Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Pennisetum macrourum
(African feather grass)

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Datasheet

Pennisetum macrourum (African feather grass)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 December 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pennisetum macrourum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • African feather grass
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • P. macrourum has demonstrated its ability to invade and displace grassland vegetation in Tasmania and New Zealand (Hartley, 1973;

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Pennisetum macrourum (African feather grass); Seedheads. Stellenbosch, South Africa. November 2020.
TitleSeedheads
CaptionPennisetum macrourum (African feather grass); Seedheads. Stellenbosch, South Africa. November 2020.
Copyright©Dave Richardson/via iNaturalist.org - CC BY 4.0
Pennisetum macrourum (African feather grass); Seedheads. Stellenbosch, South Africa. November 2020.
SeedheadsPennisetum macrourum (African feather grass); Seedheads. Stellenbosch, South Africa. November 2020.©Dave Richardson/via iNaturalist.org - CC BY 4.0
Pennisetum macrourum (African feather grass); Seedhead. Stellenbosch, Western Cape, South Africa. December 2019.
TitleSeedhead
CaptionPennisetum macrourum (African feather grass); Seedhead. Stellenbosch, Western Cape, South Africa. December 2019.
Copyright©Dave Richardson/via iNaturalist.org - CC BY 4.0
Pennisetum macrourum (African feather grass); Seedhead. Stellenbosch, Western Cape, South Africa. December 2019.
SeedheadPennisetum macrourum (African feather grass); Seedhead. Stellenbosch, Western Cape, South Africa. December 2019.©Dave Richardson/via iNaturalist.org - CC BY 4.0
Pennisetum macrourum (African feather grass); Seedhead. Willowmore, South Africa. November 2019.
TitleSeedhead
CaptionPennisetum macrourum (African feather grass); Seedhead. Willowmore, South Africa. November 2019.
Copyright©Brian du Preez/via iNaturalist.org - CC BY-SA 4.0
Pennisetum macrourum (African feather grass); Seedhead. Willowmore, South Africa. November 2019.
SeedheadPennisetum macrourum (African feather grass); Seedhead. Willowmore, South Africa. November 2019.©Brian du Preez/via iNaturalist.org - CC BY-SA 4.0
Pennisetum macrourum (African feather grass); Seedhead. Stellenbosch, Western Cape, South Africa. November 2019.
TitleSeedhead
CaptionPennisetum macrourum (African feather grass); Seedhead. Stellenbosch, Western Cape, South Africa. November 2019.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by Quentin Groom/via iNaturalist.org
Pennisetum macrourum (African feather grass); Seedhead. Stellenbosch, Western Cape, South Africa. November 2019.
SeedheadPennisetum macrourum (African feather grass); Seedhead. Stellenbosch, Western Cape, South Africa. November 2019.Public Domain - Released by Quentin Groom/via iNaturalist.org
Pennisetum macrourum (African feather grass); Seedhead.  Kranshoek, South Africa. November 2012.
TitleSeedhead
CaptionPennisetum macrourum (African feather grass); Seedhead. Kranshoek, South Africa. November 2012.
Copyright©Nicola van Berkel/via iNaturalist.org - CC BY-SA 4.0
Pennisetum macrourum (African feather grass); Seedhead.  Kranshoek, South Africa. November 2012.
SeedheadPennisetum macrourum (African feather grass); Seedhead. Kranshoek, South Africa. November 2012.©Nicola van Berkel/via iNaturalist.org - CC BY-SA 4.0
Pennisetum macrourum (African feather grass); Seedhead. Ruigtevlei, Sedgefield, South Africa. August 2018.
TitleSeedhead
CaptionPennisetum macrourum (African feather grass); Seedhead. Ruigtevlei, Sedgefield, South Africa. August 2018.
Copyright©Nicola van Berkel/via iNaturalist.org - CC BY-SA 4.0
Pennisetum macrourum (African feather grass); Seedhead. Ruigtevlei, Sedgefield, South Africa. August 2018.
SeedheadPennisetum macrourum (African feather grass); Seedhead. Ruigtevlei, Sedgefield, South Africa. August 2018.©Nicola van Berkel/via iNaturalist.org - CC BY-SA 4.0
Pennisetum macrourum (African feather grass); Habit. Assegaaibosch Nature Reserve, South Africa. December 2011.
TitleHabit
CaptionPennisetum macrourum (African feather grass); Habit. Assegaaibosch Nature Reserve, South Africa. December 2011.
Copyright©Tony Rebelo/via iNaturalist.org - CC BY-SA 4.0
Pennisetum macrourum (African feather grass); Habit. Assegaaibosch Nature Reserve, South Africa. December 2011.
HabitPennisetum macrourum (African feather grass); Habit. Assegaaibosch Nature Reserve, South Africa. December 2011.©Tony Rebelo/via iNaturalist.org - CC BY-SA 4.0
Pennisetum macrourum (African feather grass); Ligule. Little Hagley Park, Christchurch, New Zealand. April 2014.
TitleLigule
CaptionPennisetum macrourum (African feather grass); Ligule. Little Hagley Park, Christchurch, New Zealand. April 2014.
