Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Hyaloperonospora parasitica
(downy mildew)

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Datasheet

Hyaloperonospora parasitica (downy mildew)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Hyaloperonospora parasitica
  • Preferred Common Name
  • downy mildew
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Chromista
  •     Phylum: Oomycota
  •       Class: Oomycetes
  •         Order: Peronosporales

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
White rust of Indian mustard. Peronospora parasitica - Albugo candida, and complex.
TitleSymptoms on Indian mustard leaves
CaptionWhite rust of Indian mustard. Peronospora parasitica - Albugo candida, and complex.
CopyrightMark Holderness/CABI BioScience
White rust of Indian mustard. Peronospora parasitica - Albugo candida, and complex.
Symptoms on Indian mustard leavesWhite rust of Indian mustard. Peronospora parasitica - Albugo candida, and complex.Mark Holderness/CABI BioScience
Note that the sporangia (which rarely produce zoospores and therefore function as conidia) are formed at the tips of the branches of the sporangiophore. The sporangia are approximately 20 µm diameter.
TitleSporangia and branched sporangiospores
CaptionNote that the sporangia (which rarely produce zoospores and therefore function as conidia) are formed at the tips of the branches of the sporangiophore. The sporangia are approximately 20 µm diameter.
CopyrightDavid S. Ingram
Note that the sporangia (which rarely produce zoospores and therefore function as conidia) are formed at the tips of the branches of the sporangiophore. The sporangia are approximately 20 µm diameter.
Sporangia and branched sporangiosporesNote that the sporangia (which rarely produce zoospores and therefore function as conidia) are formed at the tips of the branches of the sporangiophore. The sporangia are approximately 20 µm diameter.David S. Ingram

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Hyaloperonospora parasitica (Pers.) Constant.

Preferred Common Name

  • downy mildew

Other Scientific Names

  • Botrytis parasitica Pers. ex Pers.
  • Peronospora brassicae Gäum.
  • Peronospora cheiranthi Gäum.
  • Peronospora parasitica (Pers.) de Bary

International Common Names

  • English: downy mildew of crucifers
  • Spanish: mildiu de las cruciferas
  • French: mildiou des cruciferes
  • Portuguese: mildiú-da-couve

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Falscher Mehltau: Kreuzbluetler

EPPO code

  • PEROPA (Peronospora parasitica)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Chromista
  •         Phylum: Oomycota
  •             Class: Oomycetes
  •                 Order: Peronosporales
  •                     Family: Peronosporaceae
  •                         Genus: Peronospora
  •                             Species: Hyaloperonospora parasitica

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

EgyptPresentBaka (1996); CABI and EPPO (2002)
EthiopiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002); Herb IMI (Undated)
KenyaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002); Herb IMI (Undated)
LibyaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002); Herb IMI (Undated)
MalawiPresentCABI and EPPO (2002); Herb IMI (Undated)
MauritiusPresentCABI and EPPO (2002); Herb IMI (Undated)
MoroccoPresentCABI and EPPO (2002); Herb IMI (Undated)
South AfricaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002); Herb IMI (Undated)
TanzaniaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002); Herb IMI (Undated)
TunisiaPresentDjébali et al. (2009)
UgandaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002); Herb IMI (Undated)
ZimbabwePresentCABI and EPPO (2002); Herb IMI (Undated)

