Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Alliaria petiolata
(garlic mustard)



Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard)


  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Alliaria petiolata
  • Preferred Common Name
  • garlic mustard
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • A. petiolata has spread throughout much of the north-eastern and mid-western USA and Canada after its introduction from Eurasia. The species invades forested communities and edge habitats. The plant has no known natural enemies in North A...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report


Top of page
Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard); flowering habit. nr. Perranwell, Cornwal, UK. Apil 2006.
CaptionAlliaria petiolata (garlic mustard); flowering habit. nr. Perranwell, Cornwal, UK. Apil 2006.
Copyright©Tony Atkin-2006/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 2.0
Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard); flowering habit. nr. Perranwell, Cornwal, UK. Apil 2006.
HabitAlliaria petiolata (garlic mustard); flowering habit. nr. Perranwell, Cornwal, UK. Apil 2006.©Tony Atkin-2006/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 2.0
Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard); flowering habit. USA.
CaptionAlliaria petiolata (garlic mustard); flowering habit. USA.
Copyright©Leslie J. Mehrhoff/University of Connecticut/ - CC BY 3.0 US
Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard); flowering habit. USA.
HabitAlliaria petiolata (garlic mustard); flowering habit. USA.©Leslie J. Mehrhoff/University of Connecticut/ - CC BY 3.0 US
Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard); flowers.
CaptionAlliaria petiolata (garlic mustard); flowers.
Copyright©Frank Vincentz-2008/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard); flowers.
FlowersAlliaria petiolata (garlic mustard); flowers.©Frank Vincentz-2008/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard); infestation. USA.
TitleInvasive habit
CaptionAlliaria petiolata (garlic mustard); infestation. USA.
Copyright©Leslie J. Mehrhoff/University of Connecticut/ - CC BY 3.0 US
Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard); infestation. USA.
Invasive habitAlliaria petiolata (garlic mustard); infestation. USA.©Leslie J. Mehrhoff/University of Connecticut/ - CC BY 3.0 US
Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard); invasive habit, showing mature plants with green seedpods. USA.
TitleInvasive habit
CaptionAlliaria petiolata (garlic mustard); invasive habit, showing mature plants with green seedpods. USA.
Copyright©Leslie J. Mehrhoff/University of Connecticut/ - CC BY 3.0 US
Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard); invasive habit, showing mature plants with green seedpods. USA.
Invasive habitAlliaria petiolata (garlic mustard); invasive habit, showing mature plants with green seedpods. USA.©Leslie J. Mehrhoff/University of Connecticut/ - CC BY 3.0 US
lliaria petiolata (garlic mustard); invasive hanbit, showing mature plants with ripening seedpods. USA. June 2005.
TitleInvasive habit
Captionlliaria petiolata (garlic mustard); invasive hanbit, showing mature plants with ripening seedpods. USA. June 2005.
Copyright©Leslie J. Mehrhoff/University of Connecticut/ - CC BY 3.0 US
lliaria petiolata (garlic mustard); invasive hanbit, showing mature plants with ripening seedpods. USA. June 2005.
Invasive habitlliaria petiolata (garlic mustard); invasive hanbit, showing mature plants with ripening seedpods. USA. June 2005.©Leslie J. Mehrhoff/University of Connecticut/ - CC BY 3.0 US
Ceutorhynchus constrictus; adults paired on a garlic mustard pod (Alliaria petiolata).
TitleNatural enemy
CaptionCeutorhynchus constrictus; adults paired on a garlic mustard pod (Alliaria petiolata).
Copyright©CABI/Ghislaine Cortat
Ceutorhynchus constrictus; adults paired on a garlic mustard pod (Alliaria petiolata).
Natural enemyCeutorhynchus constrictus; adults paired on a garlic mustard pod (Alliaria petiolata).©CABI/Ghislaine Cortat


Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Alliaria petiolata (Bieb.) Cavara & Grande

Preferred Common Name

  • garlic mustard

Other Scientific Names

  • Alliaria alliaria Huth.
  • Alliaria officinalis Andrz. ex M. Bieb.
  • Arabis petiolata M. Bieb.
  • Erysimum alliaria L.
  • Sisymbrium alliaria Scop.
  • Sisymbrium officinalis DC.

International Common Names

  • English: garlic-root; garlicwort; hedge-garlic; Jack-by-the-hedge; Jack-in-the-bush; mustard-root; poor-man's-mustard; sauce-alone
  • Spanish: Ajo mostaza; Hierba del ajo
  • French: Alliaire officinale
  • Portuguese: erva-alheira

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Gemeine Knoblauchsrauke
  • Italy: Alliaria; Erba alliaria
  • Netherlands: Look-zonder-look
  • Sweden: Loektrav

EPPO code

  • ALAPE (Alliaria petiolata)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

A. petiolata has spread throughout much of the north-eastern and mid-western USA and Canada after its introduction from Eurasia. The species invades forested communities and edge habitats. The plant has no known natural enemies in North America, has a broad ecological amplitude with considerable plasticity, is self-fertile, maintains a seed-bank, and is quite difficult to eradicate once established. There are risks of further introduction to similar climatic zones in other continents.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Capparidales
  •                         Family: Brassicaceae
  •                             Genus: Alliaria
  •                                 Species: Alliaria petiolata

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

Alliaria petiolata (Bieb.) Cavara & Grande is a member of the Brassicaceae. It is native to Eurasia (Gleason and Cronquist, 1991) but has more recently spread throughout North America. Garlic mustard is the most widely accepted international common name.


Top of page

A. petiolata is generally considered to be a biennial throughout most of its native and naturalized range; however, it may act as a short-lived perennial in Canada (Cavers et al., 1979). Cotyledon leaves average 6 mm in length, with the first true leaves 1–5 cm in diameter and coarsely toothed. A rosette is formed during the first growing season which persists through the winter with reniform-shaped leaves 2–12 cm diameter that remain green throughout the dormant season. During the second growing season, the plant matures in early spring and produces a bolting flowering stem up to 1.5 m. The plant is simple or little-branched, and is generally glabrous with a few simple hairs. The lower leaves are often reniform; however, the remainder are deltoid, 3–6 cm long and wide, acute, and coarsely toothed. Leaves emit a distinct odour of garlic when crushed (hence common name). The flowers have 4 white petals; they are typically born in button-like clusters at the end of each stem. Fruits are linear, elongated, nearly cylindrical siliques (pods divided into two carpels by a thin division), and bear numerous black seeds. Detailed descriptions and drawings can be found in Cavers et al. (1979).

