Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Penicillium digitatum
(green mould)

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Datasheet

Penicillium digitatum (green mould)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Penicillium digitatum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • green mould
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Eurotiomycetes
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Penicillium digitatum (Pers.) Sacc.

Preferred Common Name

  • green mould

Other Scientific Names

  • Monilia digitata Pers.: Fr.
  • Penicillium digitatoides Peyronel
  • Penicillium lanosogrisellum Biourge
  • Penicillium olivaceum Wehmer
  • Penicillium olivaceum var. italicum Sopp
  • Penicillium olivaceum var. norvegicum Sopp
  • Penicillium olivaceum var. olivaceum

International Common Names

  • English: green rot
  • Spanish: marchitez verde de los agrios; podredumbre verde de los agrios; tristeza verde de los agrios
  • French: moisissure verte des agrumes; pourriture verte des agrumes

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Grünfäule: Zitrusfrüchte

EPPO code

  • PENIDI (Penicillium digitatum)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Eurotiomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Eurotiomycetidae
  •                         Order: Eurotiales
  •                             Family: Trichocomaceae
  •                                 Genus: Penicillium
  •                                     Species: Penicillium digitatum

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

EgyptPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: El-Tobschy et al., 1982
KenyaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
LibyaPresentDomsch et al. (1980)
MalawiPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
MoroccoPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: El-Khamass et al., 1995
NigeriaPresentAdisa and Fajola (1982); Herb IMI (Undated)
South AfricaPresentROTH (1967)
TanzaniaPresentSwai (1988)
TunisiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
ZimbabwePresentCABI and EPPO (2006)

Asia

BangladeshPresentDomsch et al. (1980)
BhutanPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
BruneiPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
ChinaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-FujianPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-GuangdongPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-GuangxiPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-GuizhouPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-HubeiPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-HunanPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-JiangsuPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-JiangxiPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-SichuanPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-ZhejiangPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
Hong KongPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
IndiaPresentPitt (1979); Domsch et al. (1980); Herb IMI (Undated)
-AssamPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-GujaratPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-HaryanaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-Himachal PradeshPresentSharma et al. (2014)
-Jammu and KashmirPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-KarnatakaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-MaharashtraPresentNaqvi and Dass (1994)
-MeghalayaPresentDas et al. (2007)
-PunjabPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-West BengalPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
IndonesiaPresentCentraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures (1996)
IranPresentKazempour and Kodehi (2007)
IraqPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
IsraelPresentGutter (1985)
JapanPresentShishiyama et al. (1996)
JordanPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
MalaysiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
North KoreaPresentHong et al. (1991)
PakistanPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Farooqui et al., 1995
Saudi ArabiaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: El-Shaieb & Maibari, 1995
SingaporePresentAVA (2001)
TaiwanPresentCABI and EPPO (2006); Tzean et al. (1994)
TurkeyPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Salih & Cenzig, 1976
VietnamPresentWhittle (1992)
YemenPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)

Europe

CyprusPresentKokkalos (1973); Pitt (1979); CABI (Undated)
FrancePresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
GreecePresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
ItalyPresentDomsch et al. (1980)
-SardiniaPresentAgabbio et al. (1982)
NetherlandsPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
SpainPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
SwedenPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
United KingdomPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)

North America

BarbadosPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
CubaPresentCABI (Undated);
DominicaPresentHerb IMI (Undated)
El SalvadorPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
MexicoPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
PanamaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
Puerto RicoPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
United StatesPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-CaliforniaPresentKelly and Austin (1986)
-ConnecticutPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-FloridaPresentKelly and Austin (1986)
-HawaiiPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-IndianaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-OklahomaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
-WashingtonPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)

Oceania

American SamoaPresentBrooks (2002)
AustraliaPresentDomsch et al. (1980); American Type Culture Collection (1991); Herb IMI (Undated)
-New South WalesPresentRippon and Wild (1974); Pitt (1979)
-QueenslandPresentMuirhead (1974)
-South AustraliaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Anon. (1974)
-Western AustraliaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
Cook IslandsPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
FijiPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
New CaledoniaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
New ZealandPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
NiuePresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
Papua New GuineaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)