Asia

ArmeniaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
AzerbaijanPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
BangladeshPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
BhutanPresentCABI and EPPO (2002); Herb IMI (Undated)
BruneiPresentCABI and EPPO (2002); Herb IMI (Undated)
ChinaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-AnhuiPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-FujianPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-GansuPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-GuangdongPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-GuangxiPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-GuizhouPresentLi DeYou et al. (2007)
-HebeiPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-HeilongjiangPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-HubeiPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-HunanPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-Inner MongoliaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-JiangsuPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-JiangxiPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-JilinPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-LiaoningPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-QinghaiPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-ShaanxiPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-ShandongPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-ShanxiPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-SichuanPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-TibetPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-XinjiangPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-YunnanPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
GeorgiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
Hong KongPresentCABI and EPPO (2002); Herb IMI (Undated)
IndiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002); Herb IMI (Undated)
-Andhra PradeshPresentGopal (2003)
-AssamPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-BiharPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-DelhiPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-GujaratPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-HaryanaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-Himachal PradeshPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-Jammu and KashmirPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-JharkhandPresentSingh and Singh (2005)
-KarnatakaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-Madhya PradeshPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-MaharashtraPresentGaikwad et al. (2004)
-ManipurPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-PunjabPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-RajasthanPresentRajpurohit and Choudhary (1995); CABI and EPPO (2002)
-Tamil NaduPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-Uttar PradeshPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-West BengalPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
IndonesiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
IranPresentSharifnabi and Nekoei (1995); CABI and EPPO (2002)
IraqPresentCABI and EPPO (2002); Herb IMI (Undated)
IsraelPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
JapanPresentSatou and Fukumoto (1996); CABI and EPPO (2002)
-HonshuPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
KazakhstanPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
KyrgyzstanPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
MalaysiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002); Herb IMI (Undated)
-SabahPresentCABI and EPPO (2002); Herb IMI (Undated)
-SarawakPresentCABI and EPPO (2002); Herb IMI (Undated)
NepalPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
PakistanPresentCABI and EPPO (2002); Herb IMI (Undated)
PhilippinesPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
SingaporePresentAVA (2001); CABI and EPPO (2002)
South KoreaPresentHong et al. (2008)
TaiwanPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
ThailandPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
TurkeyPresentCABI and EPPO (2002); Herb IMI (Undated)
TurkmenistanPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
UzbekistanPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)

Europe

AustriaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
BelarusPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
BelgiumPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
BulgariaPresentMasheva et al. (1996); CABI and EPPO (2002)
CyprusPresentCABI and EPPO (2002); Herb IMI (Undated)
CzechiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
CzechoslovakiaPresentHerb IMI (Undated)
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
DenmarkPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
FinlandPresentCABI and EPPO (2002); Herb IMI (Undated)
FrancePresent, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (2002); Herb IMI (Undated)
GermanyPresentCABI and EPPO (2002); Herb IMI (Undated)
GreecePresentCABI and EPPO (2002); Herb IMI (Undated)
HungaryPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
IcelandPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
IrelandPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
ItalyPresentMinuto et al. (1997); CABI and EPPO (2002); Herb IMI (Undated)
LatviaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
LithuaniaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
MaltaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002); Herb IMI (Undated)
MoldovaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
NetherlandsPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
NorwayPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
PolandPresentCABI and EPPO (2002); Herb IMI (Undated)
PortugalPresentCABI and EPPO (2002); Herb IMI (Undated)
RomaniaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002); Herb IMI (Undated)
RussiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002); Herb IMI (Undated)
-Central RussiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-Eastern SiberiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-Russian Far EastPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-Southern RussiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-Western SiberiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
Serbia and MontenegroPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
SpainPresentCABI and EPPO (2002); CABI (Undated)
SwedenPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
SwitzerlandPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
UkrainePresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
United KingdomPresentCABI and EPPO (2002); Herb IMI (Undated)

North America

CanadaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002); Herb IMI (Undated)
-AlbertaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-British ColumbiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-ManitobaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-OntarioPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-YukonPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
CubaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002); Ariosa Terry et al. (2013)
MexicoPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
United StatesPresentCABI and EPPO (2002); Herb IMI (Undated)
-AlabamaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-AlaskaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-ArizonaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-CaliforniaPresentDickson and Petzoldt (1993); CABI and EPPO (2002)
-ColoradoPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-ConnecticutPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-DelawarePresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-FloridaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-HawaiiPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-IdahoPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-IllinoisPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-IndianaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-IowaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-KansasPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-KentuckyPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-LouisianaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-MarylandPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-MichiganPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-MinnesotaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-MississippiPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-MontanaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-NebraskaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-NevadaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-New JerseyPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-New MexicoPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-New YorkPresentDickson and Petzoldt (1993); CABI and EPPO (2002)
-North CarolinaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-North DakotaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-OhioPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-OklahomaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-OregonPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-PennsylvaniaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-South CarolinaPresentDickson and Petzoldt (1993); CABI and EPPO (2002)
-South DakotaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-TennesseePresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-TexasPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-VirginiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-WashingtonPresentDickson and Petzoldt (1993); CABI and EPPO (2002)
-West VirginiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-WisconsinPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-WyomingPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)

