Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Ipomoea purpurea
(tall morning glory)

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Datasheet

Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Ipomoea purpurea
  • Preferred Common Name
  • tall morning glory
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • I. purpurea is an annual, fast growing vine widely introduced throughout the tropics where it has become naturalized and invasive. This species has a weedy behaviour that facilitates it to colonize new areas. It is included in the Global...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); scrambling, invasive habit. Porto, Portugal. September, 2014.
TitleInvasive habit
CaptionIpomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); scrambling, invasive habit. Porto, Portugal. September, 2014.
Copyright©A.R. Pittaway-2014
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); scrambling, invasive habit. Porto, Portugal. September, 2014.
Invasive habitIpomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); scrambling, invasive habit. Porto, Portugal. September, 2014.©A.R. Pittaway-2014
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); scrambling, invasive habit. Porto, Portugal. September, 2014.
TitleInvasive habit
CaptionIpomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); scrambling, invasive habit. Porto, Portugal. September, 2014.
Copyright©A.R. Pittaway-2014
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); scrambling, invasive habit. Porto, Portugal. September, 2014.
Invasive habitIpomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); scrambling, invasive habit. Porto, Portugal. September, 2014.©A.R. Pittaway-2014
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); scrambling, invasive habit. Porto, Portugal. September, 2014.
TitleInvasive habit
CaptionIpomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); scrambling, invasive habit. Porto, Portugal. September, 2014.
Copyright©A.R. Pittaway-2014
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); scrambling, invasive habit. Porto, Portugal. September, 2014.
Invasive habitIpomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); scrambling, invasive habit. Porto, Portugal. September, 2014.©A.R. Pittaway-2014
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Flower. Tandil, Argentina. March 2021.
TitleFlower
CaptionIpomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Flower. Tandil, Argentina. March 2021.
Copyright©Ezarate/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Flower. Tandil, Argentina. March 2021.
FlowerIpomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Flower. Tandil, Argentina. March 2021.©Ezarate/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Flowers and foliage. Ukraine, Vinnytsia. August 2016.
TitleFlowers and foliage
CaptionIpomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Flowers and foliage. Ukraine, Vinnytsia. August 2016.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by George Chernilevsky/via Wikimedia Commons
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Flowers and foliage. Ukraine, Vinnytsia. August 2016.
Flowers and foliageIpomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Flowers and foliage. Ukraine, Vinnytsia. August 2016.Public Domain - Released by George Chernilevsky/via Wikimedia Commons
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Flowers and foliage. Hillcrest, Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa. December 2007.
TitleFlowers and foliage
CaptionIpomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Flowers and foliage. Hillcrest, Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa. December 2007.
Copyright©SAplants/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 2.5
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Flowers and foliage. Hillcrest, Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa. December 2007.
Flowers and foliageIpomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Flowers and foliage. Hillcrest, Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa. December 2007.©SAplants/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 2.5
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Flower, Hatzenbach, Korneuburg, Austria. August 2018.
TitleFlower
CaptionIpomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Flower, Hatzenbach, Korneuburg, Austria. August 2018.
Copyright©Stefan Lefnaer/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Flower, Hatzenbach, Korneuburg, Austria. August 2018.
FlowerIpomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Flower, Hatzenbach, Korneuburg, Austria. August 2018.©Stefan Lefnaer/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Flower, Hatzenbach, Korneuburg, Austria. August 2018.
TitleFlower
CaptionIpomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Flower, Hatzenbach, Korneuburg, Austria. August 2018.
Copyright©Stefan Lefnaer/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Flower, Hatzenbach, Korneuburg, Austria. August 2018.
FlowerIpomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Flower, Hatzenbach, Korneuburg, Austria. August 2018.©Stefan Lefnaer/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Blue flower. 7th Brigade Park, Chermside, Australia. June 2014.
TitleFlower
CaptionIpomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Blue flower. 7th Brigade Park, Chermside, Australia. June 2014.
Copyright©John Robert McPherson/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Blue flower. 7th Brigade Park, Chermside, Australia. June 2014.
FlowerIpomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Blue flower. 7th Brigade Park, Chermside, Australia. June 2014.©John Robert McPherson/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Pink flower and stems. March 2016.
TitleFlower
CaptionIpomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Pink flower and stems. March 2016.
Copyright©Alejandro Bayer Tamayo/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 2.0
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Pink flower and stems. March 2016.
FlowerIpomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Pink flower and stems. March 2016.©Alejandro Bayer Tamayo/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 2.0
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Pink flower. March 2016.
TitleFlowers
CaptionIpomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Pink flower. March 2016.
Copyright©Alejandro Bayer Tamayo/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 2.0
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Pink flower. March 2016.
FlowersIpomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Pink flower. March 2016.©Alejandro Bayer Tamayo/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 2.0
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Habit. Cambridge University Botanic Garden, UK. July 2010.
TitleHabit
CaptionIpomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Habit. Cambridge University Botanic Garden, UK. July 2010.
Copyright©Magnus Manske/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 2.5
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Habit. Cambridge University Botanic Garden, UK. July 2010.
HabitIpomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Habit. Cambridge University Botanic Garden, UK. July 2010.©Magnus Manske/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 2.5
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Habit. July 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionIpomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Habit. July 2009.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by Doubleknight/via Wikimedia Commons
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Habit. July 2009.
HabitIpomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Habit. July 2009.Public Domain - Released by Doubleknight/via Wikimedia Commons
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Flower bud just before anthesis. Hillcrest, Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa. December 2007.
TitleBud
CaptionIpomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Flower bud just before anthesis. Hillcrest, Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa. December 2007.
Copyright©SAplants/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 2.5
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Flower bud just before anthesis. Hillcrest, Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa. December 2007.
BudIpomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Flower bud just before anthesis. Hillcrest, Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa. December 2007.©SAplants/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 2.5
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Foliage. August 2006.
TitleFoliage
CaptionIpomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Foliage. August 2006.
Copyright©2006 Derek Ramsey (Ram-Man)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 2.5
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Foliage. August 2006.
FoliageIpomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Foliage. August 2006.©2006 Derek Ramsey (Ram-Man)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 2.5
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Seedlings. UMCS Botanical Garden in Lublin, Poland. May 2018.
TitleSeedlings
CaptionIpomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Seedlings. UMCS Botanical Garden in Lublin, Poland. May 2018.
Copyright©Salicyna/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Seedlings. UMCS Botanical Garden in Lublin, Poland. May 2018.
SeedlingsIpomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Seedlings. UMCS Botanical Garden in Lublin, Poland. May 2018.©Salicyna/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Pollen viewed under scanning electron microscope.
TitlePollen
CaptionIpomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Pollen viewed under scanning electron microscope.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by Pixeltoo/via Wikimedia Commons
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Pollen viewed under scanning electron microscope.
PollenIpomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Pollen viewed under scanning electron microscope.Public Domain - Released by Pixeltoo/via Wikimedia Commons
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Seeds.
Title
CaptionIpomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Seeds.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by ARS Systematic Botany and Mycology Laboratory, Turkey (taken by Steve Hurst)/via Wikimedia Commons
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Seeds.
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory); Seeds.Public Domain - Released by ARS Systematic Botany and Mycology Laboratory, Turkey (taken by Steve Hurst)/via Wikimedia Commons