Plant Type

Top of page
Seed propagated


Top of page

A. petiolata is a Eurasian native, with a very wide native range extending from China, through central Asia, to western Europe and North Africa. The species has become widely naturalized throughout North America and elsewhere.

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 17 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes




ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
LebanonPresentNativeOriginal citation: USDA-ARS, 2019
UzbekistanPresentNativeOriginal citation: USDA-ARS, 2019


Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresentNativeOriginal citation: USDA-ARS, 2019
CroatiaPresentNativeOriginal citation: USDA-ARS, 2019
CyprusPresentNativeOriginal citation: USDA-ARS, 2019
North MacedoniaPresentNativeOriginal citation: USDA-ARS, 2019
RussiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Central RussiaPresentNative
-Eastern SiberiaPresentNative
-Northern RussiaPresentNative
-Southern RussiaPresentNative
-Western SiberiaPresentNative
SloveniaPresentNativeOriginal citation: USDA-ARS, 2019
United KingdomPresentNative

North America

CanadaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-British ColumbiaPresentIntroduced
-New BrunswickPresentIntroduced
-Nova ScotiaPresentIntroduced
-OntarioPresent, WidespreadIntroduced1890Invasive
United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-New HampshirePresentIntroduced
-New JerseyPresentIntroducedInvasive
-New YorkPresentIntroduced1868Invasive
-North CarolinaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-North DakotaPresentIntroduced
-South CarolinaPresentIntroduced
-South DakotaPresentIntroduced
-West VirginiaPresentIntroducedInvasive


AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesPresentIntroduced
New ZealandPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedOriginal citation: USDA-ARS, 2019

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page

In its native habitat, A. petiolata generally grows as a solitary plant of low abundance. However, throughout much of eastern North America where introduced, A. petiolata spreads invasively and forms dense populations threatening native species. The species was first recognized as a problem by Cavers et al. (1979) in Ontario and not considered a threat in the USA until the late 1980s. By 1991, most Midwestern states recognized the species as a major concern. Nuzzo (1993) provides a comprehensive review of the distribution and spread of the species throughout the USA, using herbarium specimens and collection records. A. petiolata was first recorded in North America in 1868 on Long Island, New York (Nuzzo, 1993). The species was probably introduced by early colonists who valued it for culinary and medicinal purposes (Grieve, 1959). Its spread was gradual for the next 20 years, but reached north to Canada and west to Ohio, Iowa, and Idaho by 1890. The species entered into an exponential growth pattern of spread in the mid 1900s and is now known from most US states (USDA-ARS, 2002) and Canadian provinces (Rollins, 1993). Welk et al. (2002) using GIS models have shown that A. petiolata distribution in North America will ultimately mimic the widespread native Eurasian range based on climatic similarity. As with many invasive species, anthropogenic disturbance appears to be an important component of the species' spread.

Risk of Introduction

Top of page

Further spread throughout eastern North America is virtually guaranteed. The ecological amplitude of this species and its phenotypic plasticity will permit it to thrive in a variety of forested habitats. High elevation, desert, and warm habitats found in much of southern and western USA, are however not as suitable for the spread of this species. Welk et al. (2002) predicts that A. petiolata will expand its range through large parts of the Great Plains, including most of South Dakota and Nebraska, from northern Utah to southern Idaho, as well as northern California and Colorado. In Canada, A. petiolata is predicted to spread to the Gaspe Peninsula, Central British Columbia, and the western slopes of the Rocky Mountains in Alberta (Welk et al. 2002). Its continued availability from seed companies and culinary uses mean that further introduction to other similar habitats in other continents cannot be discounted.


Top of page
In its native environment, the plant often grows singly in hedges and fencerows, open woods, and disturbed areas (Nuzzo, 2003); rarely considered an understorey 'dominant' and is a frequent component of ruderal vegetation communities. However, its habit within invaded areas of North America is completely different. There, it usually grows in moist, rich, forest environments and in dense patches. The species has broad ecological amplitude; it thrives in areas as diverse as mesic riparian areas to relatively xeric upland hardwood forests, where it performs best in partial shade and is less successful in full shade or full sun (Dhillion and Anderson, 1999; Meekins and McCarthy, 2001). Roads and river banks have been recorded as the primary collection sites of the species, but forested riparian areas, upland forests, and urban areas are also important (Nuzzo, 1993). Shaded, moist, rich sites appear to harbour the greatest densities.

Habitat List

Top of page
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page

A. petiolata is not normally a weed of croplands. A. petiolata is most often found in field margins and forests, often surrounding croplands. It is known as a strong competitor and has been demonstrated in the USA to out-compete other native herbs and woody plants (Meekins and McCarthy, 1999) and ultimately alter native community composition (McCarthy, 1997).

Growth Stages

Top of page
Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

Biology and Ecology

Top of page


The chromosome number of A. petiolata is generally considered to be 2n=42 (Gleason and Cronquist, 1991) in North America and Europe. However, the sporophytic chromosome number has also been reported as 14 in India (Naqshi and Javeid, 1976) and 36 in the Netherlands (Gadella and Kliphuios, 1976). Based on this information, A. petiolata is hypothesized to be a hexaploid species that is based on a base chromosome number of n=7 (Al-Shehbaz, 1988). In addition, A. petiolata is known to be highly plastic in different habitats showing broad variation in patterns of resource allocation (Byers and Quinn, 1998; Susko and Lovett-Doust, 1998, 1999, 2000a). The results of analysis of within- and among-population genetic variability were that 61% of the total variation occurred among populations, with much less (16.3%) between North American and Eurasian populations and within populations (22.1%); however, North American and Eurasian populations were found to be significantly different (Meekins et al., 2001).