Oceania

American SamoaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
AustraliaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002); Herb IMI (Undated)
-New South WalesPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-QueenslandPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-South AustraliaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-TasmaniaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-VictoriaPresentSmith and Price (1996); CABI and EPPO (2002)
-Western AustraliaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
FijiPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
French PolynesiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
New CaledoniaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
New ZealandPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
Papua New GuineaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002); Herb IMI (Undated)

South America

ArgentinaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
BrazilPresentVentura and Costa (1995); CABI and EPPO (2002)
ChilePresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
PeruPresentIcochea et al. (1994); CABI and EPPO (2002)
VenezuelaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002); Herb IMI (Undated)

Growth Stages

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List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Inflorescence / lesions on glumes
Leaves / fungal growth
Leaves / necrotic areas

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Fruits (inc. pods) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Wood

References

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Achar PN, 1995. Tissue culture technique to determine the viability of Peronospora parasitica in Brassica oleracea. Journal of Phytopathology, 143(11-12):647-649; 16 ref.

Anon., 1996. Guideline on good plant protection practice. No. 8. Rape. Bulletin OEPP, 26:349-367.

Anon., 1996. Guideline on good plant protection. No. 6. Vegetable brassicas. Bulletin OEPP, 26:311-347.

Ariosa Terry MD; Martínez de la Parte E; Gómez León Y; Cantillo Pérez T, 2013. Chinese chard, new host of Hyaloperonospora parasitica in Cuba. (La acelga china, nuevo hospedante en Cuba de Hyaloperonospora parasitica.) Fitosanidad, 17(2):107-109. http://www.fitosanidad.cu/index.php/fitosanidad/article/view/274/303

Ashok Kumar, 1996. Efficacy of different fungicides against Alternaria blight, white rust and staghead infection of mustard. Plant Disease Research, 11(2):174-177; 8 ref.

AVA, 2001. Diagnostic records of the Plant Health Diagnostic Services, Plant Health Centre, Agri-food & Veterinary Authority, Singapore.

Baka ZAM, 1996. A fine-structural study of the downy mildew fungus Peronospora parasitica in the new host Cakile maritima. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 30(1):41-51

Bedlan G, 1997. Biologische Bekampfung ausgewahlter Gemusekrankheiten mittels Trichoderma harzianum. Gesunde Pflanzen, 49(3):89-94.

CABI/EPPO, 2002. Peronospora parasitica. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 872. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Carvalho T; Monteiro A, 1996. Preliminary study on the inheritance of resistance to downy mildew (Peronospora parasitica (Pers. ex. Fr.) Fr.) at cotyledon stage in Tronchuda cabbage 'Algarvia'. Cruciferae Newsletter, No. 18:104-105; 6 ref.

Chen LS; Cheng CW; Chen RS; Tsay JG, 2006. Identification of two downy mildew fungi in Taiwan based on the internal transcribed spacer of the ribosomal region. Plant Protection Bulletin (Taipei), 48(1):53-64.

Dickson MH; Petzoldt R, 1993. Plant age and isolate source affect expression of downy mildew resistance in broccoli. HortScience, 28(7):730-731; 7 ref.

Djébali N; Scott JK; Jourdan M; Souissi T, 2009. Fungi pathogenic on wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.) in northern Tunisia as potential biocontrol agents. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 48(2):205-213. http://epress.unifi.it/riviste

Esiyok D; Onogur E; Duman i; cetinkaya N, 1996. The effects of cultivation methods, and disease incidence on seed yield of cauliflower. Cruciferae Newsletter, No. 18:52-53; 5 ref.

Gaikwad AP; Kakade DS; Nimbalkar CA; Desai UT, 2004. Control of downy mildew (Peronospora parasitica) of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis subvar. cauliflora) in nursery. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 74(4):230-232.

Gawande S; Sharma P, 2003. Changes in host enzyme activity due to induction of resistance against downy mildew in cauliflower. Annals of Agricultural Research, 24(2):322-331.

Glazebrook J; Zook M; Mert F; Kagan I; Rogers EE; Crute IR; Holub EB; Hammerschmidt R; Ausubel FM, 1997. Phytoalexin-deficient mutants of Arabidopsis reveal that PAD4 encodes a regulatory factor and that four PAD genes contribute to downy mildew resistance. Genetics, 146(1):381-392; 53 ref.

Gopal K, 2003. Fungicidal control of downy mildew of mustard. Annals of Agricultural Research, 24(3):533-536.