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth

Preferred Common Name

  • tall morning glory

Other Scientific Names

  • Ipomoea diversifolia Lindl.
  • Ipomoea glandulifera Ruiz & Pav.
  • Ipomoea hirsutula J. Jacq.
  • Ipomoea hispida Zucc.
  • Ipomoea purpurea var. diversifolia (Lindl.) O'Donell
  • Ipomoea purpurea var. purpurea
  • Pharbitis diversifolius Lindl.
  • Pharbitis hispida (Zucc.) Choisy
  • Pharbitis nil var. diversifolia (Lindl.) Choisy
  • Pharbitis purpurea (L.) Voigt
  • Pharbitis purpurea Asch. in Schweinf.

International Common Names

  • English: common morning glory; tall morning-glory
  • Spanish: bejuco; campanilla morada; correhuela anual; gloria; maravilla; suspiro; tortillera; trompillo
  • French: ipomee pourpre; liseron pourpre
  • Chinese: yuan ye qian niu

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: bons-dias; campainha; campainha; corda-da-viola; corriola; glória-da-manhã; jitirana
  • Cuba: aguinaldo purpúreo; aguinaldo purpúreo
  • Czech Republic: povijnice nachová; povojník purpurový
  • France: volubilis
  • Germany: Purpur- Trichterwinde
  • Guatemala: campanilla; quiebra-cajete; quilamul
  • Haiti: liane médecine
  • Italy: campanella turchina
  • Japan: marubaasagao
  • Lithuania: purpurinis sukutis
  • Mexico: batatilla; bejuquillo; campanilla; gloria de la mañana; manto de la virgen; quiebraplato
  • Netherlands: dagbloem
  • South Africa: morning glory; trompettertjier
  • Spain: maravillas; suspiros
  • USA: common morning-glory; morning-glory

EPPO code

  • IPOHS (Ipomoea hispida)
  • PHBPU (Pharbitis purpurea)

