Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Albizia julibrissin
(silk tree)

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Datasheet

Albizia julibrissin (silk tree)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Albizia julibrissin
  • Preferred Common Name
  • silk tree
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Binggeli (1999) classifies A. julibrissin as moderately invasive. The ability of this species to grow very rapidly (sprouts ca...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Bark of Albizia julibrissin.
TitleBark
CaptionBark of Albizia julibrissin.
CopyrightPaolo Pallicca
Bark of Albizia julibrissin.
BarkBark of Albizia julibrissin.Paolo Pallicca
TitleFoliage
Caption
CopyrightPaolo Pallicca
FoliagePaolo Pallicca
Seed pods of Albizia julibrissin.
TitleSeed pods
CaptionSeed pods of Albizia julibrissin.
CopyrightPaolo Pallicca
Seed pods of Albizia julibrissin.
Seed podsSeed pods of Albizia julibrissin.Paolo Pallicca

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Albizia julibrissin Durazz.

Preferred Common Name

  • silk tree

Variety

  • Albizia julibrissin var. mollis (Wall.) Benth.
  • Albizia julibrissin var. rosea (Carrière) Mouillefert

Other Scientific Names

  • Albizia rosea Carrière
  • Albizzia julibrissin nom. illeg.

International Common Names

  • English: mimosa; nemu; Persian acacia; pink siris; silktree albizia; silktree mimosa; silky acacia
  • French: acacia rose de Constantinople; acacie de Constantinople; arbre a soie; arbre à soie

Local Common Names

  • China: ho huan; ho hun
  • Germany: Julibrissin- Albizzie; Persische Seidenakazie
  • India: barau; baraulia; bhokra; bhondir; brind; buna; karmaru; kurmru; kurmura; lal; mathirshi; shirin; shirish; shishi; sirin; siris; sirsang; surangru; tandai
  • Italy: acacia di Constantinopoli; albero de la seta; albizzia; gaggia arborea; gaggia di Constaninopoli
  • Japan: nemu-no-ki
  • Netherlands: acacia van Constantinopel
  • South Africa: Julibrissin- Albizzie; persische Seidenakazie

EPPO code

  • ALBJU (Albizia julibrissin)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page Binggeli (1999) classifies A. julibrissin as moderately invasive. The ability of this species to grow very rapidly (sprouts can grow over 1 m in a season), resprout after damage and seed prolifically contribute to its invasiveness in favourable conditions. A. julibrissin is a weed mainly in the USA where it is being monitored in 13 southern states according to USFS policy. It is a category A weed (severe threat) in Tennessee, USA where it grows along many roadside slopes, disturbed areas and stream banks. It is also regarded as one of the top ten invasive plant species in Georgia, is a category 1 (altering plant community) species on the Florida Invasives list (SE-EPPC, 2002) and is listed as moderately invasive (with minor influence on ecosystem function and plant composition) in Virginia (Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, 2003). In South Africa it is proposed as a category 3 weed under the Conservation of Agricultural Resources Act 1983, subject to further investigation (Henderson, 2001).

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Fabales
  •                         Family: Fabaceae
  •                             Subfamily: Mimosoideae
  •                                 Genus: Albizia
  •                                     Species: Albizia julibrissin

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page A. julibrissin was introduced into Europe (particularly to Florence, Italy) in 1745 from Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) by Filippo Degli Albizzi. This new species was described and studied first by Antonio Durazzini, who dedicated the name of the genus to Albizzi (sometimes this name is written with one 'z'). The species name 'julibrissin' derives from the corresponding Persian name. The common name 'mimosa' (a name used for the tree in southern USA) is also used for another plant, Acacia dealbata, in Italy and Texas (USA).

Description

Top of page A. julibrissin is a deciduous, fast-growing tree (sprouts can grow more than 1 m in a vegetative season) from 6 to 12 m high. It has a straight stem (but in nature trees can grow with multiple trunks) and a wide, spreading crown. The bark is smooth and grey-green, greener in young trees, and has angular and glabrous branches, with many lenticels. Leaves are bipinnate, with 6-12 pairs of leaflets, each divided into 20-30 pairs of ultimate segments, 1 cm long, light green and oblong. The entire leaf is about 20-30 cm long. Flowers are light pink, in terminal clusters of dense heads, each terminating in a stalk. The stamens are numerous and very long, jutting out from the corolla. The fruit is a brown, flat pod, 15 cm long, constricted between the seeds, which remains on the plant until the next spring. Seeds have an impermeable coat and can remain dormant for years. The tree flowers in June-August and fruits ripen in September-November.

