Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Peridroma saucia
(pearly underwing moth)

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Datasheet

Peridroma saucia (pearly underwing moth)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Peridroma saucia
  • Preferred Common Name
  • pearly underwing moth
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Peridroma saucia (pearly underwing moth, variegated cutworm), adult male, dorsal view. Palmdale, Li County, California, USA. April, 1960. An inconspicuous moth; body length ca.18mm, wing span ca. 40mm. The body and wings are light dusty or grayish brown. Some dusty mottling is present on the forewings.
TitleAdult male
CaptionPeridroma saucia (pearly underwing moth, variegated cutworm), adult male, dorsal view. Palmdale, Li County, California, USA. April, 1960. An inconspicuous moth; body length ca.18mm, wing span ca. 40mm. The body and wings are light dusty or grayish brown. Some dusty mottling is present on the forewings.
Copyright©PaDIL/Peter Lillywhite/Museum Victoria - CC BY 3.0 AU
Peridroma saucia (pearly underwing moth, variegated cutworm), adult male, dorsal view. Palmdale, Li County, California, USA. April, 1960. An inconspicuous moth; body length ca.18mm, wing span ca. 40mm. The body and wings are light dusty or grayish brown. Some dusty mottling is present on the forewings.
Adult malePeridroma saucia (pearly underwing moth, variegated cutworm), adult male, dorsal view. Palmdale, Li County, California, USA. April, 1960. An inconspicuous moth; body length ca.18mm, wing span ca. 40mm. The body and wings are light dusty or grayish brown. Some dusty mottling is present on the forewings.©PaDIL/Peter Lillywhite/Museum Victoria - CC BY 3.0 AU
Peridroma saucia (pearly underwing moth, variegated cutworm); adult male, in resting position. (museum set specimen). San Nicolas Is., Ventura Co., California, USA. May, 1978.
TitleAdult
CaptionPeridroma saucia (pearly underwing moth, variegated cutworm); adult male, in resting position. (museum set specimen). San Nicolas Is., Ventura Co., California, USA. May, 1978.
Copyright©PaDIL/Peter Lillywhite/Museum Victoria - CC BY 3.0 AU
Peridroma saucia (pearly underwing moth, variegated cutworm); adult male, in resting position. (museum set specimen). San Nicolas Is., Ventura Co., California, USA. May, 1978.
AdultPeridroma saucia (pearly underwing moth, variegated cutworm); adult male, in resting position. (museum set specimen). San Nicolas Is., Ventura Co., California, USA. May, 1978.©PaDIL/Peter Lillywhite/Museum Victoria - CC BY 3.0 AU
Peridroma saucia (pearly underwing moth, variegated cutworm); adult female, in resting position. (museum set specimen). Strawberry, Toulumue Co., California, USA. August, 1960.
TitleAdult
CaptionPeridroma saucia (pearly underwing moth, variegated cutworm); adult female, in resting position. (museum set specimen). Strawberry, Toulumue Co., California, USA. August, 1960.
Copyright©PaDIL/Peter Lillywhite/Museum Victoria - CC BY 3.0 AU
Peridroma saucia (pearly underwing moth, variegated cutworm); adult female, in resting position. (museum set specimen). Strawberry, Toulumue Co., California, USA. August, 1960.
AdultPeridroma saucia (pearly underwing moth, variegated cutworm); adult female, in resting position. (museum set specimen). Strawberry, Toulumue Co., California, USA. August, 1960.©PaDIL/Peter Lillywhite/Museum Victoria - CC BY 3.0 AU
Peridroma saucia (pearly underwing moth), adult, dorsal view. (gender undetermined). Bartlesville, Oklahoma, USA.
TitlePeridroma saucia (pearly underwing moth), live adult, dorsal view. Bartlesville, Oklahoma, USA.
CaptionPeridroma saucia (pearly underwing moth), adult, dorsal view. (gender undetermined). Bartlesville, Oklahoma, USA.
Copyright©Mark Dreiling/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Peridroma saucia (pearly underwing moth), adult, dorsal view. (gender undetermined). Bartlesville, Oklahoma, USA.
Peridroma saucia (pearly underwing moth), live adult, dorsal view. Bartlesville, Oklahoma, USA.Peridroma saucia (pearly underwing moth), adult, dorsal view. (gender undetermined). Bartlesville, Oklahoma, USA.©Mark Dreiling/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Peridroma saucia (pearly underwing moth, variegated cutworm); mature larva.
TitleLarva
CaptionPeridroma saucia (pearly underwing moth, variegated cutworm); mature larva.
Copyright©Frank Peairs/Colorado State University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Peridroma saucia (pearly underwing moth, variegated cutworm); mature larva.
LarvaPeridroma saucia (pearly underwing moth, variegated cutworm); mature larva.©Frank Peairs/Colorado State University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Peridroma saucia (pearly underwing moth), larval damage to tobacco leaves. USA.
TitleLarval damage
CaptionPeridroma saucia (pearly underwing moth), larval damage to tobacco leaves. USA.
Copyright©R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Peridroma saucia (pearly underwing moth), larval damage to tobacco leaves. USA.
Larval damagePeridroma saucia (pearly underwing moth), larval damage to tobacco leaves. USA.©R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Peridroma saucia (Hübner [1808])