South America

ArgentinaPresentCarrillo (1995)
BrazilPresentAmerican Type Culture Collection (1991); Herb IMI (Undated)
-Minas GeraisPresentJuliatti et al. (2007)
-Rio Grande do SulPresentPrade et al. (2007)
-Sao PauloPresentFischer et al. (2009)
ChilePresentCABI and EPPO (2006)
VenezuelaPresentCABI and EPPO (2006)

Growth Stages

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List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / extensive mould
Fruit / mummification

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Bacillus subtilis Pathogen
Debaryomyces hansenii Pathogen Israel

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx spores Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Fruits (inc. pods) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves spores Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches spores Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

References

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Achilea O, Fuchs Y, Chalutz E, Rot I, 1985. The contribution of host and pathogen to ethylene biosynthesis in Penicillium digitatum-infected citrus fruit. Physiological Plant Pathology, 27(1):55-63

Adisa VA, Aborisade AT, 1987. Seed-borne mycoflora of two okra cultivars and their effects on seed quality. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 12(4):388-390; 20 ref.

Adisa VA, Fajola AO, 1982. Post-harvest fruit rots of three species of citrus in south western Nigeria. Indian Phytopathology, 35(4):595-603; [4 tab.]; 18 ref.

Agabbio M, Chessa I, Schirra M, Arras G, 1982. Cold storage of citrus. First experiments in Sardinia on the storage of oranges of the cultivars Washington Navel, Tarocco and Valencia Late. Studi Sassaresi, III, 29:24.

Amarjit Singh, Rajinder Singh, Dhiman JS, 1992. Effect of modified atmosphere on rotting of stored Kinnow mandarins. Folia Horticulturae, 4(2):43-57; [1 fig.]; 12 ref.

American Type Culture Collection, 1991. Catalogue of Filamentous Fungi. American Type Culture Collection, Rockland, USA (Internet: http://www.atcc.org/).

Anon., 1974. Post harvest mould control for citrus fruits. Extension Bulletin, South Australia Department of Agriculture, No.10, 8 pp.

Aranguren M, Garcia A, Grillo H, 1994. In vitro evaluation of three isolates of Trichoderma antagonists of postharvest pathogens of citrus fruits. Centro Agricola, 21:42-46.

Arimoto Y, Sugawara F, Yoshida S, Yamaguchi I, 1995. Prangolarin is a chemical facilitator for the enhanced development of the infection process in the epicarp of Citrus limon by Penicillium digitatum. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 43(8):2283-2285

Arras G, 1993. Inhibition of postharvest fungal pathogens by Bacillus subtilis strains isolated from citrus fruit. Advances in Horticultural Science, 7(3):123-127; 20 ref.

Arras G, 1996. Mode of action of an isolate of Candida famata in biological control of Penicillium digitatum in orange fruits. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 8(3):191-198; [3 pl.]; 26 ref.

Arras G, D'hallewin G, 1994. In vitro and in vivo control of Penicillium digitatum and Botrytis cinerea in citrus fruit by Bacillus subtilis strains. Agricoltura Mediterranea, 124(1):56-61; 13 ref.

Arras G, Piga A, D'Hallewin G, 1994. Effectiveness of Thymus capitatus aerosol application at subatmospheric pressure to control green mold on 'Avana' mandarin fruit. Acta Horticulturae, No. 368:382-386; [12 ref].

Atkinson WD, 1981. An ecological interaction between citrus fruit, Penicillium moulds and Drosophila immigrans Sturtevant (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Ecological Entomology, 6(4):339-344

AVA, 2001. Diagnostic records of the Plant Health Diagnostic Services, Plant Health Centre, Agri-food & Veterinary Authority, Singapore.

Barkai-Golan R, Karadavid R, 1991. Cellulolytic activity of Penicillium digitatum and P. italicum related to fungal growth and to pathogenesis in citrus fruit. Journal of Phytopathology, 131(1):65-72

Barmore CR, Brown GE, 1980. Soft rot of citrus fruit caused by Penicillium digitatum and P. italicum. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society, 93:305-307

Barmore CR, Brown GE, 1982. Spread of Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum during contact between citrus fruits. Phytopathology, 72(1):116-120

Ben Yehoshua S, Fang DQ, Kim JJ, Rodov V, Ait Oubahou A (ed. ), El Otmani M, 1995. The relationship between preformed antifungal compounds, disease resistance of citrus fruits and various postharves treatments. Postharvest physiology, pathology and technologies for horticultural commodities:recent advances. Proceedings of an international symposium held at Agadir, Morocco, pp. 407-413.

