Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Peronospora sparsa
(downy mildew)

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Datasheet

Peronospora sparsa (downy mildew)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Peronospora sparsa
  • Preferred Common Name
  • downy mildew
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Chromista
  •     Phylum: Oomycota
  •       Class: Oomycetes
  •         Order: Peronosporales
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • S. sparsa is spread over long distances quite easily in the commercial trade of plant materials. As the hosts are perennial, it has little difficulty establishing itself once it has been introduced to an area in infected plants. It has a rapid life-c...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Peronospora sparsa (downy mildew); early symptoms of downy mildew infection of rose leaves sometimes include angular green islands surrounded by chlorosis. The green islands are areas that the pathogen has colonized.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionPeronospora sparsa (downy mildew); early symptoms of downy mildew infection of rose leaves sometimes include angular green islands surrounded by chlorosis. The green islands are areas that the pathogen has colonized.
Copyright©Brenna Aegerter
Peronospora sparsa (downy mildew); early symptoms of downy mildew infection of rose leaves sometimes include angular green islands surrounded by chlorosis. The green islands are areas that the pathogen has colonized.
SymptomsPeronospora sparsa (downy mildew); early symptoms of downy mildew infection of rose leaves sometimes include angular green islands surrounded by chlorosis. The green islands are areas that the pathogen has colonized.©Brenna Aegerter
Peronospora sparsa (downy mildew); symptoms of downy mildew on field-planted rose rootstock cuttings. Lesions are purplish to necrotic and surrounded by chlorosis. Infected leaves are dropping to the ground.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionPeronospora sparsa (downy mildew); symptoms of downy mildew on field-planted rose rootstock cuttings. Lesions are purplish to necrotic and surrounded by chlorosis. Infected leaves are dropping to the ground.
Copyright©Brenna Aegerter
Peronospora sparsa (downy mildew); symptoms of downy mildew on field-planted rose rootstock cuttings. Lesions are purplish to necrotic and surrounded by chlorosis. Infected leaves are dropping to the ground.
SymptomsPeronospora sparsa (downy mildew); symptoms of downy mildew on field-planted rose rootstock cuttings. Lesions are purplish to necrotic and surrounded by chlorosis. Infected leaves are dropping to the ground.©Brenna Aegerter
Peronospora sparsa (downy mildew); lesions on both rose and caneberries can be strikingly purple. The infection often follows leaf midribs in caneberries, though less often in roses, which are pictured here.
TitleSymptoms on rose leaves
CaptionPeronospora sparsa (downy mildew); lesions on both rose and caneberries can be strikingly purple. The infection often follows leaf midribs in caneberries, though less often in roses, which are pictured here.
Copyright©Brenna Aegerter
Peronospora sparsa (downy mildew); lesions on both rose and caneberries can be strikingly purple. The infection often follows leaf midribs in caneberries, though less often in roses, which are pictured here.
Symptoms on rose leavesPeronospora sparsa (downy mildew); lesions on both rose and caneberries can be strikingly purple. The infection often follows leaf midribs in caneberries, though less often in roses, which are pictured here.©Brenna Aegerter
Peronospora sparsa (downy mildew); damage to rose stems caused by downy mildew. Severe stem infections can result in secondary infections by other fungi such as Botrytis.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionPeronospora sparsa (downy mildew); damage to rose stems caused by downy mildew. Severe stem infections can result in secondary infections by other fungi such as Botrytis.
Copyright©Brenna Aegerter
Peronospora sparsa (downy mildew); damage to rose stems caused by downy mildew. Severe stem infections can result in secondary infections by other fungi such as Botrytis.
SymptomsPeronospora sparsa (downy mildew); damage to rose stems caused by downy mildew. Severe stem infections can result in secondary infections by other fungi such as Botrytis.©Brenna Aegerter
Peronospora sparsa (downy mildew); adaxial surface of boysenberry leaves, showing interveinal necrosis and distortion of lamina caused by downy mildew.
TitleSymptoms on boysenberry leaves
CaptionPeronospora sparsa (downy mildew); adaxial surface of boysenberry leaves, showing interveinal necrosis and distortion of lamina caused by downy mildew.
Copyright©Scottish Crop Research Institute
Peronospora sparsa (downy mildew); adaxial surface of boysenberry leaves, showing interveinal necrosis and distortion of lamina caused by downy mildew.
Symptoms on boysenberry leavesPeronospora sparsa (downy mildew); adaxial surface of boysenberry leaves, showing interveinal necrosis and distortion of lamina caused by downy mildew.©Scottish Crop Research Institute
Peronospora sparsa (downy mildew); adaxial surface of blackberry cv. 'Loch Ness', showing interveinal necrosis typical of downy mildew.
TitleSymptoms on blackberry leaf
CaptionPeronospora sparsa (downy mildew); adaxial surface of blackberry cv. 'Loch Ness', showing interveinal necrosis typical of downy mildew.
Copyright©Scottish Crop Research Institute
Peronospora sparsa (downy mildew); adaxial surface of blackberry cv. 'Loch Ness', showing interveinal necrosis typical of downy mildew.
Symptoms on blackberry leafPeronospora sparsa (downy mildew); adaxial surface of blackberry cv. 'Loch Ness', showing interveinal necrosis typical of downy mildew.©Scottish Crop Research Institute
Peronospora sparsa (downy mildew); fruits of tummelberry infected by downy mildew showing a range of symptoms, including uneven swelling and ripening of drupelets, as well as premature colouring without enlargement.
TitleSymptoms on tummelberry fruits
CaptionPeronospora sparsa (downy mildew); fruits of tummelberry infected by downy mildew showing a range of symptoms, including uneven swelling and ripening of drupelets, as well as premature colouring without enlargement.
Copyright©Scottish Crop Research Institute
Peronospora sparsa (downy mildew); fruits of tummelberry infected by downy mildew showing a range of symptoms, including uneven swelling and ripening of drupelets, as well as premature colouring without enlargement.
Symptoms on tummelberry fruitsPeronospora sparsa (downy mildew); fruits of tummelberry infected by downy mildew showing a range of symptoms, including uneven swelling and ripening of drupelets, as well as premature colouring without enlargement.©Scottish Crop Research Institute
Peronospora sparsa (downy mildew); intercellular mycelium of P. sparsa spreading inside a petiole of a Tayberry plant in vitro.
TitleIntercellular mycelium
CaptionPeronospora sparsa (downy mildew); intercellular mycelium of P. sparsa spreading inside a petiole of a Tayberry plant in vitro.
Copyright©Scottish Crop Research Institute
Peronospora sparsa (downy mildew); intercellular mycelium of P. sparsa spreading inside a petiole of a Tayberry plant in vitro.
Intercellular myceliumPeronospora sparsa (downy mildew); intercellular mycelium of P. sparsa spreading inside a petiole of a Tayberry plant in vitro.©Scottish Crop Research Institute
Peronospora sparsa (downy mildew); haustorium within rose cortex tissue viewed with epifluorescent microscopy (Original x600 magnification).
TitleHaustorium
CaptionPeronospora sparsa (downy mildew); haustorium within rose cortex tissue viewed with epifluorescent microscopy (Original x600 magnification).
Copyright©American Phytopathological Society
Peronospora sparsa (downy mildew); haustorium within rose cortex tissue viewed with epifluorescent microscopy (Original x600 magnification).
HaustoriumPeronospora sparsa (downy mildew); haustorium within rose cortex tissue viewed with epifluorescent microscopy (Original x600 magnification).©American Phytopathological Society
Peronospora sparsa (downy mildew); oospores within rose cortex tissue viewed with differential interference microscopy (Original x200 magnification).
TitleOospores
CaptionPeronospora sparsa (downy mildew); oospores within rose cortex tissue viewed with differential interference microscopy (Original x200 magnification).
Copyright©American Phytopathological Society
Peronospora sparsa (downy mildew); oospores within rose cortex tissue viewed with differential interference microscopy (Original x200 magnification).
OosporesPeronospora sparsa (downy mildew); oospores within rose cortex tissue viewed with differential interference microscopy (Original x200 magnification).©American Phytopathological Society
Peronospora sparsa (downy mildew); intercellular hyphae spreading in the mesocarp of a drupelet in a developing fruit of Tummelberry.
TitleIntercellular hyphae
CaptionPeronospora sparsa (downy mildew); intercellular hyphae spreading in the mesocarp of a drupelet in a developing fruit of Tummelberry.
Copyright©Scottish Crop Research Institute
Peronospora sparsa (downy mildew); intercellular hyphae spreading in the mesocarp of a drupelet in a developing fruit of Tummelberry.
Intercellular hyphaePeronospora sparsa (downy mildew); intercellular hyphae spreading in the mesocarp of a drupelet in a developing fruit of Tummelberry.©Scottish Crop Research Institute
Peronospora sparsa (downy mildew); SEM of conidiophores and conidia observed in water.
TitleConidiophores and conidia
CaptionPeronospora sparsa (downy mildew); SEM of conidiophores and conidia observed in water.
Copyright©Scottish Crop Research Institute
Peronospora sparsa (downy mildew); SEM of conidiophores and conidia observed in water.
Conidiophores and conidiaPeronospora sparsa (downy mildew); SEM of conidiophores and conidia observed in water.©Scottish Crop Research Institute