Preferred Common Name

  • pearly underwing moth

Other Scientific Names

  • Agrotis angulifera Wallengren, 1860
  • Agrotis impacta Walker, [1857]
  • Agrotis inermis Harris, 1841
  • Agrotis intecta Walker, [1857]
  • Agrotis ortonii Packard, 1869
  • Agrotis saucia (Hübner)
  • Lycophotia margaritosa (Haworth)
  • Lycophotia ochronota Hampson, 1903
  • Lycophotia saucia (Hübner)
  • Noctua aequa Hübner, [1813]
  • Noctua majuscula Haworth, 1809
  • Noctua margaritosa Haworth, 1809
  • Noctua saucia Hübner, [1808]
  • Peridroma margaritosa (Haworth)
  • Rhyacia margaritosa (Haworth)
  • Rhyacia saucia (Hübner)

International Common Names

  • English: cutworm, variegated; underwing moth, pearly; variegated cutworm
  • Spanish: cuerado; nochero; trozador
  • French: ver-gris panaché

Local Common Names

  • Argentina: gusano cortador
  • Germany: Erdeule, Roetlichbraune
  • Mexico: gusano trozador

EPPO code

  • PERRSA (Peridroma saucia)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Noctuidae
  •                             Genus: Peridroma
  •                                 Species: Peridroma saucia

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ArmeniaPresentHampson, 1903
China
-SichuanPresentKuang, 1985
IsraelPresentRechev, 1975
JapanPresentInoue et al., 1982
Korea, Republic ofPresentKim et al., 2000
Sri LankaPresentDe Silva, 1964
SyriaPresentHampson, 1903
TaiwanPresentHeppner and Inoue, 1992
TurkeyPresentIren, 1972; Kornosor, 1987

Africa

MoroccoPresentBouhélier, 1938; Zelensky, 1938
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentHampson, 1903
TunisiaPresentSoures, 1948