Ben-Yehoshua S, Rodov V, Fang DQ, Kim JJ, 1995. Preformed antifungal compounds of citrus fruit: effect of postharvest treatments with heat and growth regulators. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 43(4):1062-1066

Ben-Yehoshua S, Rodov V, Kim JJ, Carmeli S, 1992. Preformed and induced antifungal materials of citrus fruits in relation to the enhancement of decay resistance by heat and ultraviolet treatments. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 40(7):1217-1221

Bevington KB, 1973. Effect of gibberellic acid on rind quality and storage of coastal Navel oranges. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, 13:196-199.

Bonnas DS, Chitarra MIF, Chitarra AB, Machado Jda C, Gavilanes ML, 1995. Postharvest resistance of wounds in orange cv. Valencia to Penicillium digitatum. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 20(2):169-173; 18 ref.

Brooks F, 2002. List of Plant Diseases in American Samoa 2002. Land Grant Technical Report No. 44. Pago Pago, American Samoa: American Samoa Community College Land Grant Program.

Brown GE, 1994. Green Mold. University of Florida, Florida Cooperative Extension Service Fact Sheet PP-136.

Brown GE, Eckert JW, 1988. Green Mold. In Whiteside JO, Garnsey SM, Timmer LW, 1988. Compendium of Citrus diseases. St. Paul, USA: American Phytopathological Society,

Bus VG, Bongers AJ, Risse LA, 1991. Occurrence of Penicillium digitatum and P. italicum resistant to benomyl, thiabendazole and imazalil on citrus fruit from different geographic origins. Plant Disease, 75(11):1098-1100

CABI/EPPO, 2006. Penicillium digitatum. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 975. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Caccioni DRL, Deans SG, Ruberto G, 1995. Inhibitory effect of citrus fruit essential oil components on Penicillium italicum and P. digitatum. Petria, 5(2):177-181; 15 ref.

Carrillo L, 1995. Penicillium ulaiense Hsieh, Su & Tzean, a post-harvest pathogen of citrus fruits in the Argentine northwest. Revista Argentina de Microbiologi^acute~a, 27(2):107-113; 15 ref.

Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, 1996. List of cultures, fungi and yeasts, 34th ed. Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, Baarn and Delft, the Netherlands (Internet: http://www.cbs.knaw.nl/).

Cheah LH, Tran TB, 1995. Postharvest biocontrol of Penicillium rot of lemons with industrial yeasts. Proceedings of the Forty Eighth New Zealand Plant Protection Conference, Angus Inn, Hastings, New Zealand, August 8-10, 1995., 155-157; 11 ref.

Cho SH, Kang HD, Kim CH, 1988. Fungi associated with foreign seeds of twenty three plant species from six countries. Korean Journal of Plant Pathology, 4(4):319-324; 15 ref.

Dang JK, Singh JP, 1982. Fungal rot of stored onion bulbs in Haryana. Haryana Agricultural University Journal of Research, 12(3):509-513

Das K, Ranjana Das, Pranab Dutta, Chakravorty R, 2007. Seasonal diversity of certain entomo-pathogenic fungi in Antheraea assamensis Helfer (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) from North-east India. Insect Environment, 13(3):116-118.

Dave BA, Kaplan HJ, Petrie JF, 1980. The isolation of Penicillium digitatum Sacc. strains tolerant to 2-AB, SOPP, TBZ and benomyl. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society, 93:344-347

Domsch KH, Gams W, Anderson TH, 1980. Compendium of soil fungi. Volumes 1 and 2. London, UK: Academic Press Ltd. 859 pp.

Droby S, Chalutz E, Wilson CL, Wisniewski M, 1989. Characterization of the biocontrol activity of Debaryomyces hansenii in the control of Penicillium digitatum on grapefruit. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 35(8):794-800

Droby S, Hofstein R, Wilson CL, Wisniewski M, Fridlender B, Cohen L, Weiss B, Daus A, Timar D, Chalutz E, 1993. Pilot testing of Pichia guilliermondii: a biocontrol agent of postharvest diseases of citrus fruit. Biological Control, 3(1):47-52

Droby S, Wisniewski ME, Cohen L, Weiss B, Touitou D, Eilam Y, Chalutz E, 1997. Influence of CaCl on Penicillium digitatum, grapefruit peel tissue, and biocontrol activity of Pichia guilliermondii. Phytopathology, 87(3):310-315; 26 ref.