Plant Type

Top of page Broadleaved
Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub
Tree
Vegetatively propagated
Woody

Distribution

Top of page A. julibrissin is the only species of the genus that belongs to the northern hemisphere. Its natural distribution ranges from the Caucasus and Iran to Asia Minor, central China and Japan. In its native range, A. julibrissin grows in scrub and woodland on moist sites (Weber, 2003).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasivePlantedReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanPresentIntroducedPlanted, NaturalILDIS, 2002
ArmeniaPresentNativePlanted, Natural
AzerbaijanPresentNativePlanted, Natural
BahrainPresentIntroduced Planted
BangladeshPresentNativePlanted, Natural
BhutanPresentNativePlanted, NaturalILDIS, 2002
CambodiaPresentIntroduced Planted
ChinaPresentNativePlanted, NaturalILDIS, 2002
-Hong KongPresentIntroduced Planted
-MacauPresentIntroduced Planted
GazaPresentIntroduced Planted
Georgia (Republic of)PresentNativePlanted, Natural
IndiaPresentNativePlanted, NaturalILDIS, 2002
-AssamPresentNative Natural
-Indian PunjabPresentNative Natural
-ManipurPresentNative Natural
-SikkimPresentNative Natural
-Uttar PradeshPresentNative Natural
IranPresentNativePlanted, NaturalILDIS, 2002
IraqPresentIntroduced Planted ILDIS, 2002
IsraelPresentIntroduced Planted
JapanPresentNativePlanted, NaturalILDIS, 2002
-HonshuPresentNative Natural
-KyushuPresentNative Natural
-ShikokuPresentNative Natural
JordanPresentIntroduced Planted
Korea, DPRPresentNativePlanted, Natural
Korea, Republic ofPresentNativePlanted, Natural
KuwaitPresentIntroduced Planted
LaosPresentIntroduced Planted
MyanmarPresentNativePlanted, NaturalILDIS, 2002
NepalPresentNativePlanted, NaturalILDIS, 2002
OmanPresentIntroduced Planted
PakistanPresentNativePlanted, NaturalILDIS, 2002
QatarPresentIntroduced Planted
Saudi ArabiaPresentIntroduced Planted
Sri LankaPresentNativePlanted, Natural
SyriaPresentIntroduced Planted
TaiwanPresentNative Planted ILDIS, 2002
ThailandPresentIntroduced Planted
TurkeyPresent Planted ILDIS, 2002
United Arab EmiratesPresentIntroduced Planted
VietnamPresentIntroduced Planted
YemenPresentIntroduced Planted

Africa

AlgeriaPresentIntroduced Planted
EgyptPresentIntroduced Planted
EritreaPresentNativePlanted, Natural
EthiopiaPresentNativePlanted, Natural
KenyaPresentIntroduced Planted
LibyaPresentIntroduced Planted
MauritiusPresentIntroduced Planted ILDIS, 2002
MoroccoPresentIntroduced Planted
SomaliaPresentNativePlanted, Natural
South AfricaPresentIntroduced Planted Henderson, 2001
TunisiaPresentIntroduced Planted

