Acleris variana (hemlock budworm)
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IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Acleris variana (Fernald, 1886)
Preferred Common Name
- hemlock budworm
Other Scientific Names
- Acalla variana
- Peronea angusana Fernald, 1892
- Peronea variana Meyrick, 1912
- Teras variana Fernald, 1886
- Teras variana angusana Fernald, 1897
International Common Names
- English: blackheaded budworm; budworm, eastern blackheaded; eastern blackheaded budworm
- French: tordeuse à tête noire de l'épinette; tordeuse à tête noire de l'est
- ACLRVA (Acleris variana)
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Arthropoda
- Subphylum: Uniramia
- Class: Insecta
- Order: Lepidoptera
- Family: Tortricidae
- Genus: Acleris
- Species: Acleris variana
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Growth StagesTop of page Vegetative growing stage
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Growing point / dieback|
|Growing point / external feeding|
|Growing point / frass visible|
|Leaves / abnormal colours|
|Leaves / abnormal forms|
|Leaves / external feeding|
|Leaves / frass visible|
|Leaves / shredding|
|Leaves / webbing|
|Stems / dieback|
|Whole plant / discoloration|
|Whole plant / external feeding|
|Whole plant / frass visible|
Natural enemiesTop of page
|Natural enemy||Type||Life stages||Specificity||References||Biological control in||Biological control on|
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Leaves||eggs||Yes||Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope|
|Seedlings/Micropropagated plants||eggs; larvae||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Fruits (inc. pods)|
|Growing medium accompanying plants|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches|
|True seeds (inc. grain)|
Wood PackagingTop of page
|Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Loose wood packing material|
|Processed or treated wood|
|Solid wood packing material with bark|
|Solid wood packing material without bark|
ReferencesTop of page
CIE, 1989. Acleris variana. Distribution Maps of Pests, No. 506.
Condrasheff SF, 1967. An extraction method for rapid counts of insect eggs and small organisms. Canadian Entomologist, 99:300-303.
EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm
Forbes RS, 1952. Parasites of the black-headed budworm in Newfoundland. Bi-monthly Progress Report of the Canadian Department of Agriculture, 8:2.
Forbes WTM, 1923. The Lepidoptera of New York and neighboring states, part 1. Ithaca, New York, USA: Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station, Memoir 68.
Fye RE, 1965. An additional record of Acleris variana Fern. from black spruce club tops. Bi-monthly Progress Report of the Canadian Department of Forestry, 21:2-3.
Gage SH; Miller CA; Mook LJ, 1970. The feeding response of some forest birds to the black-headed budworm. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 48:359-366.
Gray TG; Shepherd RF; Gries G; Gries R, 1996. Sex pheromone component of the western blackheaded budworm, Acleris gloverana Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Canadian Entomologist, 128(6):1135-1142; 15 ref.
Gries G; Li J; Gries R; Bowers WW; West RJ; Wimalaratne PDC; Khaskin KN, 1994. (E)-11,13-Tetradecadienal: major sex pheromone component of the eastern blackheaded budworm, Acleris variana (Fern.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Journal of Chemical Ecology, 20(1):1-8.
Hall JP; Bowers WW; Hirvonen H, 1998. Forest Insect and Disease Conditions in Canada-1995. Ottawa, Canada: Natural Resources.
Harris JWE; Collis DG; Magar KM, 1972. Evaluation of the tree-beating method for sampling defoliating forest insects. Canadian Entomologist, 104:723-729.
Loughton BG; Derry C; West AS, 1963. Spiders and the spruce budworm. In: Morris RF, ed. The Dynamics of Epidemic Spruce Budworm Populations. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada, 31:249-268.
Luther JE; Franklin SE; Hudak J; Meades JP, 1997. Forecasting the susceptibility and vulnerability of balsam fir stands to insect defoliation with Landsat thematic mapper data. Remote Sensing of Environment, 59(1):77-91; 65 ref.
Mackay MR, 1962. Larvae of the North American Tortricinae (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Canadian Entomologist, Supplement 28:182 pp.
McGuffin WC, 1954. Alberta and Rocky Mountain National Parks. Annual Report Forest Insect and Disease Survey, Canadian Department of Agriculture, 121-127.
Miller CA, 1966. The black-headed budworm in eastern Canada. Canadian Entomologist, 98:592-613.
Morris RF, 1955. The development of sampling for forest insect defoliators, with particular reference to the spruce budworm. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 33:225-294.
Morris RF, 1959. Single-factor analysis in population dynamics. Ecology, 40:580-588.
Otvos IS, 1991. North American species in forestry. In: Van der Geest LPS, Evenhuis HH, eds. Tortricid Pests Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests, 5. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier, 719-756.
Powell JA, 1962. Taxonomic studies on the Acleris gloverana-variana complex, the black-headed budworms (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Canadian Entomologist, 94:833-840.
Prebble ML, 1933. The biology of Podisus serieventris Uhler, in Cape Breton, Nova Scotia. Canadian Journal of Research, 9:1-30.
Prentice RM, 1965. Forest Lepidoptera of Canada. Volume 4: Microlepidoptera. Ottawa, Canada: Department of Forestry Canada Publication 1142:840 pp.
Prentice RM; Hildahl V, 1954. Provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan. Annual Report Forest Insect and Disease Survey, Canadian Department of Agriculture, 91-103.
Shepherd RF; Gray TG, 1990. A sampling system for eggs of western blackheaded budworm, Acleris gloverana (Walsingham) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), on western hemlock, Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. Canadian Entomologist, 122(5-6):555-562
Shepherd RF; Gray TG, 2001. Comparative rates of density change in declining populations of the blackheaded budworm Acleris gloverana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) among different sites on Vancouver Island. Environmental Entomology, 30(5):883-891; 50 ref.
Silver GT, 1960. The relation of weather to population trends of the black-headed budworm, Acleris variana (Fern.), (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Canadian Entomologist, 92:401-410.
Smith IM; McNamara DG; Scott PR; Holderness M, 1997. Quarantine pests for Europe. Second Edition. Data sheets on quarantine pests for the European Union and for the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. Quarantine pests for Europe. Second Edition. Data sheets on quarantine pests for the European Union and for the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization., Ed. 2:vii + 1425 pp.; many ref.
West RJ; Carter J, 1992. Aerial applications of Bacillus thuringiensis formulations against eastern blackheaded budworm in Newfoundland in 1990. Information Report - Newfoundland and Labrador Region, Forestry Canada, No. N-X-282:v + 10 pp.; 8 ref.
CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CIE, 1989. Acleris variana. In: Distribution Maps of Pests,
EPPO, 2014. EPPO Global database (available online). Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/
Prentice RM, 1965. Forest Lepidoptera of Canada. Volume 4: Microlepidoptera., 1142 Ottawa, Canada: Department of Forestry Canada Publication. 840 pp.
Distribution MapsTop of page
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