Eckert JW, Ratnayake M, 1994. Role of volatile compounds from wounded oranges in induction of germination of Penicillium digitatum conidia. Phytopathology, 84(7):746-750

El-Kazzaz MK, Sommer NF, Kader AA, 1983. Ethylene effects on in vitro and in vivo growth of certain postharvest fruit-infecting fungi. Phytopathology, 73(7):998-1001

El-Khamass M, Oulahcen B, Lekchiri A, Sebbata A, Charhabaili Y, 1995. Strategies for the control of post harvest diseases of citrus fruits. Postharvest physiology, pathology and technologies for horticultural commodities: recent advances. Proceedings of an international symposium held at Agadir, Morocco, 16-21 January 1994., 388-398; 18 ref.

El-Shaieb MKZ, Malibari AA, 1995. Enzymatic activities of soft rot causal organisms affecting vegetables and fruits in Saudi Arabia. Alexandria Journal of Agricultural Research, 40(3):293-304; 29 ref.

El-Tobshy ZM, Abdel-Latif MF, Mahmoud MB, 1982. Influence of chemical application time on green mould control of navel orange. Agricultural Research Review, 60(2):233-243

Faid M, Tantaoui-Elaraki A, 1989. Production of toxic metabolites by Penicillium italicum and P. digitatum isolated from citrus fruits. Journal of Food Protection, 52(3):194-197; 17 ref.

Farih A, Nadori EB, Bellouch H, Ouammou M, Abdelali F, Jrifi A, Boukhriss H, 1995. Research on the storability of clementine fruits: effect of clone and rootstock on the development of rots in cold storage. Al Awamia, No. 88:57-66; 27 ref.

Farooqi WA, Ait Oubahou A (ed. ), El Otmani M, 1995. Postharvest physiology and pathology of "Kinnow" mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco). Postharvest physiology, pathology and technologies for horticultural commodities: recent advances. Proceedings of an international symposium held at Agadir, Morocco. Agadir, Morocco: Institut Agronomique et Veterinaire Hassan II, 124-128.

Fischer IH, Lourenço SA, Spósito MB, Amorim L, 2009. Characterisation of the fungal population in citrus packing houses. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 123(4):449-460. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=100265

Fresnada JA, Camacho, JL 1984. Influencia del tipo de herida en la infección de naranja y toroja por Penicillium digitatum. Ciencias de la Agricultura, 18:33-38.

Grasso S, Polizzi G, 1988. Cryptogamic diseases of bergamot in Calabria (Italy). Citriculture. In: Goren R, Mendel K, eds. Proceedings of the Sixth International Citrus Congress, Middle-East, Tel Aviv, Israel, 6-11 March 1988. Volume 2. Cultural practices, diseases and nematodes Rehovot, Israel: Balaban Publishers, 833-837.

Gutter Y, 1985. Combined treatment with thiabendazole and 2-aminobutane for control of citrus fruit decay. Crop Protection, 4(3):346-350

Gutter Y, Shachnai A, Schiffmann-Nadel M, Dinoor A, 1981. Biological aspects of citrus molds tolerant to benzimidazole fungicides. Phytopathology, 71(5):482-487

Hong SY, Kim WG, Lee YH, 1991. Fungi associated with storage disease of citrus fruits. Research Reports of the Rural Development Administration, Crop Protection, 33(3):12-17

Houck LG, Jenner JF, Mackey BE, 1990. Seasonal variability of the response of desert lemons to rind injury and decay caused by quarantine cold treatments. Journal of Horticultural Science, 65(5):611-617

Huang Y, Deverall BJ, Morris SC, 1991. Promotion of infection of orange fruit by Penicillium digitatum with a strain of Pseudomonas cepacia. Phytopathology, 81(6):615-618

Huang Y, Deverall BJ, Morris SC, 1993. Effect of Pseudomonas cepacia on postharvest biocontrol of infection by Penicillium digitatum and on wound responses of citrus fruit. Australasian Plant Pathology, 22(3):84-93

Huang Y, Deverall BJ, Morris SC, 1995. Postharvest control of green mould on oranges by a strain of Pseudomonas glathei and enhancement of its biocontrol by heat treatment. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 5(1-2):129-137

Huang Y, Deverall BJ, Morris SC, Wild BL, 1993. Biocontrol of postharvest orange diseases by a strain of Pseudomonas cepacia under semi-commercial conditions. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 3(4):293-304

Huang Y, Wild BL, Morris SC, 1992. Postharvest biological control of Penicillium digitatum decay on citrus fruit by Bacillus pumilus.. Annals of Applied Biology, 120(2):367-372; 15 ref.

