentNativeDavidse et al., 2012
PeruPresentNativeDavidse et al., 2012
UruguayPresentZuloaga et al., 2008
VenezuelaPresentNativeDavidse et al., 2012

Europe

AustriaPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2014Very common weed
BelgiumPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2014
CyprusPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2014
Czech RepublicPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2014
DenmarkPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2014
EstoniaPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2014
FrancePresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2014
-CorsicaPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2014
GermanyPresentIntroducedNOBANIS, 2014
GreecePresentIntroduced Invasive DAISIE, 2014
HungaryPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2014
ItalyPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2014
LithuaniaPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2014
NorwayPresentIntroducedNOBANIS, 2014
PortugalPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2014
-MadeiraPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2014
RomaniaPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2014
Russian FederationPresentIntroducedNOBANIS, 2014Potentially invasive
SpainPresentIntroduced Invasive DAISIE, 2014
-Balearic IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive DAISIE, 2014
SwedenPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2014
UkrainePresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2014

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesWidespreadIntroduced Invasive University of Queensland, 2014
-QueenslandWidespreadIntroduced Invasive University of Queensland, 2014
New CaledoniaPresentIntroduced Invasive Swarbrick, 1997

History of Introduction and Spread

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Because the native distribution range of this species is still unclear, it is very difficult to determine its history of introduction. However, it is known that I. purpurea was introduced worldwide to be used as an ornamental flowering vine (Randall, 2012; USDA-ARS, 2014). It was introduced as an ornamental in 1621 in England via Spain and it was probably introduced in the United States during the 1700s (Defelice, 2001). In northern Europe, this species was first recorded in Austria in 1800, Estonia in 1807, Russia in 1942, Norway in 1960 and Lithuania in 1988 (NOBANIS, 2014). In Puerto Rico, it was first reported in 1881 (US National Herbarium). 

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of I. purpurea is high. This species is still widely cultivated as an ornamental around the world. It can also grow as an agricultural and environmental weed (Halvorson, 2003; Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012; University of Queensland, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014). Once established, plants produce large numbers of tiny seeds which can be dispersed by water, wind, humans and as seed contaminants in seed crops, soil and machinery. Therefore, the probability of invasion of this species into new habitats remains high.

Habitat

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I. purpurea can be found growing in agricultural, horticultural and nursery crops, and in uncultivated fields. It also grows along roadsides, in waste places, and in thickets in secondary forests. In China, it grows in roadsides, hedges, and fields at elevations from sea level to 2800 m. In South Africa, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda, it invades waste and cultivated ground mainly in riparian areas (banks of watercourses), wetland and coastal habitats (BioNET-EAFRINET, 2014). In Australia, it is mainly a weed of agricultural areas and disturbed sites such as crops, roadsides, parks, gardens, fence-lines and waste areas. However, it also invades bushland and riparian areas and can be a serious environmental weed in warm moist areas (University of Queensland, 2014). 

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial-managed
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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I. purpurea grows as an agricultural and environmental weed. It is listed as a common weed in maize plantations (Vibrans, 2009). In Mexico, it has been recorded as a weed in cotton, coffee, sugarcane, peppers, beans, tomatoes, potatoes, sorghum, soyabeans and fruit orchards (Vibrans, 2009). 

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
Zea mays (maize)PoaceaeMain

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Vegetative growing stage

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for I. purpurea varies from 2n = 30 to 2n= 32 (Chiarini 2001; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014).

Reproductive Biology

I. purpurea flowers open in the morning and last from a few hours to through the day. The species relies primarily on insect pollination, but it is self-compatible and thus also capable of self-pollination. About 30% of the flowers are self-pollinated. Cross-pollination occurs mostly by bumblebees and small butterflies; darker coloured flowers have a higher degree of outcrossing (Defelice, 2001, Halvorson, 2003).

Physiology and Phenology

In North America, I. purpurea has been recorded flowering from July to September (Halvorson, 2003). In Mexico, it flowers from June to November and fruits from August to December (Vibrans, 2009). In Puerto Rico, it produces flowers from June to January (Acevedo-Rodriguez, 2005).

Longevity

I. purpurea grows as an annual herb. In North America, seeds germinate in early summer and moisture stress may delay the germination. Germination occurs over a temperature range of 15-35°C and maximum germination occurs at 24°C (Halvorson, 2003).

Environmental Requirements

I. purpurea grows best on moist, well-drained, light or sandy loam soils. However, plants are tolerant of most soil conditions, including different textures and pH as well as dry, partially saline and infertile soils. The species grows best in sunny conditions and does not thrive in heavily shaded areas (Halvorson, 2003; Vibrans, 2009; PROTA, 2014).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Dw - Continental climate with dry winter Tolerated Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters)

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 10 25

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal
Uniform

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • saline

Notes on Natural Enemies

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The leaf rust Coleosporium ipomoeae, and anthracnose Colletotrichum dematium cause stem, roots, and foliage lesions, leaf discoloration, and stunted growth in I. purpurea (Defelice, 2001). 

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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I. purpurea is a copious seed producer. Reproductive individuals can produce up to 26,000 seeds/plant. Seeds can be dispersed by wind, rain, and gravity. Seeds can also be secondarily dispersed by birds and by human activities via contaminated crop and flower seeds (Halvorson, 2003). 

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
DisturbanceIt grows as a weed Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2014
Escape from confinement or garden escapeSeeds Yes PROTA, 2014
Garden waste disposalSeeds Yes USDA-ARS, 2014
Intentional releaseOften planted as ornamental for its colorful flowers Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2014
Medicinal useUsed in traditional medicine Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2014
Nursery tradePotential seed contaminant Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2014
Ornamental purposesOften planted as an ornamental for its colorful flowers Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2014

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesPotential seed contaminant Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2014
Machinery and equipmentPotential seed contaminant Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2014
Soil, sand and gravelPotential seed contaminant Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2014
WaterSeeds Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2014
WindSeeds Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2014

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Positive

Economic Impact

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I. purpurea is a common weed of agricultural areas. Infestations of I. purpurea in crops results in stunted growth and reduced yield, along with causing difficulties during crop harvesting (Defelice 2001). Additionally, parts of this plant, including the seeds are poisonous if ingested.

Environmental Impact

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I. purpurea is an environmental weed affecting roadsides, gardens, forest edges, secondary forests, and waste areas. In Africa (i.e., South Africa, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda) and Australia, this species is also invading bushland, wetlands, riparian zones, and watercourses and can be a serious environmental weed in warm moist areas, where it is displacing native plants (BioNET-EAFRINET, 2014; University of Queensland, 2014). Once established in natural areas, I. purpurea has the potential to become invasive because it grows climbing on mature trees, shrubs and other plant species producing a profuse canopy and consequently outcompeting the supporting species for nutrients, water and sunlight (Halvorson, 2003; Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
Impact outcomes
  • Altered trophic level
  • Host damage
  • Infrastructure damage
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Competition - smothering
  • Competition - strangling
  • Poisoning
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant

Uses

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I. purpurea is commonly planted as an ornamental for its colourful blue-purple flowers. It is also used in traditional medicine. The flowers, seeds, roots, and stems are used as a laxative, hallucinogen, purgative, and for treatment of syphilis (USDA-ARS, 2014; PROTA, 2014). 

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Amenity

General

  • Ornamental

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Potted plant
  • Seed trade

Prevention and Control

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Physical/Mechanical Control

Seedlings are frail and easy to pull or hoe. Small infestations can be cut near the base of the plant; the roots require digging out by hand. For larger infestations with many stems, cutting and subsequent applications of herbicides are required (Defelice, 2001).

Chemical Control

The herbicides 2,4-D, atrazine, diquat, diuron, glyphosate, oxyfluorfen, pronamide and simazine have been recommended for annual morning-glory. For large infestations, the stems can be cut higher up (breast height) causing the upper growth to die. Then the basal stems can be cut closer to the ground following with an undiluted (or up to 1: 3 dilution) dose of herbicide such as glyphosate onto the stems (Halvorson, 2003).

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, 2005. Vines and climbing plants of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 51:483 pp

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Belov M, 2013. ChileFlora. http://www.chileflora.com/index.html

Bethune S, Griffin M, Joubert DF, 2004. National Review of Invasive Alien Species, Namibia. Windhoek, : Ministry of Environment and Tourism

BioNET-EAFRINET, 2014. East African Network for Taxonomy. Online Key and Fact Sheets for Invasive plants. http://keys.lucidcentral.org/keys/v3/eafrinet/weeds/key/weeds/Media/Html/index.htm

Chandra SK, 2012. Invasive Alien Plants of Indian Himalayan Region- Diversity and Implication. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 3:177-184

Chiarini FE, 2001. [English title not available]. (Estudios cromosómicos en algunas especies de Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae).) Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica, 36:289-296

DAISIE, 2014. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. www.europe-aliens.org/default.do

Davidse G, Sousa-Peña M, Knapp S, Chiang Cabrera F, 2012. Convolvulaceae. In: Flora Mesoamericana [ed. by Davidse, G. \Sousa Sánchez, M. \Knapp, S. \Chiang Cabrera, F.]., Mexico: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México

Defelice MS, 2001. Tall Morning glory, Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth -- flower or foe? Weed Technology, 15:601-606

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Foxcroft LC, Richardson DM, Wilson JRU, 2007. Ornamental plants as invasive aliens: problems and solutions in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Environmental Management, 41(1):32-51

GBIF, 2014. GBIF data portal. Copenhagen, Denmark: Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). http://data.gbif.org

Halvorson WL, 2003. Factsheet for: Ipomoea purpurea. USGS Weeds in the West Project: Status of Introduced Plants in Southern Arizona Parks. http://sdrsnet.srnr.arizona.edu/data/sdrs/ww/docs/ipom_spp.pdf

Kairo M, Ali B, Cheesman O, Haysom K, Murphy S, 2003. Invasive species threats in the Caribbean region. Report to the Nature Conservancy. Curepe, Trinidad and Tobago: CAB International, 132 pp. http://www.issg.org/database/species/reference_files/Kairo%20et%20al,%202003.pdf

Miller RE, Rausher MD, Manos PS, 1999. Phylogenetic systematics of Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) based on ITS and Waxy sequences. Systematic Botany, 24(2):209-227

Mito T, Uesugi T, 2004. Invasive alien species in Japan: the status quo and the new regulation for prevention of their adverse effects. Global Environmental Research, 8(2):171-191

NOBANIS, 2014. North European and Baltic Network on Invasive Alien Species. http://www.nobanis.org/

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff MG, et al. , 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96

PIER, 2014. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

PROTA, 2014. PROTA4U web database. Grubben GJH, Denton OA, eds. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. http://www.prota4u.org/search.asp

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

Simão-Bianchini R, Ferreira PPA, 2014. Ipomoea in Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil (Ipomoea in the list of species of the flora of Brazil). Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro

Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Swarbrick JT, 1997. Weeds of the Pacific Islands. Technical Paper - South Pacific Commission, No. 209: 124 pp

University of Queensland, 2014. Weeds of Australia. Biosecurity Queensland Edition. Australia: University of Queensland. http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/

USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2014. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

Vibrans H, 2009. Malezas de México. Listado alfabético de las especies, ordenadas por género (Weeds of Mexico. Alphabetical list of species, ordered by genera). http://www.conabio.gob.mx/malezasdemexico/2inicio/paginas/lista-plantas-generos.htm

Witt, A., Luke, Q., 2017. Guide to the naturalized and invasive plants of Eastern Africa, [ed. by Witt, A., Luke, Q.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI.vi + 601 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158959 doi:10.1079/9781786392145.0000

Zuloaga FO, Morrone O, Belgrano MJ, 2008. Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur: (Argentina, Sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay) ([English title not available])., USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 3348 pp

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indieshttp://botany.si.edu/antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm
European Network on Invasive Alien Species (NOBANIS)http://www.nobanis.org/
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
PIERhttp://www.hear.org/pier/index.html
USDA Germplasm Resources Information Networkhttp://www.ars-grin.gov/
USDA Plants Databasehttp://plants.usda.gov

Contributors

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01/12/14 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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