North America

BermudaPresentFerguson et al., 1991
Canada
-AlbertaPresentBowman, 1951; Byers et al., 1987; Byers et al., 1988
-British ColumbiaPresentJones, 1951; Salloum and Isman, 1988
-ManitobaPresentAyre et al., 1983
-New BrunswickPresentCIPR, 1934
-Newfoundland and LabradorPresentMorris, 1980
-Nova ScotiaPresentFerguson, 1954; Specht, 1972; Specht, 1974
-OntarioPresentRockburne and Lafontaine, 1976; Harris et al., 1977; Ellis and Roy, 1979
-Prince Edward IslandPresentMacNay, 1947
-QuebecPresentRockburne and Lafontaine, 1976; Koponen and Lafontaine, 1991
-SaskatchewanPresentCIPR, 1928
MexicoPresentHampson, 1903; Dominguez, 1974
USA
-AlabamaPresentGaylor et al., 1984
-AlaskaPresent, few occurrencesWebster, 1906; Crumb, 1956
-ArizonaPresentFreeman, 1914
-ArkansasPresentLincoln and Isely, 1945; Harrendorf, 1959; Selman and Barton, 1972
-CaliforniaPresentDibble et al., 1979; Stowe et al., 1987
-ColoradoPresentGillette, 1924; Mickle and Newton, 1951
-ConnecticutPresentBritton, 1934
-DelawarePresentMilliron, 1958
-FloridaPresentKimball, 1965
-GeorgiaPresentAbles and McCommas, 1982
-HawaiiPresentHara and Matayoshi, 1990
-IllinoisPresentRoberts et al., 1977
-IndianaPresentBuriff and Davis, 1974
-IowaPresentBuntin and Pedigo, 1985a; Buntin and Pedigo, 1985b; Buntin and Pedigo, 1986a; Buntin and Pedigo, 1986b; Buntin et al., 1990
-KansasPresentWilson and Ramoska, 1980
-KentuckyPresentGarman, 1895
-LouisianaPresentNewell, 1908; USDA-IPS, 1938
-MainePresentPhipps, 1931; Brower, 1974
-MarylandPresentJohnson, 1898
-MassachusettsPresentHarris, 1841
-MichiganPresentMoore, 1955
-MinnesotaPresentKnutson, 1944
-MississippiPresentDorman, 1941
-MissouriPresentParker and Pinnell, 1971; Brandenburg, 1985
-MontanaPresentUSDA-IPS, 1932b; Cook, 1930
-NebraskaPresentMuma, 1946
-NevadaPresentDoten, 1916
-New JerseyPresentWillson et al., 1981
-New MexicoPresent
-New YorkPresentForbes, 1954; Willson et al., 1981
-North CarolinaPresentRabb et al., 1959; Rock and Waynick, 1975
-North DakotaPresentWebster, 1905
-OhioPresentRings et al., 1992
-OklahomaPresentSoteres et al., 1984
-OregonPresentBerry and Shields, 1980; Coop and Berry, 1986; West and Miller, 1989
-PennsylvaniaPresentTietz, 1952; Frost, 1955
-South CarolinaPresentUSDA-IPS, 1926; USDA-IPS, 1928
-South DakotaPresentUSDA-IPS, 1937
-TennesseePresentCrumb, 1956; Stanley and Bennett, 1965
-TexasPresentSchuster and Boling, 1973
-UtahPresentKnowlton, 1958
-VermontPresentGrehan et al., 1995
-VirginiaPresentHofmaster et al., 1967
-WashingtonPresentDoane and Brodie, 1901
-WisconsinPresentShields and Wyman, 1984; Shields et al., 1984
-WyomingPresentScott, 1918

Central America and Caribbean

Costa RicaPresentHampson, 1903
GuatemalaPresentHampson, 1903; Painter, 1955
JamaicaPresentHampson, 1903
Puerto RicoPresentLegrand, 1919

South America

ArgentinaPresentHampson, 1903; Schaefer and Breyer, 1942; Vasicek, 1983
BrazilPresentHampson, 1903
ChilePresentCortes et al., 1972; Angulo and Jana-Saenz, 1984; Machuca et al., 1989; Machuca et al., 1990
ColombiaPresentChacon and Rojas, 1981; Chacon and Rojas, 1984
EcuadorPresentWhitfield et al., 2002
PeruPresentValencia and Valdivia, 1973
UruguayPresentZerbino, 1986
VenezuelaPresentHampson, 1903; Solano et al., 2015Western