IMI Herbarium, undated. Herbarium specimen. International Mycological Institute (now CABI Bioscience) Herbarium. Egham, UK: CABI Bioscience.

Jimenez M, Diaz M de los A, Vila R, Hernandez E, 1985. Loss of resistance to fungicides in Penicillium spp. strains isolated from citrus fruits stores. Microbiologie Aliments Nutrition, 3(2):173-180

Juliatti FC, Zuza JLMF, Souza PPde, Polizel AC, 2007. Genotypes and fungicides effects after maize leaves spraying on ear rot incidence. (Efeito do genótipo de milho e da aplicação foliar de fungicidas na incidência de grãos ardidos.) Bioscience Journal, 23(2):34-41. http://www.biosciencejournal.ufu.br/include/getdoc.php?id=1753&article=172&mode=pdf

Kassim MY, 1986. Chemical control of post-harvest disease of potato and tomato. Indian Phytopathology, 39(2):243-244; 3 ref.

Kazempour MN, Kodehi HJ, 2007. Biological control of Penicillium digitatum on citrus with antagonistic bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. International Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, 4(4):383-390. http://www.ijbbku.org

Kelly JL, Austin LA, 1986. A quantitative detection method for Penicillium digitatum and P. italicum in citrus packinghouses. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society, 98:211-213

Koenraadt H, Somerville SC, Jones AL, 1992. Characterization of mutations in the beta-tubulin gene of benomyl-resistant field strains of Venturia inaequalis and other plant pathogenic fungi. Phytopathology, 82(11):1348-1354

Kokkalos TI, 1973. Control of Penicillium decay of citrus fruit in Cyprus. Technical Paper, Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Cyprus, No.3:9 pp.

Krishnaiah J, Satyaprasad C, Giridhar Singh T, Thirupathaiah V, Bhalchandra Dave, 1985. Decco food grade fruit coatings for control of post harvest decay of alu-bukhara fruits. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 15(3):274-278; 6 ref.

Lateef MFAA, Mahmoud MB, Fahmy HA, 1994. Effect of time of application on the effectiveness of fungicides for the control of blue and green moulds of oranges. Egyptian Journal of Phytopathology, 22(1):59-73; 22 ref.

Lattanzio V, Cardinali A, Venere Ddi, Linsalata V, Biondi G, Bertolini P, Pratella GC, Salerno M, 1995. Phenolics and postharvest diseases of fruits and vegetables. Polyphenols 94: 17th International Conference, Palma de Mallorca, Spain, 23-27 May, 1994., 389-390; 4 ref.

Marques MR, Albuquerque LMB, Xavier-Filho J, 1992. Antimicrobial and insecticidal activities of cashew tree gum exudate. Annals of Applied Biology, 121(2):371-377; 14 ref.

McDonald RE, Wutscher HK, 1974. Rootstocks affect postharvest decay of grapefruit. HortScience, 9(5):455-456

McGuire RG, 1994. Application of Candida guilliermondii in commercial citrus coatings for biocontrol of Penicillium digitatum on grapefruits. Biological Control, 4(1):1-7

Mehrotra NK, Neeta Sharma, Ratna Ghosh, Madhulika Nigam, 1996. Biological control of green and blue mould disease of citrus fruit by yeast. Indian Phytopathology, 49(4):350-354; 11 ref.

Miller WR, McDonald RE, 1996. Postharvest quality of GA-treated Florida grapefruit after gamma irradiation with TBZ and storage. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 7(3):253-260; 14 ref.

Muirhead IF, 1974. Resistance to benzimidazole fungicide in blue mould of citrus in Queensland. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, 14(70):698-701

Mycotheque de l'Université Catholique de Louvain-la-Neuve, 1988. Agro-industrial Fungi-Yeasts, MUCL Catalogue. Belgium: Belgium office for Scientific, Technical and Cultural Affairs.