North America

USAPresentIntroduced1745ILDIS, 2002
-AlabamaPresentIntroduced Planted USDA-NRCS, 2002
-ArizonaPresentIntroduced Planted USDA-NRCS, 2002
-ArkansasPresentIntroduced Planted USDA-NRCS, 2002
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedSE-EPPC, 2002; USDA-NRCS, 2002
-DelawarePresentIntroduced Planted
-FloridaPresentIntroduced Invasive SE-EPPC, 2002; USDA-NRCS, 2002
-GeorgiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Planted SE-EPPC, 2002
-IllinoisPresentIntroduced Planted USDA-NRCS, 2002
-IndianaPresentIntroduced Planted USDA-NRCS, 2002
-KentuckyPresentIntroduced Invasive SE-EPPC, 2002; USDA-NRCS, 2002
-LouisianaPresentIntroduced Invasive SE-EPPC, 2002; USDA-NRCS, 2002
-MarylandPresentIntroduced Planted
-MississippiPresentIntroduced Planted USDA-NRCS, 2002
-MissouriPresentIntroduced Planted USDA-NRCS, 2002
-New JerseyPresentIntroduced Planted
-New MexicoPresentIntroduced Planted USDA-NRCS, 2002
-New YorkPresentIntroduced Planted USDA-NRCS, 2002
-North CarolinaPresentIntroduced Planted USDA-NRCS, 2002
-OhioPresent Planted USDA-NRCS, 2002
-OklahomaPresentIntroduced Planted USDA-NRCS, 2002
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroduced Planted USDA-NRCS, 2002
-South CarolinaPresentIntroduced Planted USDA-NRCS, 2002
-TennesseePresentIntroduced Invasive SE-EPPC, 2002; USDA-NRCS, 2002
-TexasPresentIntroduced Planted USDA-NRCS, 2002
-UtahPresentIntroduced Planted USDA-NRCS, 2002
-VirginiaPresentIntroduced Invasive SE-EPPC, 2002; USDA-NRCS, 2002
-West VirginiaPresentIntroduced Planted USDA-NRCS, 2002

Central America and Caribbean

JamaicaPresentIntroduced Planted ILDIS, 2002

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroduced Planted ILDIS, 2002
BrazilPresentIntroduced Planted ILDIS, 2002
PeruPresentIntroduced Planted ILDIS, 2002
UruguayPresentIntroduced Planted ILDIS, 2002

Europe

AlbaniaPresentIntroduced Planted
Bosnia-HercegovinaPresentIntroduced Planted
CroatiaPresentIntroduced Planted
CyprusPresentIntroduced Planted ILDIS, 2002
FrancePresentIntroduced Planted
-CorsicaPresentIntroduced Planted
GibraltarPresentIntroduced Planted
GreecePresentIntroduced Planted
ItalyPresentIntroduced1745 Planted ILDIS, 2002
MaltaPresentIntroduced Planted
MonacoPresentIntroduced Planted
San MarinoPresentIntroduced Planted
SpainPresentIntroduced Planted
-Balearic IslandsPresentIntroduced Planted
UKPresentIntroduced Planted

Oceania

New ZealandPresentIntroduced Planted ILDIS, 2002

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page A. julibrissin was introduced into Europe (particularly in Florence, Italy) in 1745 from Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) by Filippo Degli Albizzi. In the same year it was introduced into the USA where it is now common in many states (USDA-NRCS, 2002). It is a beautiful ornamental tree, with sweet-smelling flowers, widely cultivated in the Mediterranean region, England, southern USA, Argentina and in some cases naturalized. In Italy it is cultivated in every region and grows wild near towns in Veneto and Lombardy. ILDIS (2002) provides information on the global distribution. A. julibrissin is widely introduced outside its native range because of its value as a shade and roadside tree, for ornament and for prevention of soil erosion, and intentional planting therefore constitutes one of the major sources of potential spread. The widespread planting of this species as an ornamental in the USA has facilitated invasion because new plants often develop from the seed of nearby established plants. SE-EPPC (2002) reports that it is sometimes accidentally spread by moving soil containing seeds.

Risk of Introduction

Top of page A. julibrissin is widely introduced outside its native range because of its value as a shade and roadside tree, for ornament and for prevention of soil erosion and intentional planting therefore constitutes one of the major sources of potential spread.

Habitat

Top of page In its native range A. julibrissin grows in scrub and woodland on moist sites (Weber, 2003).

Habitat List

Top of page
CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Biology and Ecology

Top of page Genetics

Among the cultivars are A. julibrissin 'Ernest Wilson', an extraordinarily winter-hardy plant with pink and white flowers, which originated in 1918 in the Arnold Arboretum, USA, from seeds collected by Ernest Wilson in Seoul, South Korea. A winter-hardy variety of the silk tree, A. julibrissin var. rosea, which is dwarf and bushy, with bright, strong pink flowers, has been introduced from South Korea to northern countries. Another variety, A. julibrissin var. mollis, with broader and densely pubescent leaflets, grows in the Himalayas and Ethiopia.