Europe

AlbaniaPresentNowacki and Fibiger, 1996
AustriaPresentNowacki and Fibiger, 1996
BelgiumPresent, few occurrencesNowacki and Fibiger, 1996
BulgariaPresentBalevski et al., 1974; Khristova and Loginova, 1975; Popov, 1975
Czech RepublicPresentNowacki and Fibiger, 1996
DenmarkPresentNordström et al., 1969; Karsholdt et al., 1985; Nowacki and Fibiger, 1996
Faroe IslandsPresent, few occurrencesWolff, 1970
FinlandPresent, few occurrencesAalto, 1972; Mikkola and Jalas, 1977; Nowacki and Fibiger, 1996
FrancePresentNowacki and Fibiger, 1996
-CorsicaPresentNowacki and Fibiger, 1996
GermanyPresentBlobner, 1984; Nowacki and Fibiger, 1996
GreecePresentNowacki and Fibiger, 1996
HungaryPresentNowacki and Fibiger, 1996
IcelandPresent, few occurrencesBretherton et al., 1979; Nowacki and Fibiger, 1996
IrelandPresent, few occurrencesNowacki and Fibiger, 1996
ItalyPresentPucci and Paparatti, 1987; Guda and Capizzi, 1988; Molinari et al., 1995
LithuaniaPresent, few occurrencesNowacki and Fibiger, 1996
LuxembourgPresent, few occurrencesNowacki and Fibiger, 1996
MaltaPresentNowacki and Fibiger, 1996
NetherlandsPresent, few occurrencesLempke, 1962; Nowacki and Fibiger, 1996
NorwayPresent, few occurrencesNordström et al., 1969; Nowacki and Fibiger, 1996
PolandPresent, few occurrencesNowacki and Fibiger, 1996
PortugalPresentNowacki and Fibiger, 1996
-AzoresPresentNowacki and Fibiger, 1996
RomaniaPresentIacob and Posoiu, 1980; Nowacki and Fibiger, 1996
Russian FederationPresentNowacki and Fibiger, 1996
SlovakiaPresentNowacki and Fibiger, 1996
SpainPresentGarrido et al., 1979; Nowacki and Fibiger, 1996
SwedenPresent, few occurrencesNordström et al., 1969; Nowacki and Fibiger, 1996; Palmqvist, 2015
SwitzerlandPresentBillen, 1988; Nowacki and Fibiger, 1996
UKPresentBretherton et al., 1979; Nowacki and Fibiger, 1996
-Channel IslandsPresent, few occurrencesBretherton et al., 1979
Yugoslavia (former)PresentNowacki and Fibiger, 1996

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / external feeding
Growing point / external feeding
Inflorescence / external feeding
Leaves / external feeding
Seeds / external feeding
Stems / external feeding
Whole plant / cut at stem base
Whole plant / external feeding

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Apanteles elegans Parasite Larvae
Archytas apicifer Parasite Larvae
Archytas marmoratus Parasite Larvae
Bacillus cereus Pathogen Larvae
Callidosoma treati Parasite
Chaetogaedia monticola Parasite Larvae
Chelonus inanitus Parasite Larvae
Copidosoma bakeri Parasite
Cotesia marginiventris Parasite Larvae
Cyclotrachelus sodalis Predator Larvae
Gonia lineata Parasite Larvae
Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Parasite
Heterorhabditis heliothidis Parasite
Hyposoter exiguae Parasite Larvae
Hyposoter rubroniger Parasite Larvae
Meteorus autographae Parasite Larvae
Meteorus communis Parasite Larvae USA; Oregon Mentha piperita
Meteorus laphygmae Parasite Larvae
Meteorus rubens Parasite Larvae
Ophion flavidus Parasite Larvae
Pales pavida Parasite Larvae
Peleteria texensis Parasite Larvae
Periscepsia laevigata Parasite Larvae
Podisus maculiventris Predator
Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pathogen
Sorosporella uvella Pathogen Larvae
Steinernema feltiae Parasite
Steinernema glaseri Parasite
Tachina fera Parasite Larvae
Trichogramma minutum Parasite Eggs
Winthemia quadripustulata Parasite Larvae

References

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Aalto A, 1972. Peridroma saucia Hb. (Lep., Noctuidae) found in Finland. Annales Entomologici Fennici, 38:149-151.