Physiology and Phenology

A. petiolata generally acts as a biennial in North America (Cavers et al., 1979), but may occasionally respond as a winter annual in parts of its native range (Grime et al., 1988). Propagation is entirely by seed. Seeds of A. petiolata are dormant at maturity (mid-summer) and require cold stratification to come out of dormancy. Viability at maturity is often 100% (Anderson et al., 1996). In northern Europe and Canada, A. petiolata seeds are commonly reported to show an 18 month dormancy period (Cavers et al., 1979), whereas in the south of its range, only 6 months may be required (Lhotska, 1975; Baskin and Baskin, 1992). Optimal seed germination temperatures were observed at 16/6°C, and declined with progressively higher temperatures (Baskin and Baskin, 1992). Germination may occur in either the light or dark. Germination is nearly complete at the end of the first germination season (>95%); however, studies in unheated greenhouses and field experiments have shown that seeds may still germinate up to 4 years later (Baskin and Baskin, 1992; Anderson et al., 1996), so the formation of a seed-bank is possible. Following germination in the spring, A. petiolata forms a slender taproot, sometimes branched.

The photosynthetic rate of first-year plants has been examined by Dhillion and Anderson (1999). They found that the species seemed more characteristic of a shade-adapted species as compared to sun-adapted species, which may explain why it performs well in partially shaded forest habitats. During the second growing season, A. petiolata matures in early spring and produces a bolting flowering stem up to 1.5 m. The success of A. petiolata in invaded areas in North America may be due to its achieving maximum photosynthetic rates before the active growth of many native ground layer species when irradiance reaching the ground layer is high when the temperature and moisture conditions are favourable for the species (Myers and Anderson, 2003).

Flower buds are usually seen in early April when the plants begin to bolt (Anderson et al., 1996). The maximum number of buds is in mid April which often coincides with the date of first flowering. By early June, flower buds are usually absent, but occasional flowers may be borne in the leaf axils, though these have not been reported to ever bear fruit in the field (Anderson et al., 1996). Fruits may mature and dehisce seeds as early as mid-July. Anderson et al. (1996) show a bimodal pattern of seed production with peaks in mid-August and mid-September. In the USA, seed rain was approximately 15,000 seeds/m² in Illinois field populations (Anderson et al., 1996), but considerably greater seed production, up to 38,000 seed/m² has been observed in Ohio (Trimbur, 1973). Seed production is often 100 times greater than observed seedling densities.

The species may have allelopathic properties and thus may interfere with woodland, plantation, or adjacent cropland species. The allelopathic potential of A. petiolata is difficult to confirm. There has been a long interest in the chemical products from this plant (Herissey and Boivin, 1927; Cole, 1975). Several phytotoxic hydrolysis products of glucosinolates have been isolated from A. petiolata (Vaughn and Berhow, 1999), especially root tissues, but their residence time in the environment is likely to be short. There is little population level variability of these products (Cipollini, 2002). McCarthy and Hanson (1998) found that water extracts from stem and root tissue had no direct effect on seed germination or seedling growth of four target assay species, while Stinson et al. (2006) reported that, under laboratory conditions, A. petiolata virtually eliminated mycorrhizal activity, limiting growth and survival of native tree species. Roberts and Anderson (2001) also proposed that allelopathic effects may be indirect and act on mycorrhizal fungi, thereby reducing the competitive ability of neighbouring plants. Alternatively, the production of these various chemicals may be solely related to plant-insect interactions. There appears to be a negative effect of these secondary compounds on egg-laying and development of butterflies in the genus Pieris (Haribal and Renwick, 1998, 2001; Renwick and Lopez, 1999; Haribal et al., 2001; Renwick et al., 2001).

Reproductive Biology

The floral characteristics of A. petiolata are consistent with a generalist pollinator syndrome. Cavers et al. (1979) observed syrphid flies, midges, and bees (Halictidae and Adrenidae) visiting flowers of A. petiolata in Ontario, Canada. Anderson et al. (1996) observed a similar suite of pollinators in Illinois, USA. Cruden et al. (1996) found that the primary pollinators were short-tongued bees and flies, and the nectar contains 51% fructose, 44% glucose, and little sucrose; a composition typical for short-tongue bee pollination. Anderson et al. (1996) report the pollen:ovule ratio to be 1455:1, which tends to be characteristic of species with facultative xenogamous (out-crossing) breeding systems, plants of late successional stage, and habitats where pollination is unpredictable. Indeed, many of these conditions are reflected by A. petiolata. However, Clapham et al. (1962) state that the flowers are visited by various small insects but are automatically self-pollinated. The species appears to be self-fertile (autogamous) and is fully capable of self-pollination and fertilization, often before anthesis. Out-crossing (xenogamy) produces similar levels of fruit and seed relative to those with autogamy (Anderson et al., 1996). The breeding system could best be described as facultative xenogamy. Propagation is entirely by seed and the seed rain can vary from 10,000 to 40,000 seeds per m², and seed are released from slender siliques over a period of time.

Environmental Requirements

The large-scale distribution of A. petiolata in its native and introduced ranges seems to be controlled by climatic requirements. The species requires a moderately high amount of moisture and cold winters of sufficient duration to ensure stratification and breaking of seed dormancy. The plant is characteristic of natural and anthropogenically disturbed areas. On a smaller scale, the relationship between the environment and invasive potential at the stand level has been examined (Meekins and McCarthy, 2001). Seeds sown into lowland habitats yielded many more and larger plants than those sown into upland habitats. Likewise, edge habitats generally produced larger more fecund individuals than forest interior plots which is consistent with allocation data of Byers and Quinn (1998). Thus, increased light and soil moisture are conditions at a local level that promote A. petiolata invasion, survival, and growth. Smith et al. (2003) found that plants growing in upland environments had relatively low reproductive outputs and that density had little influence on reproduction. Thus, invasion can occur in upland habitats, but the rate of spread and species displacement is likely to be slower. Meekins and McCarthy (2002) conducted a detailed demographic study of plants growing in low and high density populations. Survival to flowering was greatest in low density populations, but a relatively high intrinsic rate of reproduction often led to rapid expansion of the population.