Physiology and Phenology

The tree flowers in June-August and fruits ripen in September-November. Longevity is about 100 years.

Reproductive Biology

Seed production is prolific. The fruit is a brown, flat pod, 15 cm long, constricted between the seeds, which remains on the plant until the following spring. Seeds have an impermeable coat and can remain dormant for many years. Propagation is usually by seed (soaking and scarification may be necessary) or planting stock, while vegetative propagation is achieved using tissue culture, cuttings (including root cuttings) or suckers.

It is an easy tree to prune and reacts to pruning by producing new shoots on the stem and branches. When killed, for example by a severe winter, plants can resprout from the base. It can also be fan trained for growing on a wall. SE-EPPC (2002) states that A. julibrissin demonstrates a high level of seed viability, as long as 50 years after seed harvest.

Environmental Requirements

A. julibrissin is tolerant of low temperature but young plants are frost tender and require glasshouse protection during their first year. When dormant, trees are resistant to about -20°C but this is reduced to -10°C in the maritime climate. In Florence, Italy in 1985, the temperature reached -23°C and trees survived. When killed, for example by a severe winter, plants can resprout from the base. Longevity is about 100 years. Preferred mean annual rainfall is normally in excess of 1000 mm, and up to 2300 mm, but there are records for it surviving where annual rainfall is as low as 100 mm, though probably with a permanent ground water supply.

A. julibrissin is a light-demanding species that is indifferent to soil type. Although it prefers fertile, well drained soils with clay, it is able to grow in gravelly or poor soils. It can tolerate high pH, saline soils, wind and drought. Full sun positions and southern exposures are preferred. In Europe, A. julibrissin does not grow above 900 m, although it can reach 2100 m in the Himalayas (PFAF, 1999).

Associations

It has a symbiotic relationship with certain nitrogen-fixing bacteria contained in nodules on the roots; some of this nitrogen can be used by other plants growing near A. julibrissin. Where it forms dense stands, light and nutrient levels are reduced preventing the establishment of native plants thus changing botanical composition (Weber, 2003).

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
42 10 2100

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -23
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 9 28
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 19 45
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) -9 15

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration04number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall1002300mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal
Summer
Uniform
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • saline

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page Mimosa wilt, caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. perniciosum, attacks A. julibrissin through the root system and may kill it. Resistant cultivars are 'Charlotte' and 'Tryon'. Other wilt diseases include those caused by fungi of the genus Phomopsis, Nectria or Verticillium. The tree is also attacked by Flammulina velutipes, cause of stem rot. The leaves can be attacked by fungi such as Septoria curvata, which causes brown spots on the leaves and leaf fall, and by insects including aphids, cochineals and Coleoptera such as Cossus cossus or Zeuzera pyrina, which dig tunnels in branches and stems causing desiccation and breaking off. A. julibrissin is resistant to honey fungus (Armillaria sp.).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page A. julibrissin seeds are easily transported by water, where the tree grows near riverbanks. Seeds may also be accidentally spread by moving soil (SE-EPPC, 2002). The widespread planting of this species as an ornamental tree in the USA has facilitated invasion, as new plants often develop from the seed of nearby established plants.

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collections None
Animal/plant products None
Biodiversity (generally) Negative
Crop production None
Environment (generally) None
Fisheries / aquaculture None
Forestry production None
Human health None
Livestock production None
Native fauna None
Native flora Negative
Rare/protected species None
Tourism None
Trade/international relations None
Transport/travel None

Environmental Impact

Top of page Where A. julibrissin forms dense stands, light and nutrient levels are reduced preventing the establishment of other plants (Weber, 2003).

Impact: Biodiversity

Top of page A. julibrissin changes botanical composition by preventing or restricting the establishment of native plants (Weber, 2003).

