Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Acleris variana
(hemlock budworm)

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Datasheet

Acleris variana (hemlock budworm)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Acleris variana
  • Preferred Common Name
  • hemlock budworm
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Acleris variana (Fernald, 1886)

Preferred Common Name

  • hemlock budworm

Other Scientific Names

  • Acalla variana
  • Peronea angusana Fernald, 1892
  • Peronea variana Meyrick, 1912
  • Teras variana Fernald, 1886
  • Teras variana angusana Fernald, 1897

International Common Names

  • English: blackheaded budworm; budworm, eastern blackheaded; eastern blackheaded budworm
  • French: tordeuse à tête noire de l'épinette; tordeuse à tête noire de l'est

EPPO code

  • ACLRVA (Acleris variana)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Tortricidae
  •                             Genus: Acleris
  •                                 Species: Acleris variana

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020

Growth Stages

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List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Growing point / dieback
Growing point / external feeding
Growing point / frass visible
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / frass visible
Leaves / shredding
Leaves / webbing
Stems / dieback
Whole plant / discoloration
Whole plant / external feeding
Whole plant / frass visible

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Actia diffidens Parasite Larvae
Ascogaster provancheri Parasite Larvae
Dolichogenidea absonus Parasite Larvae
Meteorus autographae Parasite Larvae
Microgaster peroneae Parasite Larvae
Phytodietus varianae Parasite
Phytodietus vulgaris Parasite Larvae

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Leaves eggs Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants eggs; larvae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Wood Packaging

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Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Loose wood packing material
Non-wood
Processed or treated wood
Solid wood packing material with bark
Solid wood packing material without bark

References

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Berryman AA, 1986. On the dynamics of blackheaded budworm populations. Canadian Entomologist, 118(8):775-779

CIE, 1989. Acleris variana. Distribution Maps of Pests, No. 506.

Condrasheff SF, 1967. An extraction method for rapid counts of insect eggs and small organisms. Canadian Entomologist, 99:300-303.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Forbes RS, 1952. Parasites of the black-headed budworm in Newfoundland. Bi-monthly Progress Report of the Canadian Department of Agriculture, 8:2.

Forbes WTM, 1923. The Lepidoptera of New York and neighboring states, part 1. Ithaca, New York, USA: Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station, Memoir 68.

Fye RE, 1965. An additional record of Acleris variana Fern. from black spruce club tops. Bi-monthly Progress Report of the Canadian Department of Forestry, 21:2-3.

Gage SH; Miller CA; Mook LJ, 1970. The feeding response of some forest birds to the black-headed budworm. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 48:359-366.

Gray TG; Shepherd RF; Gries G; Gries R, 1996. Sex pheromone component of the western blackheaded budworm, Acleris gloverana Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Canadian Entomologist, 128(6):1135-1142; 15 ref.

Gries G; Li J; Gries R; Bowers WW; West RJ; Wimalaratne PDC; Khaskin KN, 1994. (E)-11,13-Tetradecadienal: major sex pheromone component of the eastern blackheaded budworm, Acleris variana (Fern.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Journal of Chemical Ecology, 20(1):1-8.

Hall JP, 1995. Forest insect and disease conditions in Canada 1993. Forest Insect and Disease Conditions in Canada, No. 1993:133 pp.; many ref.

Hall JP; Bowers WW; Hirvonen H, 1998. Forest Insect and Disease Conditions in Canada-1995. Ottawa, Canada: Natural Resources.

Harris JWE; Collis DG; Magar KM, 1972. Evaluation of the tree-beating method for sampling defoliating forest insects. Canadian Entomologist, 104:723-729.

Loughton BG; Derry C; West AS, 1963. Spiders and the spruce budworm. In: Morris RF, ed. The Dynamics of Epidemic Spruce Budworm Populations. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada, 31:249-268.

Luther JE; Franklin SE; Hudak J; Meades JP, 1997. Forecasting the susceptibility and vulnerability of balsam fir stands to insect defoliation with Landsat thematic mapper data. Remote Sensing of Environment, 59(1):77-91; 65 ref.

Mackay MR, 1962. Larvae of the North American Tortricinae (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Canadian Entomologist, Supplement 28:182 pp.

McGuffin WC, 1954. Alberta and Rocky Mountain National Parks. Annual Report Forest Insect and Disease Survey, Canadian Department of Agriculture, 121-127.

McNamee PJ, 1979. A process model for eastern blackheaded budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Canadian Entomologist, 111(1):55-66

Miller CA, 1966. The black-headed budworm in eastern Canada. Canadian Entomologist, 98:592-613.

Morris RF, 1955. The development of sampling for forest insect defoliators, with particular reference to the spruce budworm. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 33:225-294.

Morris RF, 1959. Single-factor analysis in population dynamics. Ecology, 40:580-588.

Otvos IS, 1977. Some parasites and insect predators of the blackheaded budworm in Newfoundland. Bi-monthly Research Notes, 33(2):11-12

Otvos IS, 1991. North American species in forestry. In: Van der Geest LPS, Evenhuis HH, eds. Tortricid Pests Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests, 5. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier, 719-756.

Otvos IS; Fajrajsl A, 1997. An annotated bibliography of Acleris variana and Acleris gloverana. Information Report - Pacific Forestry Centre, Canadian Forest Service, No. BC-X-371:vi + 81 pp.

Powell JA, 1962. Taxonomic studies on the Acleris gloverana-variana complex, the black-headed budworms (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Canadian Entomologist, 94:833-840.

Prebble ML, 1933. The biology of Podisus serieventris Uhler, in Cape Breton, Nova Scotia. Canadian Journal of Research, 9:1-30.

PREBBLE ML; GRAHAM K, 1945. B.C. Lumberman. Vancouver, 6 pp.

Prentice RM, 1965. Forest Lepidoptera of Canada. Volume 4: Microlepidoptera. Ottawa, Canada: Department of Forestry Canada Publication 1142:840 pp.

Prentice RM; Hildahl V, 1954. Provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan. Annual Report Forest Insect and Disease Survey, Canadian Department of Agriculture, 91-103.

Shepherd RF; Gray TG, 1990. A sampling system for eggs of western blackheaded budworm, Acleris gloverana (Walsingham) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), on western hemlock, Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. Canadian Entomologist, 122(5-6):555-562

Shepherd RF; Gray TG, 2001. Comparative rates of density change in declining populations of the blackheaded budworm Acleris gloverana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) among different sites on Vancouver Island. Environmental Entomology, 30(5):883-891; 50 ref.

Silver GT, 1960. The relation of weather to population trends of the black-headed budworm, Acleris variana (Fern.), (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Canadian Entomologist, 92:401-410.

Smith IM; McNamara DG; Scott PR; Holderness M, 1997. Quarantine pests for Europe. Second Edition. Data sheets on quarantine pests for the European Union and for the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. Quarantine pests for Europe. Second Edition. Data sheets on quarantine pests for the European Union and for the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization., Ed. 2:vii + 1425 pp.; many ref.

West RJ; Carter J, 1992. Aerial applications of Bacillus thuringiensis formulations against eastern blackheaded budworm in Newfoundland in 1990. Information Report - Newfoundland and Labrador Region, Forestry Canada, No. N-X-282:v + 10 pp.; 8 ref.

Distribution Maps

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