There has been considerable study at the individual plant level on how biomass allocation patterns are affected by the environment. Meekins and McCarthy (2000) conducted a factorial experiment in a common garden to examine the relationship between density, nutrients, and water to growth and allocation patterns of A. petiolata, finding that both rosette and mature plant growth were increased at low densities, increased nutrients, and greater irradiance. Irradiance accounted for the greatest proportion of variation explained in the experiment. Likewise, site to site variation has been documented to affect patterns of seed maturation and abortion (Susko and Lovett-Doust, 1998) and population-level patterns of variation in seed mass were great both within and among populations (Susko and Lovett-Doust, 2000a). Susko and Lovett-Doust (1999, 2000b) also document strong patterns of within-plant resource allocation patterns and reproductive potential as it relates to source-sink issues.

In Europe, it is said to grow best on base-rich soils (Clapham et al., 1962). In Ontario it is found on a wide range of soil types from clays to sand and gravelly-loams, often associated with well fertilized sites (Cavers et al., 1979). Very dense populations have been observed in the Midwest USA on calcium-rich soils.


A. petiolata has no known strong species associations.

Air Temperature

Top of page
Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -40
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 4 19
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 9 22
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) -1 15


Top of page
ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall6351380mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page

Soil Tolerances

Top of page

Soil drainage

  • free
  • impeded

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Ceutorhynchus alliariae Herbivore Plants|Stems to species Cortat et al. (2016)
Ceutorhynchus constrictus Herbivore Plants|Seeds Cortat et al. (2018)
Ceutorhynchus erysimi Herbivore Plants|Stems Yates and Murphy (2008)
Ceutorhynchus roberti Herbivore Plants|Stems Gerber et al. (2014)
Ceutorhynchus scrobicollis Herbivore Plants|Roots; Plants|Stems to species Van Riper et al. (2016)
Ceutorhynchus theonae Herbivore Plants|Seeds Gerber et al. (2002)
Philaenus spumarius Herbivore Plants|Leaves Yates and Murphy (2008)
Phyllotreta ochripes Herbivore Plants|Leaves; Plants|Roots not specific Gerber et al. (2002)
Plutella xylostella Herbivore Plants|Leaves not specific Yates and Murphy (2008)

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page

A. petiolata is a preferred food plant in Europe for the green-veined white butterfly (Pieris napi L.) (Lees and Archer, 1974). Cavers et al. (1979) observed European cabbage butterflies (P. rapae L.) ovipositing on plants of A. petiolata in Ontario, Canada, but little to no damage was ever observed. Likewise, the native American butterfly (P. napi oleracea) uses A. petiolata as its primary host, but the larvae rarely survive and their resultant effect is negligible (Renwick et al., 2001), thus the plant is protected from this potential herbivore. Leaf hoppers and flea beetles have been observed on A. petiolata, but again, no obvious damage has occurred.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page

Natural Dispersal

Natural propagation is completely by seed. Dispersal is by gravity and likely to be not much more than 1-2 m. Longer distance dispersal is probably through water as the seeds float and remain viable, particularly in riparian areas.

Vector Transmission

Livestock and other animals may transport seeds stuck in mud attached to their hooves. Seed is likely to be transported by humans, potentially great distances, through mud on the soles of shoes, evident from many woodland hiking trails where A. petiolata lines the entrance and edges of the trailways. Seeds are also likely to be trapped in mud on vehicle tyres and dispersed throughout forest environments.

Accidental Introduction

There is no empirical evidence to support accidental introduction. However, given that the species supports a seed-bank and often grows in moist areas, mud on the boots of humans or hooves of animals would most likely introduce this species to new forest patches, especially in heavily dissected landscapes.

Intentional Introduction

The original introduction of A. petiolata to North America was most likely deliberate, though there is no direct evidence to support this. The species was historically eaten as a potherb, particularly in winter and early spring before other greens were available (Georgia, 1920). The first collected specimen in North America was on Long Island, New York in 1868 (Nuzzo, 1993), an area settled heavily during that time by European immigrants. A. petiolata in New York, USA was found to be genetically most similar to populations from Scotland, UK (Meekins et al., 2001). A. petiolata has begun to appear as an ingredient in certain 'gourmet' recipes (Nuzzo, 2003) and is available from at least one seed company in the USA. The editors of Hortideas newsletter have recommended that the herb not be planted (Anon., 1999).

Plant Trade

Top of page
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
True seeds (inc. grain)

Impact Summary

Top of page
Animal/plant collections Negative
Animal/plant products None
Biodiversity (generally) Negative
Crop production None
Environment (generally) Negative
Fisheries / aquaculture None
Forestry production Negative
Human health None
Livestock production None
Native fauna Negative
Native flora Negative
Rare/protected species Negative
Tourism None
Trade/international relations None
Transport/travel None


Top of page

There has been no calculated economic impact of this species. However, its ability to serve as the host plant for many crop-related diseases (primarily viruses) may make its economic impact greater than suspected. A. petiolata is the chief host of the Alliaria mosaic virus (AIMV) which can attack cultivated plants such as petunia (Papa et al., 1973). It is host to several other important crop diseases including Cucumber mosaic virus, a strain of Cabbage black ringspot virus and Turnip mosaic virus (Brcak and Polak, 1963; Horvath et al., 1975; Lisa and Lovisolo, 1976).

Environmental Impact

Top of page
The environmental impact of the species has not been explicitly investigated; however, given the dense nature under which the species often grows it may be useful in controlling soil erosion, especially in seasonally flooded riparian areas where it is often abundant. It may also be useful from a ecosystem or productivity standpoint in that the species often occupies anthropogenically disturbed areas or low diversity upland forests where few species are able to grow with the same yield.