Hong SY; Jee HJ; Choi YJ; Shin HD, 2008. First confirmed report of downy mildew caused by Hyaloperonospora parasitica on broccoli in Korea. Plant Pathology, 57(4):777. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa

Hoser-Krauze J; Lakowska-Ryk E; Antosik J, 1995. The inheritance of resistance of some Brassica oleracea L. cultivars and lines to downy mildew - Peronospora parasitica (Pers.) ex Fr. Journal of Applied Genetics, 36(1):27-33

Icochea T; Torres H; Perez W, 1994. Downy mildew of maca (Lepidium meyenii): symptoms and identification of the causal agent. Fitopatologia, 29(2):156-159

IMI Herbarium, 1900-. Herbarium specimen. International Mycological Institute (now CABI Bioscience) Herbarium. Egham, UK: CABI Bioscience.

Jalaluddin M; Ali A; Anwar QMK, 1993. Foliar and floral diseases of rapeseed and mustard: their vectors and control. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology, 5(1-2):29-39

Karuna Vishunavat; Kolte SJ, 1993. Brassica seed infection with Peronospora parasitica (Pers. ex Fr.) Fr. and its transmission through seed. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 23(3):247-249

Koike ST, 1998. Downy mildew of arugula, caused by Peronospora parasitica, in California. Plant Disease, 82(9):1063; 1 ref.

Kolte SJ, 2005. Tackling fungal diseases of oilseed brassicas in India. Brassica, 7(1/2):7-13.

Kontaxis DG, 1977. Downy mildew epiphytotic on broccoli in Imperial Valley, California. Proceedings of the American Phytopathological Society, 4:208.

Lakra BS, 1999. Effect of crop geometry on geometrical distribution of downy mildew (Peronospora parasitica (Pers.) Fr.) on different plant parts of radish (seed crop). Cruciferae Newsletter, No. 21:129-130; 2 ref.

Li DeYou; Li GuiLian; Wang TianWen; Li CongXin; Chen GuoTao; Jin Yi; Zheng MeiRong; Wen LinHong, 2007. Investigation of downy mildew of off-season cabbage planted in areas with a high elevation and its pollution-free control in Guizhou. Southwest China Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 20(4):666-668.

Mahajan V; Gill HS, 1993. Inter relationship of yield components and downy mildew disease in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis L.). Maharashtra Journal of Horticulture, 7(1):92-95

Masheva S; Antonova G, 1995. Specificity of Peronospora parasitica isolates to some Brassica oleracea cultures. Cruciferae Newsletter, No. 17:78-79; 2 ref.

Masheva S; Antonova G; Bahariev D, 1996. Pathogenicity of two isolates Peronospora parasitica with different district origin. Cruciferae Newsletter, No. 18:118-119; 2 ref.

McCall D; Sorensen L; Jensen BD, 1996. Broccoli varieties. SP Rapport Statens Planteavlsforsog No. 8, 32 pp.

Minuto G; Minuto A; Garibaldi A, 1997. Eruca sativa: chemical control of downy mildew and white rust [Rucola: lotta chimica coutro Peronospora e ruggine bianca]. Colture Protette, 26:61-66.

Moss NA; Crute IR; Lucas JA, 1994. Laboratory production of oospores of Peronospora parasitica (crucifer downy mildew) and the recovery and characterization of sexual progeny from crosses between isolates with different host specificity. Plant Pathology, 43(4):713-725

Naresh Mehta; Saharan GS; Kaushik CD, 1996. Efficacy and economics of fungicidal management of white rust and downy mildew complex in mustard. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 26(3):243-247; 12 ref.

Naresh Mehta; Saharan GS; Sharma OP, 1995. Influence of temperature and free moisture on the infection and development of downy mildew on mustard. Plant Disease Research, 10(2):114-121; 8 ref.

Parker JE; Coleman MJ; Szab= V; Frost LN; Schmidt R; Biezen EAvan der; Moores T; Dean C; Daniels MJ; Jones JDG, 1997. The Arabidopsis downy mildew resistance gene RPP5 shares similarity to the Toll and interleukin-1 receptors with N and L6. Plant Cell, 9(6):879-894; 69 ref.