Summary of Invasiveness

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I. purpurea is an annual, fast growing vine widely introduced throughout the tropics where it has become naturalized and invasive. This species has a weedy behaviour that facilitates it to colonize new areas. It is included in the Global Compendium of Weeds, where is listed as an agricultural and environmental weed (Randall, 2012). In cultivated areas, the occurrence of I. purpurea results in reduced yield, along with causing difficulties during harvesting of crops (Vibrans, 2009). In ruderal areas, disturbed sites, and natural forests, it behaves as an environmental weed which has the potential to outcompete native species for nutrients, water and sunlight. It climbs using other plants for support, and grows forming a dense canopy that shades out native vegetation. I. purpurea is listed as invasive in Australia, South Africa, Namibia, Spain, China, the United States, Cuba and the Dominican Republic (Randall, 2012; Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014; PIER, 2014; University of Queensland, 2014). It is also separately reported as present/naturalized in Malawi and as invasive in Ethiopia.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Solanales
  •                         Family: Convolvulaceae
  •                             Genus: Pharbitis
  •                                 Species: Ipomoea purpurea

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The family Convolvulaceae includes about 57 genera and 1625 species (Stevens, 2012). Ipomoea is one of the dominant genera within this family with approximately 650 species mainly distributed in tropical and warm temperate regions of the world and known as “morning glories” (Miller et al., 1999). Most of the species within this genus are twining climbing plants and include annual and perennial herbs, lianas, shrubs and small trees (Miller et al., 1999).

The genus name Ipomoea comes from the Greek words “ips” which means “worm”, and the word “homois” which means “similar to” referring to the genus wormlike twining habit. The species name “purpurea” means “purple” which refers to the colour of its flowers (Davidse et al., 2012). 

Description

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Herbaceous vine, twining, 2-3 m in length. Stems cylindrical, slender, pilose or hirsute.

Leaves alternate; blades simple, 2-10 × 2-10 cm, cordiform or deeply trilobed, the lobes ovate orlanceolate, chartaceous, strigulose on both surfaces, the apex acuminate, the base cordiform, the margins entire or slightly sinuate, ciliate; upper and lower surface with the veins slightly prominent; petioles 2.5-6 cm long, slender, strigulose, sulcate. Flowers solitary or in simple dichasia, axillary; peduncles longer than the petioles; bracts subulate, approximately 3 mm long, not forming an involucre. Calyx green, of 5 subequal sepals, 8-16 mm long, chartaceous, oblong lanceolate, the outer ones slightly broader than the inner ones, acute at the apex, hirsute outside on the basal portion; corolla blue, purple, pink, or with lines (forming a star) of these colours on a white background, 4-4.5 cm long, the throat white, limb with shallow, rounded lobes; stamens and stigmas pink, not exserted. Capsule, 9-10 mm in diameter, glabrous, the pericarp thin, with the chartaceous sepals persistent at the base; seeds 4 per fruit, pyriform, 3-4 mm long, black, glabrous (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005). 

Plant Type

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Annual
Herbaceous
Seed propagated
Vine / climber

Distribution

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The exact native range of I. purpurea is obscure; however it is thought to have originated in tropical America. It now also occurs in Asia, Africa, Europe and Australia (PIER, 2014; PROTA, 2014; University of Queensland, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014). 

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

EswatiniPresentIntroduced
EthiopiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
KenyaPresentIntroduced
LesothoPresentIntroduced
MalawiPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
MozambiquePresentIntroduced
NamibiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
South AfricaPresentIntroducedInvasive
TanzaniaPresentIntroduced
UgandaPresentIntroduced
ZambiaPresentIntroduced
ZimbabwePresentIntroduced

Asia

ChinaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveOccurring in most provinces of China
-AnhuiPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
-BeijingPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
-FujianPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
-GansuPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
-GuangdongPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
-GuangxiPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
-GuizhouPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
-HainanPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
-HebeiPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
-HeilongjiangPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
-HenanPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
-HubeiPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
-HunanPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
-Inner MongoliaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
-JiangsuPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
-JiangxiPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
-JilinPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
-LiaoningPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
-NingxiaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
-QinghaiPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
-ShaanxiPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
-ShandongPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
-ShanghaiPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
-ShanxiPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
-SichuanPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
-TianjinPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
-TibetPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
-XinjiangPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
-YunnanPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
-ZhejiangPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
Hong KongPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
IndiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Arunachal PradeshPresentIntroducedInvasive
-AssamPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Himachal PradeshPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Jammu and KashmirPresentIntroducedInvasive
-ManipurPresentIntroducedInvasive
-MeghalayaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-MizoramPresentIntroducedInvasive
-SikkimPresentIntroducedInvasive
-TripuraPresentIntroducedInvasive
-UttarakhandPresentIntroducedInvasive
-West BengalPresentIntroducedInvasive
IndonesiaPresentIntroduced
JapanPresentIntroduced
MacauPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
NepalPresentIntroduced
PakistanPresent
PhilippinesPresentIntroduced
South KoreaPresent
Sri LankaPresentIntroduced
TaiwanPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
TurkeyPresentIntroducedIstanbul