Impact: Biodiversity

Top of page

Its ability to displace native plant species in high-quality natural areas has a clear effect on biodiversity, but the valuation of this is difficult. A. petiolata may threaten some butterfly species, as adults of several butterfly species native to the USA (Pieris napi oleracea, P. napi marginata, P. virginiensis) lay eggs on A. petiolata but many or all of the larvae die before completing development (Bowden, 1971), thus, A. petiolata serves as a population sink for these species. This is of particular concern with the rare West Virginia white butterfly (Pieris virginiensis) which lays eggs on A. petiolata in the absence of the related native host plant, Dentaria diphylla (syn. Cardamine diphylla) (Porter, 1994), which is often crowded out following A. petiolata invasion. A. petiolata appears to alter habitat suitability for native birds, mammals, and amphibians, and may affect populations of these species (Nuzzo, 2003). However, no studies have been conducted of the interaction between A. petiolata and these native animals. McCarthy (1997) documented significant changes in plant community composition in a floodplain forest in Maryland, USA, though diversity was not altered appreciably. The species invades many habitats with such voracity that biodiversity effects are inevitable, if not well studied to date.

Threatened Species

Top of page
Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Trifolium stoloniferum (running buffalo clover)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesUSACompetition - smotheringUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2011)

Social Impact

Top of page

There has been no direct assessment of the social impact of A. petiolata; however, areas of high infection and spread lead to such degradation of natural areas that the wildflower flora may be greatly reduced, certainly diminishing the aesthetic quality of the habitat for naturalists and hikers.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact outcomes
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Negatively impacts tourism
  • Reduced amenity values
  • Reduced native biodiversity
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - smothering
  • Pest and disease transmission
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult/costly to control


Top of page

Garlic mustard’s flower, leaf and young fruit are used raw or cooked both as a vegetable and for flavouring. The leaves and flowers have mild aromatic taste and flavour and are used as a spice and flavouring in cooked foods. Leaves are used as a winter salad vegetable and as a flavouring in cooked food. The leaves of the plant just prior to flowering have a higher vitamin C content than oranges and more vitamin A than spinach (Zennie and Ogzewalla, 1977) and the species has considerable nutritional value when used in salads. Leaves give a mild garlic- mustard flavour to a dish. The leaves are commonly used to flavour stews and soups and also used as a stuffing in snacks. Leaves are stir-fried along with other vegetables for a healthy garlic-mustard-flavoured side dish (Ravindran, 2017). Grieve (1959) reported that rural people often used the plant in the preparation of sauces, hence the common name 'sauce alone', and noted that the plant also had traditional medicinal uses. The leaves can be used as a sudorific and deobstruent when taken internally, or as an external treatment for gangrene and ulcers. Leaf juices taken alone or boiled in a syrup with honey were used to treat dropsy.

Uses List

Top of page

Human food and beverage

  • Chowders/soups
  • salad
  • Spices and culinary herbs
  • Vegetable

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page

At maturity, A. petiolata is unlikely to be confused with other species. There are only two species in the genus (Gleason and Cronquist, 1991) and the genus is distinct from most other mustards, especially in its characteristic garlic odour. Immature plants could be visually confused with other rosette-forming species such as violets (Viola spp.), avens (Geum spp.) or Cardamine spp., although again, the diagnostic garlic odour will likely prevent misidentification.

Prevention and Control

Top of page

Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Cultural Control

The goal of any A. petiolata management programme must be to prevent seed production (Nuzzo, 2003). Because of the presence of a seed bank, whatever control method is employed, it must be continued for a period of no less than 3 years in order to eradicate the species locally (Nuzzo, 1991). A. petiolata is not effectively controlled by grazing, and is under little to no vertebrate herbivore pressure in North America. Cavers et al. (1979) noted no grazing from white-tailed deer, and only occasional consumption by cows in Ontario, Canada, resulting in an unpleasant taste to the milk.

Mechanical Control

Hand pulling is an effective strategy for control, particularly with small or newly formed populations. When the plants have bolted in the second growing season, the stem may be easily grasped and pulled; roots will usually come out intact along with the stem. Because the fruit is photosynthetic, if fruit development has started, plants should not be left on site or hung from neighbouring vegetation as the fruits are well known to continue to develop and dehisce even while lying on the ground, thus plants should be bagged and taken off site. Given the presence of a seed bank, repeated visits to a habitat over a number of years will be required to eradicate the plant. Likewise, cutting may provide good control, but cutting at ground level is important as plants that have been mown (or 'string-trimmed') often respond by sending up new flowering shoots from the root crown. Nuzzo (1991) found that plants cut at ground level had 99% mortality and no seed production, whereas plants cut at a height of 10 cm had 71% mortality and seed production reduced by 98%. The use of cutting must be weighed against various factors, for example, certain other species that may be growing in association with A. petiolata such as native Trillium spp. are severely damaged by cutting (Nuzzo, 2003).

Chemical Control

Foliar application of herbicides can be used to control A. petiolata where mechanical methods are impractical due to population size. Glyphosate, triclopyr, and mecoprop have all been used effectively (Nuzzo, 2003) to control A. petiolata, and because these herbicides are not target specific, they should be applied to A. petiolata during the dormant season where the plant is in the rosette stage and native vegetation has not yet emerged. However, biologically active temperatures are also usually required for certain herbicides (e.g. glyphosates) to be effective. Thus, the window of time for application may be narrow. Acifluoren, bentazon and 2,4-D are not recommended for control of A. petiolata (Nuzzo, 2003).

Biological Control

There are currently no known biological control programmes in use to control A. petiolata. However, Blossey et al. (2001) indicate that they are investigating a variety of species for possible use as biological control agents. Although A. petiolata is under virtually no herbivore pressure in North American habitats, over 70 species of insect herbivores and seven fungi are associated with this plant in Europe. Many are not sufficiently host specific to use for control; five monophagous weevils and one oligophagous flea beetle are being further investigated in an effort to develop a concerted suite of attack agents for the seeds, stems, and roots (Blossey et al., 2001).

