Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Penicillium expansum
(blue mould of stored apple)

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Datasheet

Penicillium expansum (blue mould of stored apple)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 05 December 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Penicillium expansum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • blue mould of stored apple
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Eurotiomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Post-harvest infection via injuries caused by stalks protruding from neighbouring fruits.
TitleP. expansum on apple
CaptionPost-harvest infection via injuries caused by stalks protruding from neighbouring fruits.
Copyright©Anna L. Snowdon
Post-harvest infection via injuries caused by stalks protruding from neighbouring fruits.
P. expansum on applePost-harvest infection via injuries caused by stalks protruding from neighbouring fruits.©Anna L. Snowdon
Post-harvest infection via injury. The pale colour of the rotted tissue is typical of this fungus.
TitleP. expansum on apple
CaptionPost-harvest infection via injury. The pale colour of the rotted tissue is typical of this fungus.
Copyright©Anna L. Snowdon
Post-harvest infection via injury. The pale colour of the rotted tissue is typical of this fungus.
P. expansum on applePost-harvest infection via injury. The pale colour of the rotted tissue is typical of this fungus.©Anna L. Snowdon
Golden Delicious apple with soft rot/blue mould. Note cushions of blue-green fungus growth on surface of lesion.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionGolden Delicious apple with soft rot/blue mould. Note cushions of blue-green fungus growth on surface of lesion.
Copyright©Alan L. Jones
Golden Delicious apple with soft rot/blue mould. Note cushions of blue-green fungus growth on surface of lesion.
SymptomsGolden Delicious apple with soft rot/blue mould. Note cushions of blue-green fungus growth on surface of lesion.©Alan L. Jones
Conidiophores of P. expansum. Note one-celled ovoid conidia produced on brush-like structures.
TitleSEM
CaptionConidiophores of P. expansum. Note one-celled ovoid conidia produced on brush-like structures.
Copyright©Alan L. Jones
Conidiophores of P. expansum. Note one-celled ovoid conidia produced on brush-like structures.
SEMConidiophores of P. expansum. Note one-celled ovoid conidia produced on brush-like structures.©Alan L. Jones

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Penicillium expansum Link

Preferred Common Name

  • blue mould of stored apple

Other Scientific Names

  • Penicillium crustaceum Link
  • Penicillium glaucum Stoll.

International Common Names

  • English: soft rot of apple; soft rot of grape; storage rot of fruit
  • Spanish: marchitez azul del manzano; marchitez comun de los frutales; marchitez de la vid
  • French: moisissure bleue du pommier; moisissure commune des arbres fruitiers; moisissure de la vendange

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Beerenfaeule: Weinrebe; Blaufaeule: Apfel; Fruchtfaeule; Gruenfaeule: Weinrebe; Lagerfaeule: Fruechte; Mykotoxinbildner (u. a. Patulin)

EPPO code

  • PENIEX (Penicillium expansum)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Eurotiomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Eurotiomycetidae
  •                         Order: Eurotiales
  •                             Family: Trichocomaceae
  •                                 Genus: Penicillium
  •                                     Species: Penicillium expansum

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 24 Jun 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

EgyptPresent
GhanaPresent
KenyaPresent
MauritiusPresent
MoroccoPresent
NigeriaPresent
South AfricaPresent
ZimbabwePresent

Asia

ArmeniaPresent
BruneiPresent
ChinaPresent
-JilinPresent
-ShandongPresent
GeorgiaPresent
Hong KongPresent
IndiaPresent
-Andhra PradeshPresent
-DelhiPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresent
-Jammu and KashmirPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
IranPresent
IsraelPresent
JapanPresent
-HokkaidoPresent
KazakhstanPresent
North KoreaPresent
PakistanPresent
PhilippinesPresent
Saudi ArabiaPresent
South KoreaPresent
Sri LankaPresent
TurkeyPresent

Europe

BelgiumPresent
BulgariaPresent
CyprusPresent
CzechiaPresent
DenmarkPresent
FrancePresent
GreecePresent
ItalyPresent
LatviaPresent
LithuaniaPresent
PolandPresent
RomaniaPresent
Serbia and MontenegroPresent
SlovakiaPresent
SpainPresent
SwedenPresent
UkrainePresent
United KingdomPresent

North America

CanadaPresent
-British ColumbiaPresent
-ManitobaPresent
-New BrunswickPresent
-Nova ScotiaPresent
-OntarioPresent
-Prince Edward IslandPresent
-QuebecPresent
-SaskatchewanPresent
HondurasPresent
NicaraguaPresent
United StatesPresent
-CaliforniaPresent
-ColoradoPresent
-FloridaPresent
-GeorgiaPresent
-HawaiiPresent
-IdahoPresent
-IllinoisPresent
-IndianaPresent
-IowaPresent
-KansasPresent
-KentuckyPresent
-LouisianaPresent
-MinnesotaPresent
-MissouriPresent
-MontanaPresent
-NebraskaPresent
-New YorkPresent
-North CarolinaPresent
-North DakotaPresent
-OhioPresent
-OregonPresent
-PennsylvaniaPresent
-South DakotaPresent
-VirginiaPresent
-WashingtonPresent
-West VirginiaPresent
-WisconsinPresent
-WyomingPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresent
-New South WalesPresent
-QueenslandPresent
-South AustraliaPresent
-VictoriaPresent
-Western AustraliaPresent
New ZealandPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresent
BrazilPresent
-PernambucoPresent
-Rio Grande do SulPresent
-Sao PauloPresent
ChilePresent
UruguayPresent
VenezuelaPresent

Growth Stages

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Post-harvest

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / extensive mould
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Fruit / odour

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Pseudomonas syringae Pathogen
Sporobolomyces roseus Pathogen

References

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Bang NaRae, Ha SanGo, Kim DaeHo, Kim SeonHwa, Hong SeungBeom, 2014. Identification of fungi isolated from Cheongdo-Banshi (flat persimmon) stored in a refrigerator. Korean Journal of Mycology, 42(4):276-281. http://www.koreascience.or.kr/search/articlepdf_ocean.jsp?url=http://ocean.kisti.re.kr/downfile/volume/mycology/GNHHDL/2014/v42n4/GNHHDL_2014_v42n4_276.pdf

CABI/EPPO, 2006. Penicillium expansum. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 976. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Gaskins VL, Vico I, Yu J, Jurick WM II, 2015. First report of Penicillium expansum isolates with reduced sensitivity to fludioxonil from a commercial packinghouse in Pennsylvania. Plant Disease, 99(8):1182. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

HemaMoorthy T, Prakasam V, 2013. First report of Penicillium expansum causing bulb rot of lilium in India. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences, 13(3):293-295. http://www.idosi.org/aejaes/jaes13(3)13/1.pdf

Mirzaee MR, Heydari A, Zare R, Naraghi L, Sabzali F, Hasheminasab M, 2013. Fungi associated with boll and lint rot of cotton in Southern Khorasan province of Iran. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 46(11):1285-1294. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/gapp20

Palou L, Montesinos-Herrero C, Taberner V, Vilella-Esplá J, 2013. First report of Penicillium expansum causing postharvest blue mold of fresh date palm fruit (Phoenix dactylifera) in Spain. Plant Disease, 97(6):846-847. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Sepiah, Ploetz RC, Cooke AW, 2003. Diseases of carambola. In: Diseases of tropical fruit crops [ed. by Ploetz, R. C.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing, 145-162. http://www.cabi.org/CABeBooks/default.aspx?site=107&page=45&LoadModule=PDFHier&BookID=182

Singh UB, 1942. The soft-rot of apple fruit in Kumaun. Indian Journal of Agricultural Science, 11:902-5

van der Walt L, Spotts RA, Visagie CM, Jacobs K, Smit FJ, McLeod A, 2010. Penicillium species associated with preharvest wet core rot in South Africa and their pathogenicity on apple. Plant Disease, 94(6):666-675. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Wang CW, Ai J, Lv HY, Qin HY, Yang YM, Liu YX, Fan ST, 2015. First report of Penicillium expansum causing postharvest decay on stored kiwifruit (Actinidia arguta) in China. Plant Disease, 99(7):1037. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Distribution References

Bang NaRae, Ha SanGo, Kim DaeHo, Kim SeonHwa, Hong SeungBeom, 2014. Identification of fungi isolated from Cheongdo-Banshi (flat persimmon) stored in a refrigerator. Korean Journal of Mycology. 42 (4), 276-281. http://www.koreascience.or.kr/search/articlepdf_ocean.jsp?url=http://ocean.kisti.re.kr/downfile/volume/mycology/GNHHDL/2014/v42n4/GNHHDL_2014_v42n4_276.pdf DOI:10.4489/KJM.2014.42.4.276

Brito A C Q, Mello J F, Vieira J C B, Câmara M P S, Bezerra J D P, Souza-Motta C M, Machado A R, 2020. First report of Penicillium expansum causing postharvest fruit rot on black plum (Prunus domestica) in Brazil. Plant Disease. 104 (2), 576-576. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-04-19-0889-PDN

CABI, EPPO, 2006. Penicillium expansum. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing. Map 976 (Edition 1). DOI:10.1079/DMPD/20063115678

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Gaskins V L, Vico I, Yu J, Jurick W M II, 2015. First report of Penicillium expansum isolates with reduced sensitivity to fludioxonil from a commercial packinghouse in Pennsylvania. Plant Disease. 99 (8), 1182. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-11-14-1161-PDN

Ghuffar S, Irshad G, Naz F, Rosli H B, Hyder S, Mehmood N, Zeshan M A, Raza M M, Mayer C G, Gleason M L, 2018. First report of two Penicillium spp. causing postharvest fruit rot of grapes in Pakistan. Plant Disease. 102 (5), 1037. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-10-17-1616-PDN

HemaMoorthy T, Prakasam V, 2013. First report of Penicillium expansum causing bulb rot of lilium in India. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences. 13 (3), 293-295. http://www.idosi.org/aejaes/jaes13(3)13/1.pdf

Król E D, Abramczyk B A, Zalewska E D, Zimowska B, 2017. Fungi inhabiting fruit tree shoots with special reference to the Diaporthe (Phomopsis) genus. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum - Hortorum Cultus. 16 (4), 113-126. DOI:10.24326/asphc.2017.4.12

Mirzaee M R, Heydari A, Zare R, Naraghi L, Sabzali F, Hasheminasab M, 2013. Fungi associated with boll and lint rot of cotton in Southern Khorasan province of Iran. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection. 46 (11), 1285-1294. DOI:10.1080/03235408.2013.765135

Moosa A, Farzand A, Sahi S T, Gleason M L, Khan S A, Zhang X, 2019. First report of postharvest fruit rot of Citrus reticulata 'kinnow' caused by Penicillium expansum in Pakistan. Plant Disease. 103 (1), 155-156. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-06-18-1090-PDN

Palou L, Montesinos-Herrero C, Taberner V, Vilella-Esplá J, 2013. First report of Penicillium expansum causing postharvest blue mold of fresh date palm fruit (Phoenix dactylifera) in Spain. Plant Disease. 97 (6), 846-847. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-11-12-1097-PDN

Prodromou I, Thomidis T, Zambounis A, 2018. First report of Penicillium expansum (Link) Thom. causing postharvest fruit rot of Kiwifruit in Northern Greece. Plant Disease. 102 (9), 1851. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-11-17-1804-PDN

Renu Srivastava, Lal A A, 2009. Incidence of post-harvest fungal pathogens in guava and banana in Allahabad. Journal of Horticultural Sciences. 4 (1), 85-89.

Wang C W, Ai J, Lv H Y, Qin H Y, Yang Y M, Liu Y X, Fan S T, 2015. First report of Penicillium expansum causing postharvest decay on stored kiwifruit (Actinidia arguta) in China. Plant Disease. 99 (7), 1037. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-12-14-1274-PDN

Xiao C L, Kim Y K, Boal R J, 2011. First report of occurrence of pyrimethanil resistance in Penicillium expansum from stored apples in Washington State. Plant Disease. 95 (1), 72. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-07-10-0509

Yu C, Wu C, Li G, Wang C, 2018. First report of Diaporthe nobilis causing postharvest rot of blueberry in Shandong Province, China. Plant Disease. 102 (9), 1856-1857. DOI:10.1094/pdis-11-17-1816-pdn

Distribution Maps

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