Threatened Species

Top of page
Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Warea amplexifolia (wide-leaf warea)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesFloridaCompetition (unspecified)US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact outcomes
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Reduced native biodiversity
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

Top of page A. julibrissin is a beautiful ornamental species that can be used as a shade and roadside tree due to its resistance to air pollution. It can prevent soil erosion due to its large root system and the wide, flat crown. It can be cultivated to create interesting, if problematic and short-living, bonsai. It is now considered a useful agroforestry tree in silvoarable systems in the south-eastern USA, where it is grown in rows which are periodically pruned for mulch and subsequent soil improvements, and intercropped (Jordan, 2004).

The wood of the silk tree is dense and hard. It takes a good polish and is used for making furniture. Young leaves are cooked and used as pot herbs, while cooked flowers are eaten as vegetables. Dried leaves are used as a tea substitute. In China, the flower heads are used as carminative, digestive, sedative and tonic and in the treatment of insomnia, irritability and breathlessness. The bark is anthelmintic, carminative, diuretic, sedative and vermifuge. It is used internally in the treatment of insomnia, irritability, boils and carbuncles and is applied externally to injuries and swellings. A gummy extract obtained from the plant is used as a plaster for abscesses and also as a retentive in fractures and sprains (PFAF, 1999). Leaves provide a useful soil ameliorant when incorporated or applied as a mulch (Jordan, 2004).

Uses List

Top of page

Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed

Environmental

  • Agroforestry
  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Revegetation
  • Soil improvement

Fuels

  • Fuelwood

General

  • Ornamental

Materials

  • Gum/resin
  • Miscellaneous materials

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Wood Products

Top of page

Furniture

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page SE-EPPC (2002) reports that A. julibrissin may be confused with other bipinnately compound legumes, particularly at the seedling stage, e.g. with Chamaecrista fasciculata or Shrankia microphylla.

Prevention and Control

Top of page Mechanical Control

SE-EPPC (2002) provides details on cutting, girdling and hand-pulling of A. julibrissin. Trees are cut at ground level; this is most effective at the beginning of flowering, to prevent seed production. As A. julibrissin resprouts after cutting, this must be followed by herbicide treatment or repeated cutting of the resprouts. Girdling (ring-barking) is used on large trees where herbicide control is impractical. The bark is cut through into or below the cambium layer approximately 15 cm above the ground. Resprouting commonly occurs and must be treated as above. Young seedlings may be pulled by hand before seed production begins, and the best time to pull seedlings is after rain when the soil is loose as the entire root must be removed to ensure that resprouting from root fragments does not occur (SE-EPPC, 2002).

Chemical Control

SE-EPPC (2002) suggests three approaches to chemical control: foliar spray method for large thickets with minimal risk to non-target species; cut-stump method for individual trees or where non-target species are at risk; and the basal bark method. The foliar spray method requires air temperature to be above 18°C to ensure the herbicides are absorbed, e.g. glyphosate or triclopyr, where desirable non-target grasses are present. Stumps may be treated if the ground is not frozen, again using glyphosate or triclopyr. In the basal bark method, a mixture of triclopyr and horticultural oil is applied to the basal parts of the tree 30-38 cm above the ground. This treatment may be applied all year except when the ground is frozen.

Biological Control

SE-EPPC (2002) reports that the mimosa wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. perniciosum may have potential for biological control, but further research is required before this method is used. Luken and Thieret (1996) identified a species of bruchid seed beetle that may be a promising agent for biological control.

References

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Addlestone BJ, Mueller JP, Luginbuhl JM, Lassoie JP; Buck LE, 1999. The establishment and early growth of three leguminous tree species for use in silvopastoral systems of the southeastern USA. Special issue: Exploring the opportunities for agroforestry in changing rural landscapes. Selected papers from the 5th Biennial Conference on Agroforestry in North America, August 3-6, 1997. Agroforestry-Systems, 44(2-3):253-265.

Anon, 1981. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Trees of the World. Bayard Hora Consultant Editor. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Badiali G, Marchetti L, Zechini D'Aulerio A, 1993. Le principali avversità delle piante floreali ed ornamentali. 139-143, ed. Edagricole.

Badiali G, Marchetti L, Zechini D'Aulerio A, 1993. Le principali avversità delle piante floreali ed ornamentali. Bologna, Italy: Edagricole, 139-143.

Bailey LH, 1939. The standard cyclopedia for horticulture. New York, USA: The Macmillan Co.