Ables JR; McCommas DW Jr, 1982. Efficacy of Podisus maculiventris as a predator of variegated cutworm on greenhouse cotton. Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society, 17(2):204-206

Aldrich JM; Webber RT, 1924. The North American species of parasitic two-winged flies belonging to the genus Phorocera and allied genera. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 63 (art. 17) (2486):1-90.

Allen HW, 1925. Biology of the red-tailed tachinid fly, Winthemia quadripustulata Fabr. Mississippi Agriculture Experiment Station Technical Bulletin, 12:1-30.

Allen HW, 1926. Observations upon the early maggot stage of Linnaemyia comta (Fall.) (Diptera: Tachinidae). Entomological News, 37(9):283-286.

Angulo AO; Jana-Saenz C, 1984. El genero Peridroma Hübner en Chile (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Gayana Zoologia, 48:61-73.

Arnaud PH Jr, 1978. A host-parasite catalog of North American Tachinidae (Diptera). Miscellaneous Publication, Science and Education Administration, United States Department of Agriculture, No. 1319:[4 +] 860 pp.

Ayre GL, 1985. Cold tolerance of Pseudaletia unipuncta and Peridroma saucia (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Canadian Entomologist, 117(8):1055-1060

Ayre GL; Turnock WJ; Struble DL, 1983. Spatial and temporal variability in sex attractant trap catches of Leucania commoides and Peridroma saucia (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in relation to their biology in Manitoba. Canadian Entomologist, 115(12):1573-1582

Balevski A; Genchev N; Markov A; Georgiev G, 1974. Chemical control of Noctuid larvae. Rastitelna Zashchita, 22(10):26-30

Barney RJ; Pass BC, 1986. Foraging behavior and feeding preference of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in Kentucky alfalfa. Journal of Economic Entomology, 79(5):1334-1337

Beck H, 1960. Die Larvalsystematik der Eulen ( Noctuidae). In: Sachtleben H, Stammer HJ, eds. Abhandlungen zur Larvalsystematik der Insekten. Berlin, Germany: Akademie - Verl., 406 pp.

Berry RE; Shields EJ, 1980. Variegated cutworm: leaf consumption and economic loss in peppermint. Journal of Economic Entomology, 73(4):607-608

Bibolini C, 1970. Biology and damage in the Pisa district of Peridroma saucia Hb. (Lep. Noctuidae) with reference to its geographic distribution, world dietology and relative control measures. Frustula Entomologica, 10(3):98 pp.

Billen W, 1988. Tropical insects in Basle, II. Mitteilungen der Entomologischen Gesellschaft Basel, 38(2-3):53-57

Blobner W, 1984. Record of Peridroma saucia HB. in the larval stage in the territory of the GDR (Lep., Noctuidae). Entomologische Nachrichten und Berichte, 28(5):224

Bouhélier R, 1938. A propos de la contre Rhyacia saucia Hbn. Revue de Zoologie Agricole et Appliquée, 37:122-123.

Bowman K, 1951. An annotated list of the Lepidoptera of Alberta. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 29:121-165.

Brandenburg RL, 1985. The effect of field applications of insecticides for variegated cutworm, Peridroma saucia (Hubner) (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) control on non-target arthropods in alfalfa. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 58(3):437-441

Bretherton RF; Goater B; Lorimer RI, 1979. Noctuidae. In: Heath J, Emmet JM, eds. The Butterflies and Moths of Great Britain and Ireland. Vol. 9. London, UK: Curwen Books, 120-278.

Britton WE, 1934. Connecticut state entomologist thirty-third report for 1933. Connecticut Agriculture Experiment Station Bulletin, 360:385-486.

Brower AE, 1974. A list of the Lepidoptera of Maine. Part 1. The Macrolepidoptera. Technical Bulletin, Life Sciences and Agriculture Experiment Station, University of Maine, No. 66:136pp.

Buntin GD; Pedigo LP, 1985. Development of economic injury levels for last-stage variegated cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae in alfalfa stubble. Journal of Economic Entomology, 78(6):1341-1346

Buntin GD; Pedigo LP, 1985. Dry-matter accumulation, partitioning, and development of alfalfa regrowth after stubble defoliation by the variegated cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 78(2):371-378

Buntin GD; Pedigo LP, 1985. Variegated cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) foliage consumption and larval development on alfalfa. Journal of Economic Entomology, 78(2):482-484

Buntin GD; Pedigo LP, 1986. Enhancement of annual weed populations in alfalfa after stubble defoliation by variegated cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 79(6):1507-1512; 13 ref.

Buntin GD; Pedigo LP, 1986. Management of alfalfa stubble defoliators causing a complete suppression of regrowth. Journal of Economic Entomology, 79(3):769-774

Buntin GD; Pedigo LP; Showers WB, 1990. Temporal occurrence of the variegated cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) adults in Iowa with evidence for migration. Environmental Entomology, 19(3):603-608

Burgess AF; Collins CW, 1917. The genus Calosoma. Bulletin of the United States Department of Agriculture, 417:1-124.

Buriff CR; Davis DG, 1974. Tachinid flies captured in traps for apple maggot. Environmental Entomology, 3:572.

Byers JR; Struble DL, 1987. Monitoring cutworm moths in southern Alberta with sex-attractant traps. Research Highlights, Lethbridge Research Station, Agriculture Canada. Alberta, Canada: Lethbridge Research Station, 68-70

Byers JR; Struble DL; Schaalje GB, 1987. Monitoring population levels of eight species of noctuids with sex-attractant traps in southern Alberta, 1978-1983; consistency of trap catches and precision of population estimates. Canadian Entomologist, 119(6):557-566

Byers JR; Struble DL; Schaalje GB, 1988. Monitoring population levels of eight species of noctuids with sex-attractant traps in southern Alberta, 1978-1983: congruency of year-to-year fluctuations in intraspecific density shown by subsets of monitoring sites. Canadian Entomologist, 120(12):1071-1078

Carter DJ, 1984. Pest Lepidoptera of Europe, with special reference to the British Isles. Series Entomologica, Volume 31.

Carter DJ; Hargreaves B (Illustrator), 1986. A field guide to caterpillars of butterflies and moths in Britain and Europe. London, UK: Collins, 296 pp.

Castellari PL, 1976. Recent infestation by Peridroma saucia Hb. on peaches of the Stark Red Gold variety. Informatore Fitopatologico, 26(2/3):21-28

Cayrol RA, 1972. Famille des Noctuidae. Sous-famille des Melicleptriinae. Helicoverpa armigera Hb. In: Balachowsky AS, ed. Entomologie appliquée à l'agriculture, Vol. 2, Paris, France: Masson et Cie, 1431-1444.

Chacon de Ulloa P; Rojas de Hernandez M, 1981. Biology and natural control of Peridroma saucia, a pest of passion-fruit flowers. Revista Colombiana de Entomologia, 7(1/2):47-53

Chacon P; Rojas M, 1984. Arthropods associated with Passiflora mollissima, P. edulis f. flavicarpa and P. quadrangularis in the Department of Valle del Cauca. Turrialba, 34(3):297-311

Chen W; Isman MB; Chiu SF, 1995. Antifeedant and growth inhibitory effects of the limonoid toosendanin and Melia toosendan extracts on the variegated cutworm, Peridroma saucia (Lep., Noctuidae). Journal of Applied Entomology, 119(5):367-370

Ciampolini M; Zangheri S, 1975. Sesamia nonagrioides (Lef.) and Peridroma saucia Hb. (Lep. Noctuidae) injurious to flower crops. Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura, 13:37-47

CIPR, 1928. Canadian Insect Pest Review, 6:1.

CIPR, 1934. Canadian Insect Pest Review, 12:64-65; 120.

Cook WC, 1930. An ecologically annotated list of the Phalaenidae of Montana (Lepidoptera). Canadian Entomologist, 62:257-277.

Coop LB; Berry RE, 1986. Reduction in variegated cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) injury to peppermint by larval parasitoids. Journal of Economic Entomology, 79(5):1244-1248

Cortes PR; Aguilera PA; Vargas CH; Hichins QN; Campos LE; Pacheco WJ, 1972. The cutworms (Noctuidae) of lucerne in Lluta and Camarones, Arica, Chile. - A bio-ecological control problem (summary). Sociedad Entomologica del Peru: Proceedings of the First Latin-American Congress of Entomology, Cuzco, Peru, 12-18th April 1971. Revista Peruana de Entomologia, 15:253-266.

Covell CV Jr, 1984. A Field Guide to the Moths of Eastern North America. Boston, USA: Houghton Mifflin Co.

Crumb SE, 1929. Tobacco cutworms. Technical Bulletin No. 88. Washington DC, USA: United States Department of Agriculture.

Crumb SE, 1932. The more important climbing cutworms. Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society, 27:73-100.

Crumb SE, 1956. The Larvae of the Phalaenidae. Technical Bulletin No. 1135. Washington DC, USA: United States Department of Agriculture.

De Silva MD, 1964. A note on the cutworm pests of potato in Ceylon. Tropical Agriculturist and Magazine of the Ceylon Agricultural Society, 118:86-87.

Dibble JE; Joose J; LaVine P; Haire S; Bearden BE, 1979. Climbing cutworms; early-season pests of grapes. California Agriculture, 33(2):14-15

Doane RW; Brodie DA, 1901. The variegated cutworm. Washington Agriculture Experiment Station Bulletin, 47:1-16.

Dochkova B, 1971. Injurious Noctuids on sugar-beet in northern Bulgaria. Rastitelna Zashchita, 19(12):11-13

Dominguez R Y, 1974. Fluctuation in populations of injurious insects determined by means of light-traps in the 'Las Adjuntas' region, Tamps. Folia Entomologia Mexicana, No. 28:51-56

Dorman C, 1941. Zoology and entomology; control of insect pests. Annual Report of the Mississippi Agriculture Experiment Station, 54:33-34.

Doten SB, 1916. Department of Entomology Annual Report of the Board of Control for Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1915. Nevada, USA: University of Nevada Agriculture Experiment Station.

Ellis CR; Roy RC, 1979. The potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) and other pests of peanuts in Ontario. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Ontario, 110:41-45

Essig EO, 1958. Insects and Mites of Western North America. New York, USA: The MacMillan Co.

Ferguson DC, 1954. The Lepidoptera of Nova Scotia. Proceedings of the Nova Scotian Institute of Science, 23 (part 3).

Ferguson DC; Hilburn DJ; Wright B, 1991. The Lepidoptera of Bermuda: their food plants, biogeography, and means of dispersal. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada, 158:105 pp.

Fibiger M, 1993. Noctuidae Europaeae. Volume 2, Noctuinae II. Soro, Denmark: Entomological Press.

Fibiger M, 1997. Noctuidae Europaeae. Volume 3, Noctuinae III. Soro, Denmark: Entomological Press.

Fletcher DS, 1963. Macrolepidoptera collected by the Gough Island scientific survey 1955-56. Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London, Series B: Taxonomy, 32:17-19.

Forbes WTM, 1954. Lepidoptera of New York and neighboring states. Part 3 Noctuidae. Cornell, USA: Cornell University Agriculture Experiment Station, Memoir 329.

Forster W; Wohlfahrt TA, 1971. Die Schmetterlinge Mitteleuropas. Band IV Eulen (Noctuidae). Stuttgart, Germany: Franckh'sche Verlagshandlung.

Forster W; Wohlfahrt TA, 1971. Die Schmetterlinge Mitteleuropas. Band IV Eulen (Noctuidae). Stuttgart, Germany: Franckh'sche Verlagshandlung.

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