Naqvi SAMH, Dass HC, 1994. Assessment of post-harvest losses in Nagpur mandarin - a pathological perspective. Plant Disease Research, 9(2):215-218; 5 ref.

Niedz RP, Doostdar H, McCollum TG, McDonald RE, Mayer RT, 1994. Plant defensive proteins and disease resistance in citrus. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society, No. 107:79-82; 12 ref.

Oke OA, Banjoko KM, 1991. The effects of Penicillium digitatum and Fusarium oxysporum rots on nutritional content of pawpaw (Carica papaya L.). Mycopathologia, 116(3):199-202; 19 ref.

Patel RB, 1984. Post harvest diseases of apple (Pyrus malus) fruits and their control. Indian Journal of Microbiology, 24(2):142-143; 8 ref.

Pelser P du T, Eckert JW, 1977. Constituents of orange juice that stimulate the germination of conidia of Penicillium digitatum. Phytopathology, 67(6):747-754

Pesis E, Marinansky R, 1990. Volatile production induced by Penicillium digitatum in orange fruit and in culture. Journal of Phytopathology, 128(4):306-314

Piga A, D'Aquino S, Agabbio M, Piergiovanni L, 1997. Polyethylene film packaging affects quality of "Lisbon" lemons during long-term storage. Italian Journal of Food Science, 9(1):25-35; 27 ref.

Pitt JI, 1979. The genus Penicillium and its teleomorphic states Eupenicillium and Talaromyces. The genus Penicillium and its teleomorphic states Eupenicillium and Talaromyces. London, UK: Academic Press Inc. Ltd, 634 pp.

Pitt JI, Hocking AD, 1997. Fungi and food spoilage. 2nd ed. London, UK: Blackie Academic & Professional.

Ponte JJ da, 1986. Mapping and importance of the disease of cashew in the north-east of Brazil. Nematologia Brasileira, 10(1):59-68.

Prade CA, Matsumura AT, Ott AP, Porto ML, 2007. Diversity of soil fungi in agroforestry citrus orchards with different management in Roca Sales, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. (Diversidade de fungos do solo em sistemas agroflorestais de Citrus com diferentes tipos de manejo no município de Roca Sales, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.) Biociências, 15(1):73-81. http://revistaseletronicas.pucrs.br/ojs/index.php/fabio/article/viewFile/256/1745

Rippon LE, Wild BL, 1974. Controlling post-harvest mould in citrus. Agricultural Gazette of New South Wales, 85(3):38-41

Rodov V, Ben-Yehoshua S, Fang D, D'Hallewin G, Castia T, 1994. Accumulation of phytoalexins scoparone and scopoletin in citrus fruits subjected to various postharvest treatments. Acta Horticulturae, No. 381:517-524; 20 ref.

Rose W, Knosel D, 1983. Characterization of pectolytic enzymes from several fungi causing postharvest decay of citrus fruits. Phytopathologisches Zeitschrift 106:127-132.

Roth G, 1967. Citrus fruit decay in South Africa caused by Penicillium digitatum Sacc. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 58:383-396.

Saks Y, Barkai-Golan R, 1995. Aloe vera gel activity against plant pathogenic fungi. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 6(1-2):159-165

Salih H, Cengiz A, 1976. Studies on the post harvest decay of citrus fruits. Bitki Koruma Bulteni, 16(1):47-60

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Distribution References

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Sharma I M, Durga Prashad, Shweta Sharma, 2014. Hitherto unreported post harvest diseases of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) from Himachal Pradesh. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology. 44 (2), 209-211. http://www.ismpp.org.in/journal.php

Shishiyama J, Ito K, Ito F, Fukushima K, Suzuki S, Udagawa S, Terashita T, Yoshikawa K, 1996. Identification and pathogenicity of Penicillium species isolated from postharvest diseased fruits and vegetables. Memoirs of the Faculty of Agriculture of Kinki University. 77-85.

Swai I S, 1988. Citrus diseases in Tanzania. In: Acta Horticulturae, 329-332.

Tzean SS, Chiu SC, Chen JL, Hseu SH, Lin GH, Liou GY, Chen CC, Hsu WH, 1994. Penicillium and related teleomorphs from Taiwan. In: Mycological Monograph No. 9, Hsinchu, Taiwan: Food Industry Research and Development Institute.

Whittle A M, 1992. Diseases and pests of citrus in Vietnam. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin. 40 (3), 75-81.

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