Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Penicillium expansum
(blue mould of stored apple)

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Datasheet

Penicillium expansum (blue mould of stored apple)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 05 December 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Penicillium expansum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • blue mould of stored apple
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Eurotiomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Post-harvest infection via injuries caused by stalks protruding from neighbouring fruits.
TitleP. expansum on apple
CaptionPost-harvest infection via injuries caused by stalks protruding from neighbouring fruits.
Copyright©Anna L. Snowdon
Post-harvest infection via injuries caused by stalks protruding from neighbouring fruits.
P. expansum on applePost-harvest infection via injuries caused by stalks protruding from neighbouring fruits.©Anna L. Snowdon
Post-harvest infection via injury. The pale colour of the rotted tissue is typical of this fungus.
TitleP. expansum on apple
CaptionPost-harvest infection via injury. The pale colour of the rotted tissue is typical of this fungus.
Copyright©Anna L. Snowdon
Post-harvest infection via injury. The pale colour of the rotted tissue is typical of this fungus.
P. expansum on applePost-harvest infection via injury. The pale colour of the rotted tissue is typical of this fungus.©Anna L. Snowdon
Golden Delicious apple with soft rot/blue mould. Note cushions of blue-green fungus growth on surface of lesion.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionGolden Delicious apple with soft rot/blue mould. Note cushions of blue-green fungus growth on surface of lesion.
Copyright©Alan L. Jones
Golden Delicious apple with soft rot/blue mould. Note cushions of blue-green fungus growth on surface of lesion.
SymptomsGolden Delicious apple with soft rot/blue mould. Note cushions of blue-green fungus growth on surface of lesion.©Alan L. Jones
Conidiophores of P. expansum. Note one-celled ovoid conidia produced on brush-like structures.
TitleSEM
CaptionConidiophores of P. expansum. Note one-celled ovoid conidia produced on brush-like structures.
Copyright©Alan L. Jones
Conidiophores of P. expansum. Note one-celled ovoid conidia produced on brush-like structures.
SEMConidiophores of P. expansum. Note one-celled ovoid conidia produced on brush-like structures.©Alan L. Jones

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Penicillium expansum Link

Preferred Common Name

  • blue mould of stored apple

Other Scientific Names

  • Penicillium crustaceum Link
  • Penicillium glaucum Stoll.

International Common Names

  • English: soft rot of apple; soft rot of grape; storage rot of fruit
  • Spanish: marchitez azul del manzano; marchitez comun de los frutales; marchitez de la vid
  • French: moisissure bleue du pommier; moisissure commune des arbres fruitiers; moisissure de la vendange

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Beerenfaeule: Weinrebe; Blaufaeule: Apfel; Fruchtfaeule; Gruenfaeule: Weinrebe; Lagerfaeule: Fruechte; Mykotoxinbildner (u. a. Patulin)

EPPO code

  • PENIEX (Penicillium expansum)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Eurotiomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Eurotiomycetidae
  •                         Order: Eurotiales
  •                             Family: Trichocomaceae
  •                                 Genus: Penicillium
  •                                     Species: Penicillium expansum

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

EgyptPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
GhanaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
KenyaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
MauritiusPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
MoroccoPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
NigeriaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
South AfricaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
ZimbabwePresentCABI and EPPO (2006)

Asia

ArmeniaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
BruneiPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
ChinaPresentWang et al. (2015); CABI and EPPO (2006)
GeorgiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
Hong KongPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
IndiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006); HemaMoorthy and Prakasam (2013)
-Andhra PradeshPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-DelhiPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-Himachal PradeshPresentCABI (Undated)
-Jammu and KashmirPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-Tamil NaduPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
IranPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
IsraelPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
JapanPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-HokkaidoPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
KazakhstanPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
North KoreaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
PhilippinesPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
Saudi ArabiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
South KoreaPresentBang NaRae et al. (2014)
Sri LankaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
TurkeyPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)

Europe

BelgiumPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
BulgariaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
CyprusPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
CzechiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
DenmarkPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
FrancePresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
GreecePresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
ItalyPresentCABI (Undated)
LatviaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
LithuaniaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
PolandPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
RomaniaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
Serbia and MontenegroPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
SlovakiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
SpainPresentCABI and EPPO (2006); Palou et al. (2013)
SwedenPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
UkrainePresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
United KingdomPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)

North America

CanadaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-British ColumbiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-ManitobaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-New BrunswickPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-Nova ScotiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-OntarioPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-Prince Edward IslandPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-QuebecPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-SaskatchewanPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
HondurasPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
NicaraguaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
United StatesPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-CaliforniaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-ColoradoPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-FloridaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-GeorgiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-HawaiiPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-IdahoPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-IllinoisPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-IndianaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-IowaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-KansasPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-KentuckyPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-LouisianaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-MinnesotaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-MissouriPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-MontanaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-NebraskaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-New YorkPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-North CarolinaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-North DakotaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-OhioPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-OregonPresentCABI (Undated)
-PennsylvaniaPresentGaskins et al. (2015)
-South DakotaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-VirginiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-WashingtonPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-West VirginiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-WisconsinPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-WyomingPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-New South WalesPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-QueenslandPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-South AustraliaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-VictoriaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-Western AustraliaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
New ZealandPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)

South America

ArgentinaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
BrazilPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-Rio Grande do SulPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-Sao PauloPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
ChilePresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
UruguayPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
VenezuelaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)

Growth Stages

Top of page Post-harvest

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / extensive mould
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Fruit / odour

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Pseudomonas syringae Pathogen
Sporobolomyces roseus Pathogen

References

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Bang NaRae, Ha SanGo, Kim DaeHo, Kim SeonHwa, Hong SeungBeom, 2014. Identification of fungi isolated from Cheongdo-Banshi (flat persimmon) stored in a refrigerator. Korean Journal of Mycology, 42(4):276-281. http://www.koreascience.or.kr/search/articlepdf_ocean.jsp?url=http://ocean.kisti.re.kr/downfile/volume/mycology/GNHHDL/2014/v42n4/GNHHDL_2014_v42n4_276.pdf

CABI/EPPO, 2006. Penicillium expansum. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 976. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Gaskins VL, Vico I, Yu J, Jurick WM II, 2015. First report of Penicillium expansum isolates with reduced sensitivity to fludioxonil from a commercial packinghouse in Pennsylvania. Plant Disease, 99(8):1182. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

HemaMoorthy T, Prakasam V, 2013. First report of Penicillium expansum causing bulb rot of lilium in India. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences, 13(3):293-295. http://www.idosi.org/aejaes/jaes13(3)13/1.pdf

Mirzaee MR, Heydari A, Zare R, Naraghi L, Sabzali F, Hasheminasab M, 2013. Fungi associated with boll and lint rot of cotton in Southern Khorasan province of Iran. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 46(11):1285-1294. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/gapp20

Palou L, Montesinos-Herrero C, Taberner V, Vilella-Esplá J, 2013. First report of Penicillium expansum causing postharvest blue mold of fresh date palm fruit (Phoenix dactylifera) in Spain. Plant Disease, 97(6):846-847. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Sepiah, Ploetz RC, Cooke AW, 2003. Diseases of carambola. In: Diseases of tropical fruit crops [ed. by Ploetz, R. C.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing, 145-162. http://www.cabi.org/CABeBooks/default.aspx?site=107&page=45&LoadModule=PDFHier&BookID=182

Singh UB, 1942. The soft-rot of apple fruit in Kumaun. Indian Journal of Agricultural Science, 11:902-5

van der Walt L, Spotts RA, Visagie CM, Jacobs K, Smit FJ, McLeod A, 2010. Penicillium species associated with preharvest wet core rot in South Africa and their pathogenicity on apple. Plant Disease, 94(6):666-675. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Wang CW, Ai J, Lv HY, Qin HY, Yang YM, Liu YX, Fan ST, 2015. First report of Penicillium expansum causing postharvest decay on stored kiwifruit (Actinidia arguta) in China. Plant Disease, 99(7):1037. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Distribution References

Bang NaRae, Ha SanGo, Kim DaeHo, Kim SeonHwa, Hong SeungBeom, 2014. Identification of fungi isolated from Cheongdo-Banshi (flat persimmon) stored in a refrigerator. Korean Journal of Mycology. 42 (4), 276-281. http://www.koreascience.or.kr/search/articlepdf_ocean.jsp?url=http://ocean.kisti.re.kr/downfile/volume/mycology/GNHHDL/2014/v42n4/GNHHDL_2014_v42n4_276.pdf DOI:10.4489/KJM.2014.42.4.276

CABI, EPPO, 2006. Penicillium expansum. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing. Map 976 (Edition 1).

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Gaskins V L, Vico I, Yu J, Jurick W M II, 2015. First report of Penicillium expansum isolates with reduced sensitivity to fludioxonil from a commercial packinghouse in Pennsylvania. Plant Disease. 99 (8), 1182. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-11-14-1161-PDN

HemaMoorthy T, Prakasam V, 2013. First report of Penicillium expansum causing bulb rot of lilium in India. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences. 13 (3), 293-295. http://www.idosi.org/aejaes/jaes13(3)13/1.pdf

Palou L, Montesinos-Herrero C, Taberner V, Vilella-Esplá J, 2013. First report of Penicillium expansum causing postharvest blue mold of fresh date palm fruit (Phoenix dactylifera) in Spain. Plant Disease. 97 (6), 846-847. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-11-12-1097-PDN

Wang C W, Ai J, Lv H Y, Qin H Y, Yang Y M, Liu Y X, Fan S T, 2015. First report of Penicillium expansum causing postharvest decay on stored kiwifruit (Actinidia arguta) in China. Plant Disease. 99 (7), 1037. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-12-14-1274-PDN

Distribution Maps

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