Copyright©Colin Meurk/via iNaturalist.org - CC BY-SA 4.0
Pennisetum macrourum (African feather grass); Ligule. Little Hagley Park, Christchurch, New Zealand. April 2014.
LigulePennisetum macrourum (African feather grass); Ligule. Little Hagley Park, Christchurch, New Zealand. April 2014.©Colin Meurk/via iNaturalist.org - CC BY-SA 4.0
Pennisetum macrourum (African feather grass); Habit. Matroosberg Nature Reserve, South Africa. January 2019.
TitleHabit
CaptionPennisetum macrourum (African feather grass); Habit. Matroosberg Nature Reserve, South Africa. January 2019.
Copyright©Tony Rebelo/via iNaturalist.org - CC BY-SA 4.0
Pennisetum macrourum (African feather grass); Habit. Matroosberg Nature Reserve, South Africa. January 2019.
HabitPennisetum macrourum (African feather grass); Habit. Matroosberg Nature Reserve, South Africa. January 2019.©Tony Rebelo/via iNaturalist.org - CC BY-SA 4.0
Pennisetum macrourum (African feather grass); Habit. Tokai Park, Table Mountain National Park, Cape Town, South Africa. December 2017.
TitleHabit
CaptionPennisetum macrourum (African feather grass); Habit. Tokai Park, Table Mountain National Park, Cape Town, South Africa. December 2017.
Copyright©Tony Rebelo/via iNaturalist.org - CC BY-SA 4.0
Pennisetum macrourum (African feather grass); Habit. Tokai Park, Table Mountain National Park, Cape Town, South Africa. December 2017.
HabitPennisetum macrourum (African feather grass); Habit. Tokai Park, Table Mountain National Park, Cape Town, South Africa. December 2017.©Tony Rebelo/via iNaturalist.org - CC BY-SA 4.0
Pennisetum macrourum (African feather grass); Spikelets singly and in clusters, each subtended by a fascicle of bristles. California Department of Food and Agriculture. July 2008.
TitleSpikelets
CaptionPennisetum macrourum (African feather grass); Spikelets singly and in clusters, each subtended by a fascicle of bristles. California Department of Food and Agriculture. July 2008.
Copyright©Julia Scher, Federal Noxious Weeds Disseminules, USDA APHIS PPQ, Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0
Pennisetum macrourum (African feather grass); Spikelets singly and in clusters, each subtended by a fascicle of bristles. California Department of Food and Agriculture. July 2008.
SpikeletsPennisetum macrourum (African feather grass); Spikelets singly and in clusters, each subtended by a fascicle of bristles. California Department of Food and Agriculture. July 2008.©Julia Scher, Federal Noxious Weeds Disseminules, USDA APHIS PPQ, Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0
Pennisetum macrourum (African feather grass); Ventral view of fertile floret showing margins of lemma enclosing palea (left); spikelet subtended by primary bristle showing upper glume and fertile lemma (right). California Department of Food and Agriculture. July 2008.
TitleSpikelet
CaptionPennisetum macrourum (African feather grass); Ventral view of fertile floret showing margins of lemma enclosing palea (left); spikelet subtended by primary bristle showing upper glume and fertile lemma (right). California Department of Food and Agriculture. July 2008.
Copyright©Julia Scher, Federal Noxious Weeds Disseminules, USDA APHIS PPQ, Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0
Pennisetum macrourum (African feather grass); Ventral view of fertile floret showing margins of lemma enclosing palea (left); spikelet subtended by primary bristle showing upper glume and fertile lemma (right). California Department of Food and Agriculture. July 2008.
SpikeletPennisetum macrourum (African feather grass); Ventral view of fertile floret showing margins of lemma enclosing palea (left); spikelet subtended by primary bristle showing upper glume and fertile lemma (right). California Department of Food and Agriculture. July 2008.©Julia Scher, Federal Noxious Weeds Disseminules, USDA APHIS PPQ, Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0
Pennisetum macrourum (African feather grass); Caryopses in ventral view (left) and dorsal view (right). California Department of Food and Agriculture. July 2008.
TitleFruit
CaptionPennisetum macrourum (African feather grass); Caryopses in ventral view (left) and dorsal view (right). California Department of Food and Agriculture. July 2008.
Copyright©Julia Scher, Federal Noxious Weeds Disseminules, USDA APHIS PPQ, Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0
Pennisetum macrourum (African feather grass); Caryopses in ventral view (left) and dorsal view (right). California Department of Food and Agriculture. July 2008.
FruitPennisetum macrourum (African feather grass); Caryopses in ventral view (left) and dorsal view (right). California Department of Food and Agriculture. July 2008.©Julia Scher, Federal Noxious Weeds Disseminules, USDA APHIS PPQ, Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pennisetum macrourum Trin.