Integrated Control

Nuzzo (1991) suggests that a suite of cutting, chemical, and fire control methods can be adopted for eradication as long as they are applied sequentially for 3 years or more to exhaust the seed bank. The use of fire as a control method for A. petiolata has been well studied, but the results are somewhat conflicting. Nuzzo (1991) found that fire reduced populations of A. petiolata and that the effect was related to fire intensity; moderate intensity fires were effective whereas low intensity fires had virtually no effect. As many prescribed fires fall into this latter category, the efficacy of fire alone to control A. petiolata is questionable, but it may be used effectively in combination with other methods. Nuzzo et al. (1996) found that A. petiolata was maintained, but in a reduced condition, in forests burned repeatedly for 5 years. However, Luken and Shea (2000) found that moderate intensity dormant season fires did nothing to reduce A. petiolata abundance, and in many plots the species actually increased in abundance relative to control plots. The use of fire as a management tool should be integrated with other management objectives given the manifold effects it has on a habitat.


Top of page

Al-Shehbaz IA, 1988. The genera of Sisymbriaea (Cruciferae; Brassicaceae) in the southeastern United States. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum, 69:213-237

Anderson RC, Dhillion SS, Kelley TM, 1996. Aspects of the ecology of an invasive plant, garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata), in central Illinois. Restoration Ecology, 4(2):181-191; 28 ref

Anon., 1999. Don't plant garlic mustard!. Hortideas, 16, 114.

Atlas of Living Australia, 2019. Atlas of Living Australia.

Baskin JM, Baskin CC, 1992. Seed germination biology of the weedy biennial Alliaria petiolata. Natural Areas Journal, 12:191-197

Bowden SR, 1971. American white butterflies (Pieridae) and English food plants. Journal of the Lepidopterist's Society, 25:6-12

Brcak J, Polak Z, 1963. Identification of the viruses responsible for the mosaic disease of Alliaria officinalis Andr. in central Bohemia. Preslia, 35:110-117

Byers DL, Quinn JA, 1998. Demographic variation in Alliaria petiolata (Brassicaceae) in four contrasting habitats. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society, 125(2):138-149; 42 ref

Cavers PB, Heagy MI, Kokron RF, 1979. The biology of Canadian weeds. 35. Alliaria petiolata (M. Bieb.) Cavara and Grande. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 59(1):217-229

Cipollini D, 2002. Variation in the expression of chemical defenses in Alliaria petiolata (Brassicaceae) in the field and common garden. American Journal of Botany, 89(9):1422-1430; 43 ref

Clapham AR, Tutin TG, Warburg EF, 1962. Flora of the British Isles. Second edition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press

Cole RA, 1975. 1 Cyanoepithioalkenes: Major products of alkenyl-gluocinolate hydrolysis in certain Crucifera. Phytochemistry, 14:2293-2294

Cortat G, Braud C, Schneuwly J, Hinz H, 2018. Annual Report 2016, unpublished. Delémont, Switzerland: CABI 9 pp.

Cortat G, Gerber E, Stahlke A, Closca C, Hinz H, 2016. Annual Report 2015, unpublished. Delémont, Switzerland: CABI 15 pp.

Cruden RW, McClain AM, Shrivastava GP, 1996. Pollination biology and breeding system of Alliaria petiolata (Brassicaceae). Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, 123(4):273-280; 26 ref

Davis, A. S., Landis, D. A., Nuzzo, V., Blossey, B., Gerber, E., Hinz, H. L., 2006. Demographic models inform selection of biocontrol agents for garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata). Ecological Applications, 16(6), 2399-2410. doi: 10.1890/1051-0761(2006)016[2399:DMISOB]2.0.CO;2

Dhillion SS, Anderson RC, 1999. Growth and photosynthetic response of first-year garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) to varied irradiance. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society, 126(1):9-14; 26 ref

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2003. Flora of China Web. Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Harvard University Herbaria.

Gadella TWJ, Kliphuios E, 1966. Chromosome numbers of flowering plants in the Netherlands. II. Proceedings of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Science, Series C, 69:541-556

Georgia, AE, 1920. A manual of weeds. New York, NY: MacMillan Co

Gerber E, Hinz HL, Guazzone N, McKenney J, Michler S, Zuefle M, 2002. Annual Report 2001, unpublished. Delémont, Switzerland: CABI 58 pp.

Gerber E, Hinz HL, Schat M, Cortat G, Guazzone N, Lovis L, 2003. Annual Report 2002, unpublished. Delémont, Switzerland: CABI 58 pp.

Gerber E, Inskeep J, Closca C, Hinz HL, 2014. Annual Report 2013, unpublished . Delémont, Switzerland: CABI 19 pp.

Gleason HA, Cronquist A, 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. Second edition. New York, USA: The New York Botanical Garden

Grieve M, 1959. A Modern Herbal. Vol 2. New York, USA: Hafner Publishing

Grime JP, Hodgson JG, Hunt R, 1988. Comparative plant ecology. A functional approach to common British species. London, UK: Unwin Hyman Ltd., 679 pp

Guil-Guerrero, J. L., Giménez-Martínez, J. J., Torija-Isasa, M. E., 1999. Nutritional composition of wild edible crucifer species. Journal of Food Biochemistry, 23(3), 283-294.

Haribal M, Renwick JAA, 1998. Isovitexin 6-O--D-glucopyranoside: a feeding deterrent to Pieris napi oleracea from Alliaria petiolata. Phytochemistry, 47(7):1237-1240; 7 ref

Haribal M, Renwick JAA, 2001. Seasonal and population variation in flavonoid and alliarinoside content of Alliaria petiolata. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 27(8):1585-1594; 20 ref

Haribal M, Yang ZC, Attygalle AB, Renwick JAA, Meinwald J, 2001. A cyanoallyl glucoside from Alliaria petiolata, as a feeding deterrent for larvae of Pieris napi oleracea. Journal of Natural Products, 64(4):440-443; 13 notes and ref

Herissey H, Boivin R, 1927. Sur la nature chimique du glucoside sulfure de l'alliaire officinale, Alliaria officinalis DC. Bulletin Societe Chimique Biologia, 9:950-952

Hinz H, Gerber E, 1998. Annual Report 1998, unpublished. Delémont, Switzerland: CABI Bioscience Centre 22 pp.