Europe

AustriaPresentIntroducedVery common weed
BelgiumPresentIntroduced
BulgariaPresent
CyprusPresentIntroduced
CzechiaPresentIntroduced
DenmarkPresentIntroduced
EstoniaPresentIntroduced
FrancePresentIntroduced
-CorsicaPresentIntroduced
GermanyPresentIntroduced
GreecePresentIntroducedInvasive
HungaryPresentIntroduced
ItalyPresentIntroduced
LithuaniaPresentIntroduced
NorwayPresentIntroduced
PortugalPresentIntroduced
-MadeiraPresentIntroduced
RomaniaPresentIntroduced
RussiaPresentIntroducedPotentially invasive
SpainPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Balearic IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Canary IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive
SwedenPresentIntroduced
UkrainePresentIntroduced

North America

British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedTortola
CanadaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-OntarioPresent, WidespreadIntroduced
-QuebecPresent, WidespreadIntroduced
Costa RicaPresentNative
CubaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
Dominican RepublicPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
El SalvadorPresentNative
HaitiPresentIntroduced
HondurasPresentNative
MexicoPresentNativeWeed
NicaraguaPresentNative
PanamaPresentNative
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedSt Croix, St Thomas
United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlabamaPresentIntroduced
-ArizonaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveNoxious weed
-ArkansasPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveNoxious weed
-CaliforniaPresentIntroduced
-ColoradoPresentIntroduced
-ConnecticutPresentIntroduced
-DelawarePresentIntroduced
-District of ColumbiaPresentIntroduced
-FloridaPresentIntroduced
-GeorgiaPresentIntroduced
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced
-IllinoisPresentIntroduced
-IndianaPresentIntroduced
-IowaPresentIntroduced
-KansasPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveNoxious weed
-KentuckyPresentIntroduced
-LouisianaPresentIntroduced
-MainePresentIntroduced
-MarylandPresentIntroduced
-MassachusettsPresentIntroduced
-MichiganPresentIntroduced
-MinnesotaPresentIntroduced
-MississippiPresentIntroduced
-MissouriPresentIntroduced
-MontanaPresentIntroduced
-NebraskaPresentIntroduced
-NevadaPresentIntroduced
-New HampshirePresentIntroduced
-New JerseyPresentIntroduced
-New MexicoPresentIntroduced
-New YorkPresentIntroduced
-North CarolinaPresentIntroduced
-North DakotaPresentIntroduced
-OhioPresentIntroduced
-OklahomaPresentIntroduced
-OregonPresentIntroduced
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroduced
-Rhode IslandPresentIntroduced
-South CarolinaPresentIntroduced
-South DakotaPresentIntroduced
-TennesseePresentIntroduced
-TexasPresentIntroduced
-UtahPresentIntroduced
-VermontPresentIntroduced
-VirginiaPresentIntroduced
-WashingtonPresentIntroduced
-West VirginiaPresentIntroduced
-WisconsinPresentIntroduced

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
-QueenslandPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedInvasive

South America

ArgentinaPresentNativeBuenos Aires, Catamarca, Chaco, Córdoba, Corrientes, Distrito Federal, Entre Ríos, Formosa, Jujuy, La Pampa, La Rioja, Mendoza, Misiones, Salta, Sgo. del Estero, Santa Fe, San Juan, San Luis, Tucumán
BoliviaPresent
BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AcrePresentNative
-AmazonasPresentNative
-BahiaPresentNative
-Espirito SantoPresentNative
-MaranhaoPresentNative
-Mato GrossoPresentNative
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentNative
-Minas GeraisPresentNative
-ParaPresentNative
-ParanaPresentNative
-PernambucoPresentNative
-Rio de JaneiroPresentNative
-Rio Grande do SulPresentNative
-Santa CatarinaPresentNative
-Sao PauloPresentNative
-SergipePresentNative
ChilePresentIntroduced
ColombiaPresentNative
EcuadorPresentNative
ParaguayPresentNative
PeruPresentNative
UruguayPresent
VenezuelaPresentNative

History of Introduction and Spread

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Because the native distribution range of this species is still unclear, it is very difficult to determine its history of introduction. However, it is known that I. purpurea was introduced worldwide to be used as an ornamental flowering vine (Randall, 2012; USDA-ARS, 2014). It was introduced as an ornamental in 1621 in England via Spain and it was probably introduced in the United States during the 1700s (Defelice, 2001). In northern Europe, this species was first recorded in Austria in 1800, Estonia in 1807, Russia in 1942, Norway in 1960 and Lithuania in 1988 (NOBANIS, 2014). In Puerto Rico, it was first reported in 1881 (US National Herbarium). 

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of I. purpurea is high. This species is still widely cultivated as an ornamental around the world. It can also grow as an agricultural and environmental weed (Halvorson, 2003; Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012; University of Queensland, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014). Once established, plants produce large numbers of tiny seeds which can be dispersed by water, wind, humans and as seed contaminants in seed crops, soil and machinery. Therefore, the probability of invasion of this species into new habitats remains high.

Habitat

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I. purpurea can be found growing in agricultural, horticultural and nursery crops, and in uncultivated fields. It also grows along roadsides, in waste places, and in thickets in secondary forests. In China, it grows in roadsides, hedges, and fields at elevations from sea level to 2800 m. In South Africa, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda, it invades waste and cultivated ground mainly in riparian areas (banks of watercourses), wetland and coastal habitats (BioNET-EAFRINET, 2014). In Australia, it is mainly a weed of agricultural areas and disturbed sites such as crops, roadsides, parks, gardens, fence-lines and waste areas. However, it also invades bushland and riparian areas and can be a serious environmental weed in warm moist areas (University of Queensland, 2014). 

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Natural
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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I. purpurea grows as an agricultural and environmental weed. It is listed as a common weed in maize plantations (Vibrans, 2009). In Mexico, it has been recorded as a weed in cotton, coffee, sugarcane, peppers, beans, tomatoes, potatoes, sorghum, soyabeans and fruit orchards (Vibrans, 2009). 

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Zea mays (maize)PoaceaeMain

    Growth Stages

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    Flowering stage, Vegetative growing stage

    Biology and Ecology

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    Genetics

    The chromosome number reported for I. purpurea varies from 2n = 30 to 2n= 32 (Chiarini 2001; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014).

    Reproductive Biology

    I. purpurea flowers open in the morning and last from a few hours to through the day. The species relies primarily on insect pollination, but it is self-compatible and thus also capable of self-pollination. About 30% of the flowers are self-pollinated. Cross-pollination occurs mostly by bumblebees and small butterflies; darker coloured flowers have a higher degree of outcrossing (Defelice, 2001, Halvorson, 2003).

    Physiology and Phenology

    In North America, I. purpurea has been recorded flowering from July to September (Halvorson, 2003). In Mexico, it flowers from June to November and fruits from August to December (Vibrans, 2009). In Puerto Rico, it produces flowers from June to January (Acevedo-Rodriguez, 2005).

    Longevity

    I. purpurea grows as an annual herb. In North America, seeds germinate in early summer and moisture stress may delay the germination. Germination occurs over a temperature range of 15-35°C and maximum germination occurs at 24°C (Halvorson, 2003).

    Environmental Requirements

    I. purpurea grows best on moist, well-drained, light or sandy loam soils. However, plants are tolerant of most soil conditions, including different textures and pH as well as dry, partially saline and infertile soils. The species grows best in sunny conditions and does not thrive in heavily shaded areas (Halvorson, 2003; Vibrans, 2009; PROTA, 2014).

    Climate

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    ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
    Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
    As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
    Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
    BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
    Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
    Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
    Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
    Dw - Continental climate with dry winter Tolerated Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters)

    Air Temperature

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    Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
    Mean annual temperature (ºC) 10 25

    Rainfall Regime

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    Bimodal
    Uniform

    Soil Tolerances

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    Soil drainage

    • free

    Soil reaction

    • acid
    • neutral

    Soil texture

    • light
    • medium

    Special soil tolerances

    • saline

    Notes on Natural Enemies

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    The leaf rust Coleosporium ipomoeae, and anthracnose Colletotrichum dematium cause stem, roots, and foliage lesions, leaf discoloration, and stunted growth in I. purpurea (Defelice, 2001). 

    Means of Movement and Dispersal

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    I. purpurea is a copious seed producer. Reproductive individuals can produce up to 26,000 seeds/plant. Seeds can be dispersed by wind, rain, and gravity. Seeds can also be secondarily dispersed by birds and by human activities via contaminated crop and flower seeds (Halvorson, 2003). 

    Pathway Causes

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    CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
    DisturbanceIt grows as a weed Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2014)
    Escape from confinement or garden escapeSeeds Yes PROTA (2014)
    Garden waste disposalSeeds Yes USDA-ARS (2014)
    Intentional releaseOften planted as ornamental for its colorful flowers Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2014)
    Medicinal useUsed in traditional medicine Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2014)
    Nursery tradePotential seed contaminant Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2014)
    Ornamental purposesOften planted as an ornamental for its colorful flowers Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2014)

    Pathway Vectors

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    VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
    Debris and waste associated with human activitiesPotential seed contaminant Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2014)
    Machinery and equipmentPotential seed contaminant Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2014)
    Soil, sand and gravelPotential seed contaminant Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2014)
    WaterSeeds Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2014)
    WindSeeds Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2014)

    Impact Summary

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    CategoryImpact
    Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
    Environment (generally) Positive and negative
    Human health Positive

    Economic Impact

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    I. purpurea is a common weed of agricultural areas. Infestations of I. purpurea in crops results in stunted growth and reduced yield, along with causing difficulties during crop harvesting (Defelice 2001). Additionally, parts of this plant, including the seeds are poisonous if ingested.

    Environmental Impact

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    I. purpurea is an environmental weed affecting roadsides, gardens, forest edges, secondary forests, and waste areas. In Africa (i.e., South Africa, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda) and Australia, this species is also invading bushland, wetlands, riparian zones, and watercourses and can be a serious environmental weed in warm moist areas, where it is displacing native plants (BioNET-EAFRINET, 2014; University of Queensland, 2014). Once established in natural areas, I. purpurea has the potential to become invasive because it grows climbing on mature trees, shrubs and other plant species producing a profuse canopy and consequently outcompeting the supporting species for nutrients, water and sunlight (Halvorson, 2003; Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012).

    Risk and Impact Factors

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    Invasiveness
    • Proved invasive outside its native range
    • Has a broad native range
    • Abundant in its native range
    • Highly adaptable to different environments
    • Is a habitat generalist
    • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
    • Pioneering in disturbed areas
    • Highly mobile locally
    • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
    • Fast growing
    • Has high reproductive potential
    Impact outcomes
    • Altered trophic level
    • Host damage
    • Infrastructure damage
    • Modification of nutrient regime
    • Modification of successional patterns
    • Monoculture formation
    • Negatively impacts agriculture
    • Reduced native biodiversity
    • Threat to/ loss of native species
    Impact mechanisms
    • Competition - monopolizing resources
    • Competition - shading
    • Competition - smothering
    • Competition - strangling
    • Poisoning
    • Rapid growth
    Likelihood of entry/control
    • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
    • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
    • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant

    Uses

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    I. purpurea is commonly planted as an ornamental for its colourful blue-purple flowers. It is also used in traditional medicine. The flowers, seeds, roots, and stems are used as a laxative, hallucinogen, purgative, and for treatment of syphilis (USDA-ARS, 2014; PROTA, 2014). 

    Uses List

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    Environmental

    • Amenity

    General

    • Ornamental

    Medicinal, pharmaceutical

    • Traditional/folklore

    Ornamental

    • Potted plant
    • Seed trade

    Prevention and Control

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    Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

    Physical/Mechanical Control

    Seedlings are frail and easy to pull or hoe. Small infestations can be cut near the base of the plant; the roots require digging out by hand. For larger infestations with many stems, cutting and subsequent applications of herbicides are required (Defelice, 2001).

    Chemical Control

    The herbicides 2,4-D, atrazine, diquat, diuron, glyphosate, oxyfluorfen, pronamide and simazine have been recommended for annual morning-glory. For large infestations, the stems can be cut higher up (breast height) causing the upper growth to die. Then the basal stems can be cut closer to the ground following with an undiluted (or up to 1: 3 dilution) dose of herbicide such as glyphosate onto the stems (Halvorson, 2003).

    References

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    Acevedo-Rodríguez P, 2005. Vines and climbing plants of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 51:483 pp

    Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

    Belov M, 2013. ChileFlora. http://www.chileflora.com/index.html

    Bethune S, Griffin M, Joubert DF, 2004. National Review of Invasive Alien Species, Namibia. Windhoek, : Ministry of Environment and Tourism

    BioNET-EAFRINET, 2014. East African Network for Taxonomy. Online Key and Fact Sheets for Invasive plants. http://keys.lucidcentral.org/keys/v3/eafrinet/weeds/key/weeds/Media/Html/index.htm

    Chandra SK, 2012. Invasive Alien Plants of Indian Himalayan Region- Diversity and Implication. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 3:177-184

    Chiarini FE, 2001. [English title not available]. (Estudios cromosómicos en algunas especies de Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae).) Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica, 36:289-296

    DAISIE, 2014. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. www.europe-aliens.org/default.do

    Davidse G, Sousa-Peña M, Knapp S, Chiang Cabrera F, 2012. Convolvulaceae. In: Flora Mesoamericana [ed. by Davidse, G. \Sousa Sánchez, M. \Knapp, S. \Chiang Cabrera, F.]., Mexico: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México

    Defelice MS, 2001. Tall Morning glory, Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth -- flower or foe? Weed Technology, 15:601-606

    Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

    Foxcroft LC, Richardson DM, Wilson JRU, 2007. Ornamental plants as invasive aliens: problems and solutions in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Environmental Management, 41(1):32-51

    GBIF, 2014. GBIF data portal. Copenhagen, Denmark: Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). http://data.gbif.org