Preferred Common Name

  • African feather grass

Other Scientific Names

  • Pennisetum angolense Rendle
  • Pennisetum giganteum A. Rich.
  • Pennisetum quartinianum A. Rich.

International Common Names

  • English: African feathergrass; bedding grass

EPPO code

  • PESMA (Pennisetum macrourum)

Summary of Invasiveness

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P. macrourum has demonstrated its ability to invade and displace grassland vegetation in Tasmania and New Zealand (Hartley, 1973; Tasmanian Department of Agriculture, 1976). There is potential for rapid spread by rhizomes within a site and by seed over longer distances. It is particularly invasive in New Zealand where it is a declared noxious species (Anon., 1977). It has also been listed as a noxious weed by the USA and is a quarantine pest for some US states (USDA-ARS).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Pennisetum
  •                                 Species: Pennisetum macrourum

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Clayton and Renvoize (1982) list over 20 synonyms and comment that 'The (East African) waterside reeds have been brought together, and treated here as a single polymorphic species. Within it there is a reticulum of local segregates, which intergrade to such an extent that subdivisions can be no more than arbitrary in the absence of firm guidance from ecological and cytological studies.

Description

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P. macrourum is an erect perennial grass, densely tufted but with a rhizome up to 1 m or more (Weber, 2003). Culms up to 2 m tall though usually smaller, glabrous, unbranched, scabrid below the inflorescence. Leaves are strongly ribbed, up to 120 cm long and ca. 13 mm wide, light green above and grey-green below. Leaf sheaths glabrous, or hairy with sharp deciduous hairs causing the plant to be unpleasant to handle. Numerous spikelets are borne in slender spikes of 10-30 cm length. Spikelets subtended by an involucre of scabrid bristles, one longer than others, up to 15 mm long. Spikelets 4-6 mm long, solitary, sessile; lower glume minute or absent, upper glume one quarter to one third as long as the 5-nerved lemmas.

Plant Type

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Grass / sedge
Perennial
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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P. macrourum is native to southern and eastern Africa but widely introduced elsewhere, including Australia and New Zealand (Scott and Delfosse, 1992). In addition to the country list, Weber (2003) lists this species as present in northern, southern and eastern Europe (also Mediterranean islands), tropical and southern Africa, temperate and tropical Asia, tropical South America and Caribbean, South Atlantic Islands, Mascarenes and Melanesia.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 12 May 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresentNative
BotswanaPresentNative
Cabo VerdePresent
CameroonPresentNative
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentNative
EswatiniPresentNative
EthiopiaPresentNative
GabonPresentNative
GuineaPresentNative
KenyaPresentNative
MadagascarPresent
MalawiPresentNative
NigeriaPresentNative
SeychellesPresent
SomaliaPresentNative
South AfricaPresentNative
SudanPresentNative
TanzaniaPresentNative
TogoPresentNative
UgandaPresentNative
ZambiaPresentNative

Asia

ChinaPresent
YemenPresentNative

Europe

FrancePresent
PortugalPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AzoresPresent
-MadeiraPresent
SpainPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Canary IslandsPresent
United KingdomPresent

North America

CanadaPresent
MexicoPresent
United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlaskaPresent
-CaliforniaPresentIntroduced
-HawaiiPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, LocalizedIntroduced
-South AustraliaPresent
-TasmaniaPresentIntroduced
Federated States of MicronesiaPresent
New ZealandPresent, LocalizedIntroduced

South America

ArgentinaPresent
ChilePresent
EcuadorPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Galapagos IslandsPresent

Risk of Introduction

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It is particularly invasive in New Zealand where it is a declared noxious species (Anon., 1977). It has also been listed as a noxious weed by the USA and is a quarantine pest for some US states (USDA-ARS).

Habitat

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P. macrourum is mainly a weed of pasture and other grasslands, but is also found in perennial crops such as lucerne. It also grows in roadsides, waste ground and disturbed areas (Tasmanian Department of Agriculture, 1976). In New Zealand, it grows best in damp situations such as swamps and along the borders of streams, but can tolerate drought and establish on dry shady banks; it prefers light sandy soil (Bay of Plenty Regional Council, 2004).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalWetlands Present, no further details

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Medicago sativa (lucerne)FabaceaeMain

Growth Stages

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Vegetative growing stage

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

There are conflicting reports on chromosome number in this species: 2n=36 (Dujardin and Hanna, 1989); 2n=32 (Kadam et al., 1984). Kadam et al. (1984) suggest that P. macrourum is a tetraploid species and that previously reported types with 2n=54 may be of aneuploid origin.

Attempts to cross P. macrourum with diploid and tetraploid pearl millet (P. glaucum) yielded no hybrids (Dujardin and Hanna, 1989).

Physiology and Phenology

According to the Tasmanian Department of Agriculture (1978) no seed dormancy has been detected in this species, although deep burial (80 mm) prevents establishment and buried seed loses viability within 1 month. However, Harradine (1980a) reported that burial at 80 mm depth induced dormancy, but fewer than 7% of seeds were viable after 6 months.

Maximum germination (88%) is achieved at 30°C. Maximum establishment was obtained from seeds buried at a depth of 10 mm. Establishment of surface sown seeds was less than 25% (Harradine, 1980a).

Reproductive Biology

Reproduction is via seeds (Harradine, 1980a) and rhizomes. Four-node rhizome fragments of this species, buried at 15 cm depth, show 57% regeneration (Harradine, 1980b). Strong rhizome growth results in dense mats.

Environmental Requirements

Once established, P. macrourum is relatively drought resistant (Weber, 2003). This species is less tolerant of saline soil than some other cosmopolitan competitors (Lolium spp., Agropyron spp.; Harradine, 1982).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)

Seeds are dispersed by water (Weber, 2003) and wind (Bay of Plenty Regional Council, 2004).

Vector Transmission (Biotic)

Barbed bristles on the seed husk assist dispersal in animal hair (Bay of Plenty Regional Council, 2004).

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes weeds/roots
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx weeds/seeds
Fruits (inc. pods) weeds/seeds
Growing medium accompanying plants weeds/roots; weeds/seeds
Roots weeds/roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants weeds/whole plants
True seeds (inc. grain) weeds/seeds

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collections None
Animal/plant products None
Biodiversity (generally) Negative
Crop production Negative
Environment (generally) Negative
Fisheries / aquaculture None
Forestry production None
Human health None
Livestock production Negative
Native fauna None
Native flora Negative
Rare/protected species None
Tourism None
Trade/international relations None
Transport/travel None

Impact

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The evidence suggests that this species is a serious problem in New Zealand but considered less so in Australia, though it is listed by Holm et al. (1979) as a 'principal' weed for that country. It is difficult to eliminate (Tasmanian Department of Agriculture, 1976).

Impact: Biodiversity

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In New Zealand, P. macrourum has become so aggressive it is able to displace most other species (Hartley, 1973).

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Has high reproductive potential
Impact outcomes
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Reduced native biodiversity
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Difficult/costly to control

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Smaller plants of P. macrourum may be confused with P. sphacelatum but the culms of the latter are distinctly hairy for some distance below the inflorescence.

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Mechanical Control

This species is particularly difficult to control because of the abundance of rhizomes and the ability of rhizomes to regenerate from fragments (Tasmanian Department of Agriculture, 1976). The grass should be slashed or burnt before seed set (Anon., 1977).

Chemical Control

Good control of established plants is obtained with glyphosate or flupropanate applied during periods of active growth in the spring or autumn (Anon., 1977; Tasmanian Department of Agriculture, 1977).

References

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Anon., 1977. Weeds and weed control. African feather grass (Pennisetum macrourum Trin.) declared noxious weed. Tasmanian Journal of Agriculture, 48(4):241-243.

Bay of Plenty Regional Council, 2004. Pennisetum macrourum fact sheet. Environment Bay of Plenty, New Zealand. http://www.ebop.govt.nz/.

Clayton WD; Renvoize SA, 1982. Gramineae (Part 3). In: Polhill RM, ed. Flora of Tropical East Africa. Rotterdam, Netherlands: Balkema.

Crossman ND; Weidenbach M, 2004. The perennial grass weeds workshop questionnaire and mapping exercise. Plant Protection Quarterly [South Australian perennial grass weeds workshop, Glen Osmond, South Australia, 27 February 2004.], 19(2):54-58.

Dujardin M; Hanna WW, 1989. Crossability of pearl millet with wild Pennisetum species. Crop Science, 29(1):77-80.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Harradine AR, 1980. The biology of African feather grass (Pennisetum macrourum Trin.) in Tasmania. 1. Seedling establishment. Weed Research, 20(3):165-169

Harradine AR, 1982. Effect of salinity on germination and growth of Pennisetum macrourum in southern Tasmania. Journal of Applied Ecology, 19(1):273-282.

Hartley MJ, 1973. Weed grasses in New Zealand pastures. Proceedings of the 4th Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society Conference, Rotorua, 1973:42-48.

Holm LG; Pancho JV; Herberger JP; Plucknett DL, 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons, 391 pp.

Kadam DE; Birari SP; Patil RC, 1984. Karyotypic studies in Pennisetum species. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities, 9(3):352-353.

Scott JK; Delfosse ES, 1992. Southern African plants naturalized in Australia: a review of weed status and biological control potential. Plant Protection Quarterly, 7(2):70-80

Tasmanian Department of Agriculture, 1976. Annual report 1975-76, No. 85. Tasmania, Australia: Government Printer.

Tasmanian Department of Agriculture, 1977. Annual report for 1976-77, No. 64. Tasmania, Australia: Government Printer, 88 pp.

Tasmanian Department of Agriculture, 1978. Annual report, 1977-78. No. 84. Tasmania, Australia: Government Printer, 54 pp.

USDA-ARS, 2003. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2003. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, USA. http://plants.usda.gov.

Weber E, 2003. Invasive plant species of the world: A reference guide to environmental weeds. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 548 pp.

Distribution References

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Crossman N D, Weidenbach M, 2004. The perennial grass weeds workshop questionnaire and mapping exercise. Plant Protection Quarterly. 19 (2), 54-58.

EPPO, 2022. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. 1 pp. https://gd.eppo.int/

Holm L, Pancho J V, Herberger J P, Plucknett D L, 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. New York, Chichester (), Brisbane, Toronto, UK: John Wiley and Sons. xlix + 391 pp.

Hu H, Zheng H, Yang T, Chen X, Ye W, Lu G, Lin Z, Wang Z, 2019. First report of pyricularia leaf spot on Pennisetum giganteum (Jujuncao) in China. Plant Disease. 103 (2), 374-375. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-05-18-0898-PDN

Seebens H, Blackburn T M, Dyer E E, Genovesi P, Hulme P E, Jeschke J M, Pagad S, Pyšek P, Winter M, Arianoutsou M, Bacher S, Blasius B, Brundu G, Capinha C, Celesti-Grapow L, Dawson W, Dullinger S, Fuentes N, Jäger H, Kartesz J, Kenis M, Kreft H, Kühn I, Lenzner B, Liebhold A, Mosena A (et al), 2017. No saturation in the accumulation of alien species worldwide. Nature Communications. 8 (2), 14435. http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms14435

Tasmanian Department of Agriculture, 1976. Annual report 1975-76, No. 85., Tasmania, Australia: Government Printer.

USDA-ARS, 2003. Hedychium flavescens. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database, Beltsville, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl

USDA-NRCS, 2003. The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

Weber E, 2003. Invasive plant species of the world: a reference guide to environmental weeds. [ed. by Weber E]. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing. viii + 548 pp.

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

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