Bajracharya D, Bhattarai TB, Dhakal MR, Mandal TN, Sharma MR, Sitaula S, Vimal BK, 1985. Some feed values for fodder plants from Nepal. Angewandte Botanik, 59(5/6):357-365; 17 ref.

Banfi E, Consolino F, 1996. Alberi. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, 254.

Banfi E, Consolino F, 1996. Alberi. Italy: Instituto Geografico De Agostini, 254.

Binggeli P, 1999. Invasive woody plants. http://members.lycos.co.uk/WoodyPlantEcology/invasive/index.html.

Bransby DI, Sladden SE, Kee DD, 1996. Forage yield response of mimosa (Albizia julibrissin) to harvest frequency. Rangelands in a sustainable biosphere. Proceedings of the Fifth International Rangeland Congress, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, 23-28 July, 1995. Volume 1: Contributed presentations., 64-65; 6 ref.

Cullen J, Alexander JCM, Brady A, Brickell CD, Green PS, Heywood VH, Jörgensen PM, Jury SL, Knees SG, Leslie AC, Matthews VA, Robson NKB, Walters SM, Wijnands DO, Yeo PF ed. , 1995. The European Garden Flora: a manual for the identification of plants cultivated in Europe, both out of doors and under glass Vol. IV. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Gellini R, Grossoni P, 1998. Botanica forestale. II. Angiosperme. Padova, Italy: Cedam.

Henderson L, 2001. Alien Weeds and Invasive Plants. Plant Protection Research Institute Handbook No. 12. Cape Town, South Africa: Paarl Printers.

ILDIS, 2002. International Legume Database and Information Service. University of Southampton, UK. http://www.ildis.org/database/.

Jordan CF, 2004. Organic farming and agroforestry: Alley cropping for mulch production for organic farms of southeastern United States. In: Advances in Agroforestry 1: New Vista in Agroforestry. The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 79-90.

Krüssmann G, 1986. Manual of cultivated broad-leaved trees and shrubs Vol. I. London, UK: BT Batsford Ltd.

Luken JO, Thieret JW, 1996. Assessment and Management of Plant Invasions. New York, USA: Springer-Verlag. 324 pp.

Miller JH, 1995. Exotic plants in southern forests: their nature and control. Herbicide-resistant crops: a bitter or better harvest? In: STreet JE, ed. Proceedings of the 48th annual meeting of the Southern Weed Science Society, Memphis, Tennessee, USA, 16-18 January 1995. Champaign, Illinois, USA; Southern Weed Science Society, 120-126

Paiero P, Martini F, Colpi C, 1993. Leguminose arboree e arbustive in Italia. Trieste, Italy: Lint ed.

Paiero P, Martini F, Colpi C, 1993. Leguminose arboree e arbustive in Italia. Trieste, Italy; Lint ed.

PFAF, 1999. Plant For A Future database. World Wide Web page at http://metalab.unc.edu/pfaf.

Pignatti S, 1982. Flora of Italy. [Flora d'Italia.]. Bologna, Italy: Edagricole.

Rehder A, 1977. Manual of Cultivated Trees and Shrubs. Hardy in North America. New York, USA: MacMillan Publishing Co., Inc.

Sankhla D, Davis TD, Sankhla N, 1996. In vitro regeneration of silktree (Albizzia julibrissin) from excised roots. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 44(1):83-86; 14 ref.

SE-EPPC, 2002. Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council, Nashville, USA. http://www.se-eppc.org/.

Simon J, 1965. L'art de connaître les arbres. France: Hachette ed., 86-87.

Simon J, 1965. L'art de connaître les arbres. Hachette ed., 86-87.

Streets RJ, 1962. Exotic forest trees in the British Commonwealth. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press.

Troup RS, Joshi HB, 1983. The Silviculture of Indian Trees. Vol IV. Leguminosae. Delhi, India; Controller of Publications.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007. In: Wide-leaf Warea (Warea amplexifolia). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 19 pp.

USDA-NRCS, 2002. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, USA. http://plants.usda.gov.

Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, 2003. Invasive Alien Plant Species of Virginia. http://www.dcr.state.va.us/dnh/invlist.pdf.

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