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Peronospora sparsa Berk.

Preferred Common Name

  • downy mildew

Other Scientific Names

  • Peronoplasmopara sparsa (Berk.) Uljan.
  • Peronospora fragariae Roze & Cornu
  • Peronospora rosae-gallica Savul. & Rayss
  • Peronospora rubi Rabenh. ex J. Schröt.
  • Pseudoperonospora sparsa (Berk.) Jacz.

International Common Names

  • English: downy mildew of cane fruit; downy mildew of rose; downy mildew of rose and blackberry; dryberry disease (on Rubus spp.)
  • Spanish: mildeo velloso

EPPO code

  • PERORU (Peronospora rubi)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page S. sparsa is spread over long distances quite easily in the commercial trade of plant materials. As the hosts are perennial, it has little difficulty establishing itself once it has been introduced to an area in infected plants. It has a rapid life-cycle and can be spread by its abundant asexual spores to surrounding host plants. It also has resistant spores (oospores) which can probably survive harsh conditions. Because of its aerial biology, it can potentially spread from cultivated plants to adjacent wild plants, which may then serve as a reservoir of inoculum for future commercial plantings.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Chromista
  •         Phylum: Oomycota
  •             Class: Oomycetes
  •                 Order: Peronosporales
  •                     Family: Peronosporaceae
  •                         Genus: Peronospora
  •                             Species: Peronospora sparsa

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

EgyptPresentIntroducedFahmy (1927)First reported: 1924-1925
MauritiusPresentIntroduced1965Francis (1981); CABI and EPPO (2007); CABI (Undated)
MoroccoPresentFrancis (1981); CABI and EPPO (2007)
South AfricaPresentFrancis (1981); Achar (1997); CABI and EPPO (2007)
ZimbabwePresentFrancis (1981); CABI (Undated)

Asia

AzerbaijanPresentCABI and EPPO (2007)
BruneiPresentFrancis (1981); CABI and EPPO (2007); CABI (Undated)
ChinaPresentCABI and EPPO (2007)
-LiaoningPresentIntroduced1996Tian XiuLing et al. (1998); CABI and EPPO (2007)
GeorgiaPresentIntroduced1897Speschnew (1897)
IndiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2007)
-KarnatakaPresentIntroduced1998Ramachandran et al. (2003); CABI and EPPO (2007)
IranPresent1998Francis (1981); CABI and EPPO (2007)
IsraelPresentIntroduced1967Brosh (1970); VIGODSKY (1970); CABI and EPPO (2007)
JapanPresentIntroduced1952Francis (1981); CABI and EPPO (2007)
PhilippinesPresent1952Francis (1981)
South KoreaPresentCABI and EPPO (2007)