    Halvorson WL, 2003. Factsheet for: Ipomoea purpurea. USGS Weeds in the West Project: Status of Introduced Plants in Southern Arizona Parks. http://sdrsnet.srnr.arizona.edu/data/sdrs/ww/docs/ipom_spp.pdf

    Kairo M, Ali B, Cheesman O, Haysom K, Murphy S, 2003. Invasive species threats in the Caribbean region. Report to the Nature Conservancy. Curepe, Trinidad and Tobago: CAB International, 132 pp. http://www.issg.org/database/species/reference_files/Kairo%20et%20al,%202003.pdf

    Miller RE, Rausher MD, Manos PS, 1999. Phylogenetic systematics of Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) based on ITS and Waxy sequences. Systematic Botany, 24(2):209-227

    Mito T, Uesugi T, 2004. Invasive alien species in Japan: the status quo and the new regulation for prevention of their adverse effects. Global Environmental Research, 8(2):171-191

    NOBANIS, 2014. North European and Baltic Network on Invasive Alien Species. http://www.nobanis.org/

    Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff MG, et al. , 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96

    PIER, 2014. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

    PROTA, 2014. PROTA4U web database. Grubben GJH, Denton OA, eds. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. http://www.prota4u.org/search.asp

    Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

    Simão-Bianchini R, Ferreira PPA, 2014. Ipomoea in Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil (Ipomoea in the list of species of the flora of Brazil). Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro

    Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

    Swarbrick JT, 1997. Weeds of the Pacific Islands. Technical Paper - South Pacific Commission, No. 209: 124 pp

    University of Queensland, 2014. Weeds of Australia. Biosecurity Queensland Edition. Australia: University of Queensland. http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/

    USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

    USDA-NRCS, 2014. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

    Vibrans H, 2009. Malezas de México. Listado alfabético de las especies, ordenadas por género (Weeds of Mexico. Alphabetical list of species, ordered by genera). http://www.conabio.gob.mx/malezasdemexico/2inicio/paginas/lista-plantas-generos.htm

    Witt, A., Luke, Q., 2017. Guide to the naturalized and invasive plants of Eastern Africa, [ed. by Witt, A., Luke, Q.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI.vi + 601 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158959 doi:10.1079/9781786392145.0000

    Zuloaga FO, Morrone O, Belgrano MJ, 2008. Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur: (Argentina, Sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay) ([English title not available])., USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 3348 pp

    Distribution References

    Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

    Ávila-Alistac N, Ramírez-Rojas S, Lozoya-Saldaña H, Rebollar-Alviter Á, Guzmán-Plazola R A, 2017. Alternate hosts of Iris yellow spot virus and trips on onion crops in Morelos and Michoacan, Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Fitopatología. 35 (2), 242-262. http://www.rmf.smf.org.mx/Vol3522017/RMF_Vol_35_2_2017.pdf

    Belov M, 2013. ChileFlora., http://www.chileflora.com/index.html

    Bethune S, Griffin M, Joubert D F, 2004. National Review of Invasive Alien Species, Namibia. Windhoek, Namibia: Ministry of Environment and Tourism.

    CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

    Chandra SK, 2012. Invasive Alien Plants of Indian Himalayan Region- Diversity and Implication. In: American Journal of Plant Sciences, 3 177-184.

    Chatzivassiliou E K, Boubourakas I, Drossos E, Eleftherohorinos I, Jenser G, Peters D, Katis N I, 2001. Weeds in greenhouses and tobacco fields are differentially infected by Tomato spotted wilt virus and infested by its vector species. Plant Disease. 85 (1), 40-46. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2001.85.1.40

    DAISIE, 2014. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. http://www.europe-aliens.org/

    Davidse G, Sousa-Peña M, Knapp S, Chiang Cabrera F, 2012. (Convolvulaceae). In: Flora Mesoamericana, [ed. by Davidse G, Sousa Sánchez M, Knapp S, Chiang Cabrera F]. Mexico: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.

    Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of China., St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

    Foxcroft LC, Richardson DM, Wilson JRU, 2007. Ornamental plants as invasive aliens: problems and solutions in Kruger National Park, South Africa. In: Environmental Management, 41 (1) 32-51.

    GBIF, 2014. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. http://www.gbif.org/species

    Kairo M, Ali B, Cheesman O, Haysom K, Murphy S, 2003. Invasive species threats in the Caribbean region. Report to the Nature Conservancy. In: Invasive species threats in the Caribbean region. Report to the Nature Conservancy. Curepe, Trinidad and Tobago: CAB International. 132 pp. http://www.issg.org/database/species/reference_files/Kairo%20et%20al,%202003.pdf

    Macharia I, Backhouse D, Wu S B, Ateka E M, 2016. Weed species in tomato production and their role as alternate hosts of Tomato spotted wilt virus and its vector Frankliniella occidentalis. Annals of Applied Biology. 169 (2), 224-235. DOI:10.1111/aab.12297

    Mito T, Uesugi T, 2004. Invasive alien species in Japan: the status quo and the new regulation for prevention of their adverse effects. In: Global Environmental Research, 8 (2) 171-191.