Paul VH; Klodt-Bussmann E; Dapprich PD; Capelli C; Tewari JP, 1998. Results on preservation, epidemiology, and aggressiveness of Peronospora parasitica and results with regard to the disease resistance of the pathogen on Brassica napus. Bulletin OILB/SROP, 21(5):49-56; 5 ref.

Puttoo BL; Choudhary KCB, 1984. Appraisal of indirect loss to consumer due to downy mildew of 'Khanyari Sag' in Kashmir valley. International Journal of Tropical Plant Diseases, 2(2):81-83

Rajpurohit TS; Choudhary BR, 1995. Downy mildew (Peronospora parasitica) of wild turnip (Brassica tournefortii), a new record from Rajasthan. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 65(5):377; 1 ref.

Saharan GS; Verma PR; Nashaat NI, 1997. Monograph on downy mildew of crucifers. Technical Bulletin - Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, No. 1997-01:197 pp.; many ref.

Satou M; Fukumoto F, 1996. The host range of downy mildew, Peronospora parasitica, from Brassica campestris, Chinese cabbage and turnip crops and Raphanus sativus, Japanese radish crop. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 62(4):402-407; 17 ref.

Sequeira P; Monteiro A, 1996. Heterothallism and homothallism in Portuguese isolates of Peronospora parasitica (Pers. ex. Fr.) Fr. Cruciferae Newsletter, No. 18:126-127; 6 ref.

Shao XH; Chen QQ; Zhang FQ; Zhu ZN; Wu CC; Lu CZ, 1991. Studies on occurrence and control of Chinese cabbage downy mildew caused by Peronospora parasitica in Shanghai region. Acta Agriculturae Shanghai, 7(4):74-78

Sharifnabi B; Nekoei A, 1995. Downy mildew of cruciferous plants in Isfahan. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 31(1/4):40(En), 105(Pe).

Singh RB; Singh RN, 2005. Status and management of foliar diseases of timely sown mustard in mid-eastern India. Plant Disease Research (Ludhiana), 20(1):18-24.

Sinobas Alonso J; Dfaz Alonso M, 1995. Mildew of crucifers in the district of Villa del Prado (Madrid): epidemiological notes. Boleti^acute~n de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 21(4):497-506; 17 ref.

Smith PA; Price TV, 1996. Victorian vegetables growers' estimates of the incidence of downy mildew on Brassica crops, crop losses and fungicidal control. Australasian Plant Pathology, 25(2):99-105; 27 ref.

Smith PA; Price TV, 1997. Preliminary study of seed transmission of downy mildew in some vegetable Brassica cultivars in Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology, 26:54-59.

Sousa ME; Dias JS; Monteiro AA, 1997. Screening Portuguese cole landraces for resistance to seven indigenous downy mildew isolates. Scientia Horticulturae, 68(1/4):49-58; 9 ref.

Tham FY; Lucas JA; Wilson ZA, 1994. DNA fingerprinting of Peronospora parasitica, a biotrophic fungal pathogen of crucifers. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 88(3/4):490-496

Vasil'eva ED, 1976. Damage by Peronospora disease to cabbage and the effectiveness of polycarbacin in its control. Nauchnye Trudy Leningradskogo S.-Kh. Instituta, No. 297:97-100

Ventura JA; Costa H, 1995. Diseases caused by fungi on Cruciferae. Informe Agropecuário (Belo Horizonte), 17(183):53-56; 9 ref.

Verma TS; Chand R; Lakhanpal KD, 1994. Seed treatment for the control of downy mildew in cauliflower. Himachal Journal of Agricultural Research, 20(1/2):84-86; 5 ref.

Vijay Mahajan; Gill HS; More TA, 1995. Inheritance of downy mildew resistance in Indian cauliflower (group III). Euphytica, 86(1):1-3; 7 ref.

Yang CY; Hu RLF; Pupipat U, 1983. Control of Chinese cabbage downy mildew (Peronospora parasitica) by metalaxyl (Ridimil) and other fungicides. International Symposium on pesticide use in developing countries -- present and future Tropical Agricultural Research Centre Ibaraki Japan, 125-130

Distribution References

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CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

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Djébali N, Scott J K, Jourdan M, Souissi T, 2009. Fungi pathogenic on wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.) in northern Tunisia as potential biocontrol agents. Phytopathologia Mediterranea. 48 (2), 205-213. http://epress.unifi.it/riviste

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