Horvath J, Juretic N, Besada WH, Mamula D, 1975. Natural occurrence of turnip mosaic virus in Hungary. Acta Phytopathologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 10(1/2):77-88

ITIS, 2002. Integrated taxonomic information system.

Kartesz JT, 1994. A Synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. Portland, Oregon, USA: Timber Press

Lees E, Archer DM, 1974. Ecology of Pieris napi (L.) (Lep., Pieridae) in Britain. Entomological Gazette, 25:231-237

Lhotska M, 1975. Notes on the ecology of germination of Alliaria petiolata. Folia Geobotanica et Phytotaxonomica (Praha), 10:179-183

Lisa V, Lovisolo O, 1976. Biological and serological characterization of the Alliaria strain of turnip mosaic virus. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 86(1):90-96

Luken JO, Shea M, 2000. Repeated prescribed burning as Dinsmore Woods Nature Preserve (Kentucky, USA): Responses of the understory community. Natural Areas Journal, 20:150-158

McCarthy BC, 1997. Response of a forest understory community to experimental removal of an invasive nonindigenous plant (Alliaria petiolata, Brassicaceae). In: Luken JO, Thieret JW, eds. Assessment and management of plant invasions. New York, NY, USA: Springer-Verlag, 117-130

McCarthy BC, Hanson SL, 1998. An assessment of the allelopathic potential of the invasive weed Alliaria petiolata (Brassicaceae). Castanea, 63(1):68-73; 30 ref

Meekins JF, Ballard HEJr, McCarthy BC, 2001. Genetic variation and molecular biogeography of a North American invasive plant species (Alliaria petiolata, Brassicaceae). International Journal of Plant Sciences, 162(1):161-169; 68 ref

Meekins JF, McCarthy BC, 1999. Competitive ability of Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard, Brassicaceae), an invasive, nonindigenous forest herb. International Journal of Plant Sciences, 160(4):743-752; 2 pp. of ref

Meekins JF, McCarthy BC, 2000. Responses of the biennial forest herb Alliaria petiolata to variation in population density, nutrient addition and light availability. Journal of Ecology (Oxford), 88(3):447-463; 95 ref

Meekins JF, McCarthy BC, 2001. Effect of environmental variation on the invasive success of a nonindigenous forest herb. Ecological Applications, 11:1336-1348

Meekins JF, McCarthy BC, 2002. Effect of population density on the demography of an invasive plant (Alliaria petiolata, Brassicaceae) population in a Southeastern Ohio forest. American Midland Naturalist, 147(2):256-278; many ref

Myers CV, Anderson RC, 2003. Seasonal variation in photosynthetic rates influences success of an invasive plant, garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata). American Midland Naturalist, 150:231-245

Naqshi AR, Javeid GN, 1976. IOPB chromosome number reports LIV. Taxon, 25:631-649

Nuzzo V, 1993. Distribution and spread of the invasive biennial Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) in North America. Biological pollution: the control and impact of invasive exotic species. Proceedings of a symposium held at Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, 25-26 October 1991 [edited by McKnight, B.N.] Indianapolis, Indiana, USA; Indiana Academy of Science, 137-145

Nuzzo VA, 1991. Experimental control of garlic mustard [Alliaria petiolata (Bieb.) Cavara & Grande] in northern Illinois using fire, herbicide, and cutting. Natural Areas Journal, 11(3):158-167

Nuzzo VA, 2003. Element stewardship abstract for Alliaria petiolata. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, VA, USA.

Nuzzo VA, McClain W, Strole T, 1996. Fire impact on groundlayer flora in a sand forest 1990-1994. American Midland Naturalist, 136(2):207-221; 36 ref

Papa G, Michelin-Lausarot P, Casetta A, 1973. Purification and properties of Alliaria mosaic virus. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 78(4):344-356

Porter A, 1994. Implications of introduced garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) in the habitat of Pieris virginiensis (Pieridae). Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society, 48(2):171-172

Ravindran, P. N., 2017. The encyclopedia of herbs & spices. Volumes 1 and 2, [ed. by Ravindran, P. N.]. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.xlv + 1128 pp. doi:10.1079/9781780643151.0000

Renwick JAA, Lopez K, 1999. Experience-based food consumption by larvae of Pieris rapae: addiction to glucosinolates?. Proceedings, Tenth International Symposium on Insect-Plant Relationships, Oxford, UK, 4-10 July 1998., 51-58; 25 ref

Renwick JAA, Zhang WenQing, Haribal M, Attygalle AB, Lopez KD, 2001. Dual chemical barriers protect a plant against different larval stages of an insect. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 27(8):1575-1583; 22 ref

Roberts KJ, Anderson RC, 2001. Effect of garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata (Beib. Cavara & Grande)) extracts on plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. American Midland Naturalist, 146(1):146-152; 38 ref

Rollins RC, 1993. The Crucifera of Continental North America: systematics of the mustard family from the Arctic to Panama. Stanford, CA, USA: Stanford University Press

Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004. Flora Europaea Database. Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, UK.

Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney, 2003. Australia's Virtual Herbarium. Sydney, Australia: Royal Botanic Gardens.

Smith GR, Dingfelder HA, Vaala DA, 2003. Effect of plant size and density on garlic mustard. Northeastern Naturalist, 10:269-276

Stinson KA, Campbell SA, Powell JR, Wolfe BE, Callaway RM, Thelen GC, Invasive plant suppresses the growth of native tree seedlings by disrupting belowground mutualisms. PLOS Biology, 4(5), e140.

Susko DJ, Lovett-Doust L, 1998. Variable patterns of seed maturation and abortion in Alliaria petiolata (Brassicaceae). Canadian Journal of Botany, 76(10):1677-1686; 44 ref

Susko DJ, Lovett-Doust L, 1999. Effects of resource availability, and fruit and ovule position on components of fecundity in Alliaria petiolata (Brassicaceae). New Phytologist, 144(2):295-306; 43 ref

Susko DJ, Lovett-Doust L, 2000. Patterns of seed mass variation and their effects on seedling traits in Alliaria petiolata (Brassicaceae). American Journal of Botany, 87(1):56-66; 2 pp. of ref

Susko DJ, Lovett-Doust L, 2000. Plant-size and fruit-position effects on reproductive allocation in Alliaria petiolata (Brassicaceae). Canadian Journal of Botany, 78(11):1398-1407; Many ref

Trimbur TJ, 1973. An ecological life history of Alliaria officinalis, a deciduous forest "weed". MS Thesis. Columbus, Ohio, USA: Ohio State University

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Running Buffalo Clover (Trifolium stoloniferum). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Running Buffalo Clover (Trifolium stoloniferum). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.24 pp.