    NOBANIS, 2014. North European and Baltic Network on Invasive Alien Species., http://www.nobanis.org/

    Oh S M, Moon B C, Kim C S, 2007. Current status on influx and habitat of exotic weeds in Korea. In: Proceedings of the 21st Asian Pacific Weed Science Society (APWSS) Conference, 2-6 October 2007, Colombo, Sri Lanka [Proceedings of the 21st Asian Pacific Weed Science Society (APWSS) Conference, 2-6 October 2007, Colombo, Sri Lanka.], [ed. by Marambe B, Sangakkara U R, Costa W A J M de, Abeysekara A S K]. Peradeniya, Sri Lanka: Asian Pacific Weed Science Society. 608-613.

    Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 6 (Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

    PROTA, 2014. PROTA4U web database., [ed. by Grubben GJH, Denton OA]. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. http://www.prota4u.org/search.asp

    Sanogo S, Etarock B F, Clary M, 2009. Recovery of Verticillium dahliae from tall morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea) in New Mexico and its pathogenicity on Chile pepper. Plant Disease. 93 (4), 428. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-93-4-0428A

    Simão-Bianchini R, Ferreira PPA, 2014. Ipomoea in the list of species of the flora of Brazil. (Ipomoea in Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil)., Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro.

    Swarbrick J T, 1997. Weeds of the Pacific Islands. In: Technical Paper - South Pacific Commission, Nouméa, New Caledonia: South Pacific Commission (Commission du Pacifique Sud). viii + 124 pp.

    Tugume A K, Mukasa S B, Valkonen J P T, 2008. Natural wild hosts of Sweet potato feathery mottle virus show spatial differences in virus incidence and virus-like diseases in Uganda. Phytopathology. 98 (6), 640-652. DOI:10.1094/PHYTO-98-6-0640

    University of Queensland, 2014. Weeds of Australia. Biosecurity Queensland Edition., Australia: University of Queensland. http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/

    USDA-NRCS, 2014. The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

    Vibrans H, 2009. Weeds of Mexico. Alphabetical list of species, ordered by general. (Malezas de México. Listado alfabético de las especies, ordenadas por género)., http://www.conabio.gob.mx/malezasdemexico/2inicio/paginas/lista-plantas-generos.htm

    Witt A, Luke Q, 2017. Guide to the naturalized and invasive plants of Eastern Africa. [ed. by Witt A, Luke Q]. Wallingford, UK: CABI. vi + 601 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158959 DOI:10.1079/9781786392145.0000

    Yang Q Q, Zhou S Y, Liang W X, Li D L, 2018. First report of Alternaria alternata causing leaf spot on Ipomoea purpurea in China. Plant Disease. 102 (2), 451-452. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-08-17-1278-PDN

    Yovkova M, Petrović-Obradović O, Tasheva-Terzieva E, Pencheva A, 2013. Aphids (Hemiptera, Aphididae) on ornamental plants in greenhouses in Bulgaria. ZooKeys. 347-361. http://www.pensoft.net/journals/zookeys/article/4318/aphids-hemiptera-aphididae-on-ornamental-plants-in-greenhouses-in-bulgaria

    Zeeshan Ahmad, Khan S M, Shahab Ali, Inayat-ur-Rahman, Hussan Ara, Iram Noreen, Ayesha Khan, 2016. Indicator species analyses of weed communities of maize crop in District Mardan, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research. 22 (2), 227-238. http://www.wssp.org.pk/SearchViaList/85f2b9507de3d718f94122555958c33a/8229716c1c1ad23b1ea10452ba59f128

    Zhang S B, Du Z G, Wang Z, Tang Y F, She X M, Lan G B, He Z F, 2014. First report of Sweet potato leaf curl Georgia virus infecting tall morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea) in China. Plant Disease. 98 (11), 1588-1589. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-11-13-1161-PDN

    Zuloaga FO, Morrone O, Belgrano MJ, 2008. [English title not available]. (Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur: (Argentina, Sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay))., USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press. 3348 pp.

    Links to Websites

    Top of page
    WebsiteURLComment
    Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indieshttp://botany.si.edu/antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm
    European Network on Invasive Alien Species (NOBANIS)http://www.nobanis.org/
    GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
    Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
    PIERhttp://www.hear.org/pier/index.html
    USDA Germplasm Resources Information Networkhttp://www.ars-grin.gov/
    USDA Plants Databasehttp://plants.usda.gov

    Contributors

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    01/12/14 Original text by:

    Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

    Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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