Europe

AndorraPresentCABI and EPPO (2007)
AustriaPresentIntroduced1880Cuboni (1888); Schmidt (1954); CABI and EPPO (2007)
BelarusPresent1880Podobmaya (1983); CABI and EPPO (2007)
BelgiumPresent1880CABI (Undated); CABI and EPPO (2007)Original citation: Crepel & Inghelbrecht, 2002
BulgariaPresentIntroducedAleksandrova (1976); CABI and EPPO (2007)First reported: 1970s
CroatiaPresentŠubić (2008)
CzechiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2007)
CzechoslovakiaPresentIntroduced1934Ticha (1973); Skalicky (1983); CABI (Undated)
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresentFrancis (1981)
DenmarkPresentIntroduced1884Rostrup (1902); GUSTAVSSON (1959); Skalicky (1983); CABI and EPPO (2007)
EstoniaPresentRumberg (1974); CABI and EPPO (2007)
FinlandPresent, WidespreadIntroduced1956Skalicky (1983); Kokko et al. (1999); Koponen et al. (2000); CABI and EPPO (2007); CABI (Undated);
FrancePresentIntroduced1880Cuboni (1888); Skalicky (1983); CABI and EPPO (2007)
GermanyPresentIntroduced1876Wittmack (1877); Naumann (1924); Skalicky (1983); CABI and EPPO (2007)
GreecePresentFrancis (1981); CABI and EPPO (2007)
HungaryPresentFolk (1983); CABI and EPPO (2007)
IcelandPresentIntroduced1950Davidsson (1951); CABI and EPPO (2007)
ItalyPresentIntroduced1875Cuboni (1888); CIFERRI (1961); Marziano et al. (1973); CABI and EPPO (2007)
LatviaPresentFrancis (1981); Skalicky (1983); CABI and EPPO (2007)
LithuaniaPresentIntroduced1984CABI (Undated); CABI and EPPO (2007)Original citation: Staneviciene, 1997
MontenegroPresentCABI and EPPO (2007)
NetherlandsPresentIntroduced1901Ritzema (1902); Barker (1946)
NorwayPresentIntroduced1927Konopacka (1927); GUSTAVSSON (1959); RAMSFJELL (1960); Skalicky (1983); CABI and EPPO (2007); CABI (Undated)
PolandPresentIntroduced1926Konopacka (1927); Skalicky (1983); CABI and EPPO (2007)
PortugalPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated); CABI and EPPO (2007)First reported: 1970s; Original citation: Lucas Dias (1976)
RomaniaPresentIntroduced1932CABI and EPPO (2007); CABI (Undated);
RussiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2007)
-Central RussiaPresentIntroduced1923Konopacka (1927); CABI and EPPO (2007)
-Northern RussiaPresentIntroduced1899Koponen et al. (2000); CABI and EPPO (2007)
SpainPresentCABI and EPPO (2007)
-Canary IslandsPresentCABI and EPPO (2007)
SwedenPresentIntroduced1905Reuter (1907); GUSTAVSSON (1959); Hellqvist et al. (1998); Koponen et al. (2000); CABI and EPPO (2007)
SwitzerlandPresentIntroduced1940Meier (1943); Skalicky (1983); CABI and EPPO (2007); CABI (Undated)
UkrainePresentPetrushova (1952); CABI and EPPO (2007)
United KingdomPresentIntroduced1862Skalicky (1983); Francis and Waterhouse (1988); McKeown (1988); Breese et al. (1994); CABI and EPPO (2007);
-ScotlandPresentCABI and EPPO (2007)

North America

CanadaPresentCABI and EPPO (2007)
-British ColumbiaPresentIntroduced1937Jones (1938); Conners and Savile (1949); Shaw (1973); CABI and EPPO (2007)
-OntarioPresent, Few occurrencesMcGee (1997); CABI and EPPO (2007)
MexicoPresentRebollar-Alviter et al. (2009); López-Guisa et al. (2013)
United StatesPresentCABI and EPPO (2007)
-AlabamaPresentHagan et al. (2000); CABI and EPPO (2007)
-ArkansasPresentSmith et al. (2014)
-CaliforniaPresentIntroduced1880Plunkett (1928); CABI and EPPO (2007); CABI (Undated)
-FloridaPresentIntroduced1942Weiss (1942); CABI and EPPO (2007)
-GeorgiaPresentGill (1977); CABI and EPPO (2007)
-IdahoPresentIntroduced1915Schade (1936)
-IndianaPresentIntroduced1951Baker (1953); CABI and EPPO (2007)
-IowaPresentIntroducedRaeder (1921); CABI and EPPO (2007); CABI (Undated)First reported: 1920s
-KentuckyPresentHartmann (1999); CABI and EPPO (2007)
-MainePresentIntroduced1900Ricker (1902)
-MarylandPresent, LocalizedShaw (1973); CABI and EPPO (2007); CABI (Undated)
-MichiganPresentKrauskopf (2004); CABI and EPPO (2007)
-New JerseyPresentIntroduced1912Cook (1913)
-New YorkPresentIntroduced1891Swingle (1892)
-North CarolinaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Anon. (1996)
-OhioPresentIntroduced1905Baker (1953); CABI and EPPO (2007); Madrid et al. (2019)
-OregonPresentShaw and Yerkes (1951); Shaw (1973); CABI and EPPO (2007); CABI (Undated)
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroduced1892Baker (1953); CABI and EPPO (2007)
-TexasPresentIntroduced1914Baker (1953); CABI and EPPO (2007)
-UtahPresentCABI (Undated); CABI and EPPO (2007)Original citation: Anon. (2007)
-WashingtonPresentShaw and Yerkes (1951); Shaw (1973); CABI and EPPO (2007)
-WisconsinPresentCABI and EPPO (2007); CABI (Undated)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentCABI and EPPO (2007)
-New South WalesPresentIntroduced1971Johns (1972); Bertus (1977); Francis (1981); CABI and EPPO (2007)
New ZealandPresentIntroduced1961Smith and Newhook (1961); Tate (1981); CABI and EPPO (2007); CABI (Undated)

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroduced1953JAUCH (1959); CABI and EPPO (2007)
BrazilPresentCABI and EPPO (2007)
-Sao PauloPresentIntroduced1939Pickel (1939)
ColombiaPresent1939CABI (Undated); CABI and EPPO (2007)Original citation: Quiroga Arbeláez (2004)
VenezuelaPresent1939Orlando Montilla et al. (2003); CABI and EPPO (2007)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Fruit / abnormal shape
Fruit / premature drop
Growing point / mycelium present
Inflorescence / blight; necrosis
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / necrotic areas
Stems / discoloration
Stems / discoloration of bark
Whole plant / early senescence

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Fruits (inc. pods) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Leaves hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Roots hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope

References

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?ubic M, 2008. Experience with an integrated protection of blackberries against diseases in Medimurje. (Iskustva integrirane za?tite nasada kupine od biljnih bolesti u meÐimurju.) Glasilo Biljne Za?tite, 8(6):391-400

Achar PN, 1997. First report of downy mildew disease of rose caused by Peronospora sparsa in KwaZulu Natal, Southern Africa. Plant Disease, 81(6):695; 1 ref

Aegerter BJ, 2001. Epidemiology and control of rose downy mildew in a bare-root production system. PhD thesis. University of California, Davis, California, USA

Aegerter BJ, Gordon TR, Davis RM, 2000. Occurrence and pathogenicity of fungi associated with melon root rot and vine decline in California. Plant Disease, 84(3):224-230; 26 ref

Aegerter BJ, Nunez JJ, Davis RM, 2002. Detection and management of downy mildew in rose rootstock. Plant Disease, 86(12):1363-1368; 25 ref

Aegerter BJ, Nunez JJ, Davis RM, 2003. Environmental factors affecting rose downy mildew and development of a forecasting model for a nursery production system. Plant Disease, 87(6):732-738; 17 ref

Aleksandrova I, 1976. Two new diseases of greenhouse flowers. Rastitelna Zashchita, 24(3):10-11

Anon, 1996. North Carolina State University 1996 Annual Summary, Plant Disease and Insect Clinic - Disease Data. Summary of Major Crops and Disease Problems Observed -1996. http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/ent/clinic/Annual96/group4d.htm

Anon, 2007. Plant Diseases. Other Diseases of Ornamental Flowers and Foliage. Utah State University Extension. http://utahpests.usu.edu/plantdiseases/htm/ornamental/otherornamental

Baker KF, 1953. Recent epidemics of downy mildew of rose. Plant Disease Reporter, 37:331-339

Barker J, 1946. Sterfte in den jongen Eozenaanplant, voorjaar 1946. [Mortality in young rose plantings in the spring of 1946.] Meded Direct Tuinb

Berkeley MJ, 1862. Peronospora sparsa. Gardeners’ Chronicle, London, 307-308

Bertus AL, 1977. Rose downy mildew. Agricultural Gazette of New South Wales, 88(4):8-9

Breese WA, Shattock RC, Williamson B, Hackett C, 1994. In vitro spore germination and infection of cultivars of Rubus and Rosa by downy mildews from both hosts. Annals of Applied Biology, 125(1):73-85

Brosh S, 1970. A survey of the distribution of rose downy mildew. Hassadeh, 50(4):434-436

CABI/EPPO, 2007. Peronospora sparsa. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No.October. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 598 (Edition 2)

Ciferri R, 1961. Lista delle Peronosporaceae italiane. [List of Italian Peronosporaceae] Riv. Pat. veg., Pavia, Ser. 3, Vol. 1, 4: 333-348

Conners IL, Savile DBO, 1949. Twenty-eighth Annual Report of the Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 1948, 118 pp

Constantinescu O, 1996. Peronospora on Acaena (Rosaceae). Mycotaxon, 58:313-318; 19 ref

Constantinescu O, Negrean G, 1997. Peronospora on Fragaria. Mycotaxon, 63:189-194; 22 ref

Cook MT, 1913. Report of the Plant Pathologsit of the New Jersey Agricultural College Experiment Station, New Brunswick, NJ, USA for the year 1912. NJ Agricultural Experiment Station, page 525

Cooke DEL, Drenth A, Duncan JM, Wagels G, Brasier CM, 2000. A molecular phylogeny of Phytophthora and related oomycetes. Fungal Genetics and Biology, 30(1):17-32; 2 pp. of ref

Cooke DEL, Williams NA, Williamson B, Duncan JM, 2002. An ITS-based phylogenetic analysis of the relationships between Peronospora and Phytophthora. In: Spencer-Phillips PTN, Gisi U, Lebeda A, eds. Advances in Downy Mildew Research. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 161-165

Crepel C, Inghelbrecht S, 2002. First record of leaf spots on Prunus laurocerasus in Belgium caused by Phytophthora cactorum and Peronospora sparsa. Plant Disease, 86(5):563; 1 ref

Cuboni G, 1888. Le Stazioni Sperimentali Agrari Italiane, Roma, 14:295-308

Daughtrey M, Tobiasz M, 2001. Control of downy mildews on miniature rose and snapdragon. Phytopathology, 91:S194

Davidsson I, 1951. Rannsoknir a grooursjukdomum [Investigations on crop diseases]. Reykjavik Rikisprentsmidjan Gutenberg

Elmhirst JF, Jurkemik P, Hudgins EJ, 2002. Management of rose downy mildew (Peronospora sparsa) in British Columbia nurseries. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 24:86-91

Fahmy T, 1927. Egypt: additional list of diseases of economic plants (1924-1925). International Review of Agriculture, 18:611

Folk Gy, 1983. Occurrence of Peronospora disease of rose in Hungary and possibilities of its control. Novenyvedelem, 19(5):218-222

Francis SM, 1981. Peronospora sparsa. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria, No. 690. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Francis SM, Waterhouse GM, 1988. List of Peronosporaceae reported from the British Isles. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 91(1):1-62

Fungicide Resistance Action Committee, 2005. http://www.frac.info/frac/index.htm

Gill DL, 1977. Downy mildew of roses in Georgia. Plant Disease Reporter, 61(3):230-231

Gilman JC, Archer WA, 1929. The Fungi of Iowa Parasitic on Plants. Iowa State Coll. J. Sci., 3:299-507

GSumann E, 1923. BeitrSge zu einer Monographie der Gattung Peronospora Corda. BeitrSge zur Kryptogamenflora der Schweiz, 5(4):284-297

Gubler WD, 1991. Downy mildew. In: Ellis MA, Converse RH, Williams RH, Williamson, eds. Compendium of Raspberry and Blackberry Diseases and Insects. St. Paul, USA: APS Press, 15-16

Gustavsson A, 1959. Studies on the Nordic Peronosporas. I. Taxonomic revision. Opera Botanica, 3:1-271

Hagan AK, Olive JW, Stephenson J, Rivas-Davila ME, 2000. Chemical control of downy mildew on rose. SNA Research Conference, 45:214-217

Hall G, 1989. Peronospora rubi. Mycopathologia, 106:195-197

Hall G, Cook RTA, Bradshaw NJ, 1992. First record of Peronospora sparsa on Prunus laurocerasus. Plant Pathology, 41(2):224-227

Hall HK, Shaw CG, 1982. Oospores of Peronospora sparsa Berk. on Rubus species. New Zealand Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 10:429-432

Hall HK, Shaw CG, 1987. Brambles: downy mildew on wild and cultivated Rubus species in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 15(1):57-60

Harkness HW, Moore JP, 1880. Catalougue of the Pacific Coast Fungi. California Academy of Science, San Francisco, California, USA

Hartmann J, 1999. Rose Diseases are Here. Inspector Findings in Kentucky, VoI III, Issue 6. University of Kentucky, Department of Entomology. http://www.uky.edu/Ag/NurseryInspection/newsletter/99news/septem99.htm#Rose

Hellqvist S, Koponen H, Lindqvist H, Valkonen J, 1998. The downy mildew fungus Peronospora sparsa in wild arctic bramble and in cultivated hybrid arctic bramble - sampling in northern Sweden. Va^umlaut~xtskyddsnotiser, 62(3):41-45; 11 ref

Hukkanen A, Pietikäinen L, Kärenlampi S, Kokko H, 2006. Quantification of downy mildew (Peronospora sparsa) in Rubus species using real-time PCR. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 116:225-235

IMI Herbarium, 1900-. Herbarium specimen. International Mycological Institute (now CABI Bioscience) Herbarium. Egham, UK: CABI Bioscience

Jauch C, 1959. El mildiou de los Rosales (Peronospora sparsa Berk).; Rose downy mildew (P. sparsa). Anales de la Sociedad Científica Argentina, 168:52-59

Johns TH, 1972. Report of the Department of Agriculture New South Wales for the year ended 30 June, 1971. New South Wales, Australia: New South Wales Department of Agriculture

Jones W, 1938. Downy mildew of the rose in British Columbia. Sci Agric (Ottawa), 18:627-628

Karp K, Starast M, 1998. Domestication of Estonian natural arctic bramble. Metsanduslikud Uurimused, 30:70-75

Karp K, Starast M, 1999. The suitability of Estonian natural arctic bramble (Rubus arcticus L.) for field cultivation. Transactions of the Estonian Agricultural University, Agronomy, No. 203:33-35; 6 ref

Kokko H, Virtaharju O, KSrenlampi S, Cooke DEL, Williams NA, Williamson B, 1999. Downy mildew (Peronospora rubi) in Rubus arcticus: a threat to commercial berry production in Finland. Acta Horticulturae, No.505:137-141; 14 ref

Konopacka W, 1927. Maczniak rzekomy na rozach. Rocznikow Nauk Rolniczych i Lesnych Poznan, 18

Koponen H, Hellqvist S, Lindqvist-Kreuze H, B+ng U, Valkonen JPT, 2000. Occurrence of Peronospora sparsa (P. rubi) on cultivated and wild Rubus species in Finland and Sweden. Annals of Applied Biology, 137(2):107-112; 24 ref

Krauskopf D, 2004. Rose downy mildew control. Landscape Alert, 19(2). Michigan State University, http://www.ipm.msu.edu/CAT04_land/L04-30-04.htm#4

Lindqvist H, Koponen H, Valkonen JPT, 1998. Peronospora sparsa on cultivated Rubus arcticus and its detection by PCR based on ITS sequences. Plant Disease, 82(12):1304-1311; 30 ref

Lindqvist-Kreuze H, Koponen H, Valkonen JPT, 2002. Variability of Peronospora sparsa (syn. P. rubi) in Finland as measured by amplified fragment length polymorphism. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 108(4):327-335; 35 ref

López-Guisa D, Yáñez-Morales MJ, Alanis-Martínez I, 2013. First report of Peronospora sparsa on Rosa spp. in Mexico. Journal of Plant Pathology, 95(4, Supplement):S4.73. http://sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/3082/1755

Lucas MT, Dias MR de S, 1976. Peronosporaceae of Portugal. Agronomia Lusitana, 37(4):281-299

Madrid, A. M. J., Medina, R. M., Ivey, M. L. L., 2019. First report of Peronospora sparsa causing downy mildew on blackberry in Ohio. Plant Disease, 103(1), 162-163. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis doi: 10.1094/PDIS-04-18-0620-PDN

Marziano F, Calarese S, Stefanis D, 1973. Serious damage from Peronospora sparsa on roses under glass. Annali della Facolta di Scienze Agrarie della Universita degli Studi di Napoli, Portici, 7:42-56

McGee H, 1997. Central Canada Alert. The Rosebank Letter, 13:6

McKeown B, 1988. Downy mildew of boysenberry and tummelberry in the UK. Plant Pathology, 37(2):281-284

Meier K, 1943. Berichte der eidgenossischen Versuchsanstalt fur Obst-, Wein- und Gartenbau in Wadenswil fur das Jahr 1940. [Report of the Federal Experiment Station for Fruit-Growing, Viticulture, and Horticulture at Wadenswil for the year 1940.] Ann. Agric. Suisse, 57:419-461

Naumann A, 1924. Falscher Mehltau an Roseasamlingen. [Downy mildew on Rose seedlings.] Die Kranke Pflanze, 1:152-154

Nordskog B, Stensvand A, Heiberg N, 2003. Fungi occurring on aerial constituents of cultivated blackberry (Rubus fruticosus L.) in Norway. Acta Agriculturæ Scandinavica. Section B, Soil and Plant Science, 53(1):21-28; 39 ref

O'Neill TM, Pye D, Locke T, 2002. The effect of fungicides, irrigation and plant density on the development of Peronospora sparsa, the cause of downy mildew in rose and blackberry. Annals of Applied Biology, 140(2):207-214; 34 ref

Orlando-Montilla J, Delgado B, Jimenez-Perez N, 2003. Agentes causales e intensidad de enfermedades fungosas en mora de castilla en el estado Lara.; Causal agents and the intensity of fungal diseases of blackberry in Lara State. Fitopatologia Venezolana, 16:31-34

Petrushova M-NL, 1952. Measures for the control of rose downy mildew. Orchard and Garden, 76

Pickel B, 1939. O mildio da Roseira em S. Paulo. [Rose downy mildew in S. Paulo.] Biologico, 5:192-194

Plunkett OA, 1928. The occurrence of Peronospora sparsa Berk. on hot-house roses in southern California. Phytopathology, 18:950

Podobmaya NA, 1983. The pathogenic mycoflora of rose in Belorussia. Mikologiya i Fitopatologiya, 17(5):410-413; [1 tab.]; 7 ref

Quiroga B NJ, Arbeláez T G, 2004. Evaluacion de la eficacia de fungicidas aplicados al suelo y al follaje para el control de mildeo velloso, ocasionado por Peronospora sparsa en un cultivo comercial de rosa. [Evaluation of the effectiveness of fungicides applied to the soil and to the foliage for control of downy mildew caused by Peronospora sparsa in a commercial rose farm.] Agronomia Colombiana, 22:110-118

Raeder JM, 1921. Studies on the Phycomycetes of Iowa. Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Science, 28:288

Ramachandran N, Purushothaman V, Purushothaman SM, 2003. Peronospora sparsa - a new disease on field grown roses. Indian Phytopathology, 56:236

Ramsfjell T, 1960. Distribution of the genus Peronospora in Norway. Nytt magasin for Botanikk, 8:147-178

Rebollar-Alviter A, Silva-Rojas HV, Zelaya-Molina LX, Ellis MA, 2009. First report of Peronospora sparsa causing downy mildew (dryberry) of Rubus fruticosus in Mexico. Plant Disease, 93(6):674. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Reuter E, 1907. Pathologische Vorkommnisse in Schweden im Jahre 1906. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenkrankheiten (Pflanzenpathologie) und Pflanzenschutz, 17:277

Ricker PL, 1902. A preliminary list of Maine fungi. Univ. Maine Studies, 3:18

Ritzema B, 1902. Verslag over onderzoekingen, gedaan in- en over inlichtingen gegeven von wege bovengenoemd laboratorium in het jaar 1901. Tijdschrift. Plantenziek., 8:17

Rostrup E, 1902. Rosenskimmel. Peronospora sparsa Berkeley. Plantepatologie Nordiske Forlag, 200-202

Ruegg J, Neuweiler R, 2004. Falscher Mehltau auf Brombeeren. [Downy mildew on blackberries.] Obst und Weinbau, 140:10-12

Rumberg V, 1974. Disease resistance of rose varieties under Estonian conditions. In: Semenova V, ed. Disease resistance of plants.: Bolezneustoichivost' rastenii. Tallin Botanical Gardens, Academy of Sciences, Estonian SSR. Tallin USSR, 68-120

Savulescu T, Rayss T, 1934. Troisieme contribution a la connaissance des Feronosporacees de Roumanie. [Third contribution to the knowledge of the Peronosporaceae of Rumania.] Annales Mycologici, 32:45-47

Schade AL, 1936. A preliminary list of the parasitic fungi of Idaho. Plant Disease Reporter, Supplement 95:81

Schmidt T, 1954. Die wichtigsten Rosenkrankheiten und ihre Bekampfung. [The most important rose diseases and their control.] Pflanzenarzt, 7:7-8

Shaw CD, Yerkes WD, 1951. The downy mildews (Peronosporaceae) of the Pacific Northwest. Northw.-Sci.-Wash., 25 (2): 76-82

Shaw CG, 1973. Host fungus index for the Pacific Northwest. I. Hosts. Bulletin, Washington Agricultural Experimental Station, No. 765

Skalicky V, 1983. The revision of species of the genus Peronospora on host plants of the family Rosaceae with respect to central European species. Folia Geobotanica & Phytotaxonomica, 18(1):71-101

Smith HC, Newhook FJ, 1961. Dryberry of Boysenberries caused by downy mildew. The Orchardist of New Zealand, 34:79-81

Smith S, Roberson S, Cochran K, 2014. First report of downy mildew on blackberry caused by Peronospora sparsa in Arkansas. Plant Disease, 98(11):1585. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Speschnew NN, 1897. Les parasites vegetaux de la Cakhetie. Trudy Tiflis Botanischeskii Sada, 2:204

Staneviciene S, 1997. Mycological and lichenological investigations in the former Soviet military forestries in Lithuania. Micromycetes: Peronosporales. Botanica Lithuanica, 3(1):31-36; 5 ref

Swingle WT, 1892. Some Peronosporaceae in the herbarium of the Division of Vegetable Pathology. Journal of Mycology, 7:130

Tate KG, 1981. aetiology of dryberry disease of boysenberry in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 9(3/4):371-376

Tate KG, Mespel GJ van der, 1983. Control of dryberry disease (Peronospora sparsa) in boysenberry with fungicides. New Zealand Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 11(2):141-146

Terefe D, Schulz D, Linde M, Debener T, 2007. Screening of wild roses for multiple resistance genes against black spot and downy mildew diseases. Proceedings of the Plant and Animal Genomes XV Conference, January 13-17, 2007, P225

Tian X, Lu G, Bai J, 1998. A new record of Peronospora in China. Mycosystema, 17:287-288

Ticha H, 1973. Peronospora na ruzich (P. sparsa). [Peronospora sp. on roses.] Ochrana Rostlin, 9:215-216

USDA, 1960. Index of Plant Diseases in the United States. Agriculture Handbook No. 165. Washington, USA: United States Department of Agriculture

Vigodsky H, 1970. Flower diseases. The Volcani Institute of Agricultural Research Summaries of Research Work 1967 1969 Division of Plant Pathology

Wallis WA, Shattock RC, Williamson B, 1989. Downy mildew (Peronospora rubi) on micropropagated Rubus. Acta Horticulturae, 262:227-230

Walter M, Harris-Virgin P, Thomas W, Tate G, Waipara NW, Langford G, 2004. Agrochemicals suitable for downy mildew control in New Zealand boysenberry production. Crop Protection, 23:327-333

Weiss F, 1942. Check list of diseases of economic plants of the United States. US Department of Agriculture Plant Disease Reporter, 26:207

Williamson B, Breese WA, Shattock RC, 1992. Mehltau bei Rubus-Arten: Falscher Mehltau bei Rosen gefShrdet Brombeer- und Himbeervermehrung. Deutsher Gartenbau, 21:1307-1308

Williamson B, Breese WA, Shattock RC, 1995. A histological study of downy mildew (Peronospora rubi) infection of leaves, flowers and developing fruits of Tummelberry and other Rubus spp. Mycological Research, 99(11):1311-1316; 22 ref

Williamson B, Cooke DEL, Duncan JM, Leifert C, Breese WA, Shattock RC, 1998. Fungal infections of micropropagated plants at weaning: a problem exemplified by downy mildews in Rubus and Rosa. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 52(1/2):89-96; 48 ref

WiSniewska-Grzeszkiewicz H, Wojdyla AT, 1996. Evaluation of rose cultivars to fungal diseases susceptibility. Acta Horticulturae, No. 424:233-236; 6 ref

Wittmack L, 1877. Peronospora sparsa. Sitzungsber, naturf. Freunde, Berlin, 183-185

Xu X-M, Pettitt T, 2004. Overwintering of rose downy mildew (Peronospora sparsa). In: Spencer-Phillips P, Jeger M, eds. Advances in Downy Mildew Research, Vol. 2. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 99-106

Distribution References

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JAUCH CLOTILDE, 1959. Rose downy mildew (P. sparsa). (El mildiou de los Rosales (Peronospora sparsa Berk).). An. Soc. cient. argent. 168 (3-6), 52-59 pp.

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Jones W, 1938. Downy mildew of the rose in British Columbia. Sci. Agric. (Ottawa). 627-628.

Kokko H, Virtaharju O, Kärenlampi S, Cooke D E L, Williams N A, Williamson B, 1999. Downy mildew (Peronospora rubi) in Rubus arcticus: a threat to commercial berry production in Finland. Acta Horticulturae. 137-141.

Konopacka W, 1927. Maczniak rzekomy na rozach. In: Rocznikow Nauk Rolniczych i Lesnych Poznan, 18

Koponen H, Hellqvist S, Lindqvist-Kreuze H, Bǻng U, Valkonen J P T, 2000. Occurrence of Peronospora sparsa (P. rubi) on cultivated and wild Rubus species in Finland and Sweden. Annals of Applied Biology. 137 (2), 107-112. DOI:10.1111/j.1744-7348.2000.tb00042.x

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López-Guisa D, Yáñez-Morales M J, Alanis-Martínez I, 2013. First report of Peronospora sparsa on Rosa spp. in Mexico. Journal of Plant Pathology. 95 (4, Supplement), S4.73. http://sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/3082/1755

Madrid A M J, Medina R M, Ivey M L L, 2019. First report of Peronospora sparsa causing downy mildew on blackberry in Ohio. Plant Disease. 103 (1), 162-163. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-04-18-0620-PDN

Marziano F, Calarese S, Stefanis D, 1973. Serious damage from Peronospora sparsa on roses under glass. (Gravi danni da Peronospora sparsa Berk. a rose in serra.). Annali della Facolta di Scienze Agrarie della Universita degli Studi di Napoli, Portici. 42-56.

McGee H, 1997. Central Canada Alert. In: The Rosebank Letter, 13 6.

McKeown B, 1988. Downy mildew of boysenberry and tummelberry in the UK. Plant Pathology. 37 (2), 281-284. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3059.1988.tb02075.x

Meier K, 1943. Report of the Federal Experiment Station for Fruit-Growing, Viticulture, and Horticulture at Wadenswil for the year 1940. (Berichte der eidgenossischen Versuchsanstalt fur Obst-, Wein- und Gartenbau in Wadenswil fur das Jahr 1940.). Annuaire Agricole de la Suisse. 419-461.

Naumann A, 1924. Downy mildew on Rose seedlings. (Falscher Mehltau an Roseasämlingen.). Die Kranke Pflanze. 1 (8), 152-154 pp.

Orlando Montilla J, Delgado B, Jiménez-Pérez N, 2003. Causal agents and the intensity of fungal diseases of blackberry in Lara State. (Agentes causales e intensidad de enfermedades fungosas en mora de castilla en el estado Lara.). Fitopatología Venezolana. 16 (2), 31-34.

Petrushova M-N L, 1952. Measures for the control of rose downy mildew. In: Orchard and Garden,

Pickel B, 1939. Rose downy mildew in S. Paulo. (O mildio da Roseira em S. Paulo.). Biologico. 5 (9), 192-194 pp.

Plunkett O A, 1928. The occurrence of Peronospora sparsa Berk, on hot-house Roses in southern California. Phytopathology. 18 (11), 950 p.

Podobmaya N A, 1983. The pathogenic mycoflora of rose in Belorussia. Mikologiya i Fitopatologiya. 17 (5), 410-413.

Raeder J M, 1921. Studies on the Phycomycetes of Iowa. Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Science. 288.

Ramachandran N, Veena, Purushothaman S M, 2003. Peronospora sparsa - a new disease on field grown roses. Indian Phytopathology. 56 (2), 236.

RAMSFJELL T, 1960. Distribution of the genus Peronospora in Norway. Nytt Magasin for Botanikk. 147-178 pp.

Rebollar-Alviter A, Silva-Rojas H V, Zelaya-Molina L X, Ellis M A, 2009. First report of Peronospora sparsa causing downy mildew (dryberry) of Rubus fruticosus in Mexico. Plant Disease. 93 (6), 674. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-93-6-0674B

Reuter E, 1907. [English title not available]. (Pathologische Vorkommnisse in Schweden im Jahre 1906.). Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten. 277.

Ricker P L, 1902. A preliminary list of Maine fungi. In: Univ. Maine Studies, 3 18.

Ritzema B, 1902. [English title not available]. (Verslag over onderzoekingen, gedaan in- en over inlichtingen gegeven von wege bovengenoemd laboratorium in het jaar 1901.). Tijdschrift over Plantenziekten. 17.

Rostrup E, 1902. Rose mildew, Peronospora sparsa Berkeley. (Rosenskimmel. Peronospora sparsa Berkeley.). In: Plantepatologie Nordiske Forlag, 200-202.

Rumberg V, 1974. Disease resistance of rose varieties under Estonian conditions. (O bolezneustoichivosti sortov roz v usloviyakh Estonskoi SSR.). In: Disease resistance of plants.: Bolezneustoichivost' rastenii. [ed. by Semenova V]. Tallin, USSR: Tallin Botanical Gardens, Academy of Sciences, Estonian SSR. 68-120.

Schade A L, 1936. A preliminary list of the parasitic fungi of Idaho. Plant Disease Reporter. 95 (Suppl.), 81.

Schmidt T, 1954. The most important rose diseases and their control. (Die wichtigsten Rosenkrankheiten und ihre Bekampfung.). Pflanzenarzt. 7-8.

Shaw C D, Yerkes W D, 1951. The downy mildews (Peronosporaceae) of the Pacific Northwest. Northw. Sci. Wash. 25 (2), 76-82.

Shaw C G, 1973. Bulletin, Washington Agricultural Experimental Station. 121 pp.

Skalicky V, 1983. The revision of species of the genus Peronospora on host plants of the family Rosaceae with respect to central European species. Folia Geobotanica & Phytotaxonomica. 18 (1), 71-101.

Smith HC, Newhook FJ, 1961. Dryberry of Boysenberries caused by downy mildew. In: The Orchardist of New Zealand, 34 79-81.

Smith S, Roberson S, Cochran K, 2014. First report of downy mildew on blackberry caused by Peronospora sparsa in Arkansas. Plant Disease. 98 (11), 1585. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-05-14-0554-PDN

Speschnew N N, 1897. [English title not available]. (Les parasites vegetaux de la Cakhetie.). Trudy Tiflis Botanischeskii Sada. 204.

Šubić M, 2008. Experience with an integrated protection of blackberries against diseases in Medimurje. (Iskustva integrirane zaštite nasada kupine od biljnih bolesti u međimurju.). Glasilo Biljne Zaštite. 8 (6), 391-400.

Swingle W T, 1892. Some Peronosporaceae in the herbarium of the Division of Vegetable Pathology. Journal of Mycology. 130.

Tate K G, 1981. Aetiology of dryberry disease of boysenberry in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Experimental Agriculture. 9 (3/4), 371-376.

Tian XiuLing, Lu GuoZhong, Bai JinKai, 1998. A new record of Peronospora in China. Mycosystema. 17 (3), 287-288.

Ticha H, 1973. Peronospora sp. on roses. (Peronospora na ruzich [P. sparsa].). Ochrana Rostlin. 9 (3), 215-216.

VIGODSKY HILLELA, 1970. Flower diseases. In: The Volcani Institute of Agricultural Research. Summaries of Research Work 1967-1969. Division of Plant Pathology. 33-34.

Weiss F, 1942. Check list of diseases of economic plants of the United States. Plant Disease Reporter. 207.

Wittmack L, 1877. Peronospora sparsa. (Peronospora sparsa.). In: Sitzungsber. naturf. Freunde, Berlin [Sitzungsber. naturf. Freunde, Berlin], 183-185.

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