USDA-ARS, 2003. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.

USDA-ARS, 2019. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.

USDA-NRCS, 2002. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, USA.

USDA-NRCS, 2019. The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, USA: National Plant Data Team.

Van Riper L, Gerber E, Hinz HL, Cortat G, Katovich E, Becker R, Marek-Spartz M, 2016. A petition for the introduction, experimental release and open-field release of the root-mining weevil Ceutorhynchus scrobicollis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) for the biological control of Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) in North America. Submitted to the USDA-APHIS Technical Advisory Group June 21, 2016. 67 pp.

Vaughn SF, Berhow MA, 1999. Allelochemicals isolated from tissues of the invasive weed garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata). Journal of Chemical Ecology, 25(11):2495-2504; 45 ref

Welk E, Schubert K, Hoffmann MH, 2002. Present and potential distribution of invasive garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) in North America. Diversity and Distributions, 8(4):219-233; many ref

Yates, C. N., Murphy, S. D., 2008. Observations of herbivore attack on garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) in Southwestern Ontario, Canada. Biological Invasions, 10(5), 757-760. doi: 10.1007/s10530-007-9169-y

Zennie TM, Ogzewalla CD, 1977. Ascorbic acid and vitamin A content of edible wild plants of Ohio and Kentucky. Economic Botany, 31:76-79

Zomlefer WB, Giannasi DE, Echols SL, 2010. Vascular plant flora of Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield Park, Cobb County, Georgia. Southeastern Naturalist, 9(1):129-164.

Distribution References

Anderson R C, Dhillion S S, Kelley T M, 1996. Aspects of the ecology of an invasive plant, garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata), in central Illinois. Restoration Ecology. 4 (2), 181-191. DOI:10.1111/j.1526-100X.1996.tb00118.x

Atlas of Living Australia, Undated. Atlas of Living Australia., Canberra ACT, Australia: GBIF.

Boehm M J, Nameth S T, 2000. First report of cucumber mosaic virus in garlic mustard in Ohio. Plant Disease. 84 (9), 1047. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2000.84.9.1047A

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Cavers P B, Heagy M I, Kokron R F, 1979. The biology of Canadian weeds. 35. Alliaria petiolata (M. Bieb.) Cavara and Grande. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 59 (1), 217-229.

Farzadfar S, Pourrahim R, 2017. First report of Turnip mosaic virus infection of Alliaria petiolata in Iran. Plant Disease. 101 (8), 1558. DOI:10.1094/pdis-01-17-0141-pdn

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2003. Flora of China Web., Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Harvard University Herbaria.

Frey M N, Herms C P, Cardina J, 2007. Cold weather application of glyphosate for garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) control. Weed Technology. 21 (3), 656-660. DOI:10.1614/WT-06-153.1

Lockhart B E, 2012. First report of Turnip mosaic virus occurrence in garlic mustard in Minnesota. Plant Health Progress. PHP-2012-0824-01-BR.

Mullarkey A A, Byers D L, Anderson R C, 2013. Inbreeding depression and partitioning of genetic load in the invasive biennial Alliaria petiolata (Brassicaceae). American Journal of Botany. 100 (3), 509-518. DOI:10.3732/ajb.1200403

Nuzzo VA, 2003. Element stewardship abstract for Alliaria petiolata., Arlington, VA, USA: The Nature Conservancy.

Rollins RC, 1993. The Crucifera of Continental North America: systematics of the mustard family from the Arctic to Panama., Stanford, CA, USA: Stanford University Press.

Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003. Database of European Plants (ESFEDS)., Edinburgh, UK: Royal Botanic Graden.

Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney, 2003. Australia's Virtual Herbarium., Sydney, Australia: Royal Botanic Gardens.

Scheffer S J, Lonsdale O, 2018. A survey of Agromyzidae (Diptera) reared from leafmines on Long Island, New York; host associations, distribution data, and the description and host association of a new species. Zootaxa. 4450 (1), 77-90. DOI:10.11646/zootaxa.4450.1.5

Shah G M, Khan M A, 2006. Checklist of noxious weeds of district Mansehra, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research. 12 (3), 213-219.

Stobbs L W, Greig N, Weaver S, Shipp L, Ferguson G, 2009. The potential role of native weed species and bumble bees (Bombus impatiens) on the epidemiology of Pepino mosaic virus. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology. 31 (2), 254-261.

USDA-ARS, 2003. Hedychium flavescens. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database, Beltsville, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.

USDA-NRCS, 2002. The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team.

USDA-NRCS, 2019. The PLANTS Database. In: The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team.

Zhao K, Margaria P, Rosa C, 2016. First report of White clover mosaic virus and Turnip mosaic virus mixed infection on garlic mustard in Pennsylvania. Plant Disease. 100 (4), 866. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-09-15-1083-PDN

Zomlefer W B, Giannasi D E, Echols S L, 2010. Vascular plant flora of Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield Park, Cobb County, Georgia. Southeastern Naturalist. 9 (1), 129-164. DOI:10.1656/058.009.0111

Links to Websites

Top of page
Garlic Mustard Biological Control - US Forest stard.pdf
Global Garlic Mustard Field Survey a standardised protocol, volunteers can contribute to and view the Alliaria petiolata distribution dataset.
Integrated Pest Management – Michigan State University


Top of page

11/03/19 Updated by: 

Ghislaine Cortat, CABI, Delémont, Switzerland

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map
Select a dataset
Map Legends
  • CABI Summary Records
Map Filters
Third party data sources: