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Datasheet

Paracoccus marginatus (papaya mealybug)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 17 May 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Paracoccus marginatus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • papaya mealybug
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Paracoccus marginatus (papaya mealybug); adult female, ventral view. Laboratory slide prep. Originally collected by D. Grant, in Mexico. 29 July 2000.
TitleAdult
CaptionParacoccus marginatus (papaya mealybug); adult female, ventral view. Laboratory slide prep. Originally collected by D. Grant, in Mexico. 29 July 2000.
Copyright©Alessandra Rung/Scale Insects, USDA APHIS ITP/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Paracoccus marginatus (papaya mealybug); adult female, ventral view. Laboratory slide prep. Originally collected by D. Grant, in Mexico. 29 July 2000.
AdultParacoccus marginatus (papaya mealybug); adult female, ventral view. Laboratory slide prep. Originally collected by D. Grant, in Mexico. 29 July 2000.©Alessandra Rung/Scale Insects, USDA APHIS ITP/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Paracoccus marginatus (papaya mealybug); adults. Several female papaya mealybugs (1/16 to 1/8 inch long) and two web masses on a stem of a red potato sprout.
TitleAdults
CaptionParacoccus marginatus (papaya mealybug); adults. Several female papaya mealybugs (1/16 to 1/8 inch long) and two web masses on a stem of a red potato sprout.
Copyright©Peggy Greb/USDA Agricultural Research Service/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Paracoccus marginatus (papaya mealybug); adults. Several female papaya mealybugs (1/16 to 1/8 inch long) and two web masses on a stem of a red potato sprout.
AdultsParacoccus marginatus (papaya mealybug); adults. Several female papaya mealybugs (1/16 to 1/8 inch long) and two web masses on a stem of a red potato sprout.©Peggy Greb/USDA Agricultural Research Service/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Paracoccus marginatus (papaya mealybug); infestation.
TitleInfestation
CaptionParacoccus marginatus (papaya mealybug); infestation.
Copyright©Jeffrey W. Lotz/Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Paracoccus marginatus (papaya mealybug); infestation.
InfestationParacoccus marginatus (papaya mealybug); infestation.©Jeffrey W. Lotz/Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Paracoccus marginatus Williams & Granara de Willink, 1992

Preferred Common Name

  • papaya mealybug

International Common Names

  • French: cochenille du papayer

EPPO code

  • PACOMA (Paracoccus marginatus)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Coccoidea
  •                                 Family: Pseudococcidae
  •                                     Genus: Paracoccus
  •                                         Species: Paracoccus marginatus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page Paracoccus marginatus was described relatively recently (Williams and Granara de Willink, 1992) and the identity of the species is clear. There are no scientific synonyms.

Description

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Crawlers (0.3 mm long) are yellow. Immature and newly matured females have yellowish bodies dusted with mealy white wax that is often thinner between the segments, giving the body a slightly barred appearance. Short, waxy filaments develop around the margin in the adult female, each less than a quarter as long as the body. The adult female is 2.5-4 mm long, soft-bodied, elongate oval and slightly flattened; on maturation she begins to secrete sticky, elastic, white wax filaments from the edges of her abdomen to form a protective ovisac for her yellow eggs. The ovisac can be as much as twice as long as the body, or more (Miller et al., 2001). Sometimes the body colour of the mature female is not immediately apparent if she has become buried under white, waxy secretions. The male is a short-lived, small insect with long, segmented antennae; six legs each bearing a single claw; one pair of simple wings coated with white wax powder; a pair of long, white waxy filaments at the posterior of the abdomen; and no mouthparts.

A redescription of this species is provided by Miller and Miller (2002) including decriptions of the immature stages and adult male.

Distribution

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P. marginatus probably originated in Mexico or a nearby country in Central America. It was not recorded from the Caribbean islands before 1994, but has been extending its range in the region ever since. It was first recorded from USA (Florida) in 1998 (Miller et al., 2001). Matile-Ferrero et al. (2001) mention that P. marginatus is present in St Martin, St Barthélémy and most of the islands in the Greater and Lesser Antilles; their record of the species from French Guyana is the first from northern South America.

P. marginatus has recently been reported spreading in Asia and West Africa. In addition to the countries listed, it has also been reported from Nigeria and Gabon, and has now been discovered in Tanzania (IITA, 2015).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentMuniappan et al., 2009b; CABI/EPPO, 2012
CambodiaPresentMuniappan et al., 2009b; CABI/EPPO, 2012
ChinaPresentWu FuZhong et al., 2014
-YunnanPresentWu FuZhong et al., 2014
IndiaPresent Invasive Muniappan, 2009a; Suresh et al., 2010; CABI/EPPO, 2012
-AssamPresent2012Sarma, 2013
-KarnatakaPresentShekhar et al., 2011; CABI/EPPO, 2012
-KeralaPresentKrishnakumar and Rajan, 2009; Lyla and Philip, 2010; CABI/EPPO, 2012
-RajasthanPresentMani et al., 2012
-Tamil NaduPresent Invasive Muniappan, 2009a; Ayyasamy and Regupathy, 2010; Suresh et al., 2010; CABI/EPPO, 2012
-West BengalPresentLalitha et al., 2015
IndonesiaRestricted distributionMuniappan, 2009a; IPPC, 2009; CABI/EPPO, 2012
-JavaPresentMuniappan, 2009a; CABI/EPPO, 2012
-SulawesiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
IsraelPresentMendel et al., 2016
MalaysiaPresentMastoi et al., 2011; CABI/EPPO, 2012
MaldivesPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
OmanPresentunpublished data, R. Muniappan, Virginia Tech, USA, 2011
PhilippinesPresentMuniappan et al., 2009b; CABI/EPPO, 2012
Sri LankaPresentGalanihe et al., 2010; CABI/EPPO, 2012
TaiwanPresentChen et al., 2011; CABI/EPPO, 2012
ThailandPresentMuniappan et al., 2009b; CABI/EPPO, 2012

Africa

BeninPresentMuniappan et al., 2009b; CABI/EPPO, 2012
CameroonRestricted distributionIntroduced2015IPPC, 2015preliminary report
GabonPresentIntroduced2012IPPC, 2012present: under eradication
GhanaPresentMuniappan et al., 2009b; CABI/EPPO, 2012
KenyaPresentMacharia et al., 2017via PestLens newsletter
MauritiusPresentGermain et al., 2014
RéunionPresentGermain et al., 2010; CABI/EPPO, 2012
TanzaniaPresentIITA, 2015
TogoPresentMuniappan et al., 2009b; CABI/EPPO, 2012

North America

MexicoPresentNativeWilliams and Granara de Willink, 1992; Pollard, 1999; CABI/EPPO, 2012
USARestricted distributionPollard, 1999; CABI/EPPO, 2012
-FloridaPresentPollard, 1999; CABI/EPPO, 2012
-HawaiiPresentMuniappan, 2009a; CABI/EPPO, 2012

Central America and Caribbean

Antigua and BarbudaPresentPollard, 1999; CABI/EPPO, 2012
BahamasPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
BarbadosPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
BelizePresentWilliams and Granara de Willink, 1992; Pollard, 1999; CABI/EPPO, 2012
British Virgin IslandsPresentPollard, 1999; CABI/EPPO, 2012
Cayman IslandsPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
Costa RicaPresentWilliams and Granara de Willink, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2012
CubaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
Dominican RepublicPresentPollard, 1999; CABI/EPPO, 2012
French West IndiesPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
GrenadaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
GuadeloupePresentMatile-Ferrero and Etienne, 1998; CABI/EPPO, 2012
GuatemalaPresentWilliams and Granara de Willink, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2012
HaitiPresentPollard, 1999; CABI/EPPO, 2012
MontserratPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
Netherlands AntillesPresentPollard, 1999; CABI/EPPO, 2012
Puerto RicoPresentPollard, 1999; CABI/EPPO, 2012
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentPollard, 1999; CABI/EPPO, 2012
Saint LuciaPresentIntroduced Invasive Jn Pierre, 2008
Sint MaartenPresentPollard, 1999
United States Virgin IslandsPresentPollard, 1999; CABI/EPPO, 2012

South America

French GuianaPresentMatile-Ferrero et al., 2001; CABI/EPPO, 2012

Oceania

GuamPresentMeyerdirk et al., 2004; CABI/EPPO, 2012
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentMuniappan, 2009a; CABI/EPPO, 2012
PalauPresentMuniappan et al., 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2012

Risk of Introduction

Top of page At present P. marginatus is confined to one small part of the globe, but if it spreads outside this area it could become an important tropical pest. It is a quarantine threat to farmers and horticulturalists in tropical countries around the world. P. marginatus is not included on any quarantine schedules because its increase in importance is so recent. This pest probably presents its greatest threat to countries within 30° of the equator.

Habitat

Top of page P. marginatus has only been recorded feeding on above-ground parts of its hosts, particularly on leaves and fruit (Miller et al., 2001).

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page The species was described from material collected on cassava and papaya, but it is now recognized to be highly polyphagous (Anon., 2000). It causes significant damage to cassava in Central America. Papaya, Hibiscus and Annona species are particularly badly affected (Matile-Ferrero et al., 2001). Papaya is a preferred host.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
Acacia (wattles)FabaceaeWild host
Acalypha (Copperleaf)EuphorbiaceaeWild host
AdeniumOther
AglaonemaAraceaeOther
Ananas comosus (pineapple)BromeliaceaeOther
AnnonaAnnonaceaeOther
Annona squamosa (sugar apple)AnnonaceaeMain
Bidens (Burmarigold)AsteraceaeOther
Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea)FabaceaeOther
Capsicum annuum (bell pepper)SolanaceaeOther
Carica papaya (pawpaw)CaricaceaeMain
Cestrum nocturnum (night jessamine)SolanaceaeWild host
Citrus sinensis (navel orange)RutaceaeOther
Coffea (coffee)RubiaceaeMain
Dahlia pinnata (garden dahlia)AsteraceaeOther
Erythrina spp.FabaceaeOther
Eugenia uniflora (Surinam cherry)MyrtaceaeOther
GardeniaRubiaceaeMain
Gossypium hirsutum (Bourbon cotton)MalvaceaeOther
Guazuma ulmifolia (bastard cedar)SterculiaceaeWild host
Hibiscus (rosemallows)MalvaceaeMain
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (China-rose)MalvaceaeMain
Hibiscus sabdariffa (Roselle)MalvaceaeMain
Ipomoea (morning glory)ConvolvulaceaeOther
Jatropha curcas (jatropha)EuphorbiaceaeMain
Jatropha integerrimaEuphorbiaceaeOther
Lablab purpureus (hyacinth bean)FabaceaeOther
Ligustrum (privet)OleaceaeOther
Malpighia glabra (acerola)MalpighiaceaeWild host
Malvaviscus arboreus (wax mallow)MalvaceaeWild host
Mangifera indica (mango)AnacardiaceaeOther
Manihot esculenta (cassava)EuphorbiaceaeMain
Mimosa pigra (catclaw mimosa)FabaceaeWild host
Morus (mulberrytree)MoraceaeOther
Morus alba (mora)MoraceaeOther
MussaendaRubiaceaeOther
Pachystachys lutea (lollypops)AcanthaceaeWild host
Parthenium hysterophorus (parthenium weed)AsteraceaeWild host
Persea americana (avocado)LauraceaeMain
Phaseolus (beans)FabaceaeOther
Plumeria (frangipani)ApocynaceaeMain
Psidium guajava (guava)MyrtaceaeOther
Punica granatum (pomegranate)PunicaceaeOther
Rosa (roses)RosaceaeOther
SidaMalvaceaeWild host
Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)SolanaceaeOther
Solanum melongena (aubergine)SolanaceaeMain
Solanum nigrum (black nightshade)SolanaceaeOther
Solanum torvum (turkey berry)SolanaceaeOther
Theobroma cacao (cocoa)SterculiaceaeOther
Vigna (cowpea)FabaceaeOther

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

Top of page Heavy infestations by P. marginatus cause deformation of new growth, leaf yellowing, leaf curl and early fall of fruit (Anon., 2000). Fruit may become completely covered by a layer of mealybugs and wax secretions (Miller et al., 2001). Papaya, Hibiscus and Annona species are particularly badly affected.

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / abnormal shape
Fruit / external feeding
Fruit / honeydew or sooty mould
Fruit / premature drop
Fruit / reduced size
Growing point / dieback
Growing point / distortion
Growing point / external feeding
Inflorescence / distortion (non-graminaceous plants)
Inflorescence / external feeding
Inflorescence / fall or shedding
Inflorescence / honeydew or sooty mould
Inflorescence / twisting and distortion
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Stems / dieback
Stems / external feeding
Stems / honeydew or sooty mould
Stems / stunting or rosetting
Stems / wilt
Whole plant / distortion; rosetting
Whole plant / early senescence
Whole plant / external feeding

Biology and Ecology

Top of page The biology of P. marginatus has not been studied in detail. The species is known to reproduce sexually, and each female lays a considerable number of eggs in a white, waxy ovisac. Like other mealybugs, female P. marginatus can be expected to have three larval stages before moulting to the larviform adult stage. The male is likely to have two immature larval stages that feed, followed by non-feeding pre-pupal and pupal stages before it moults to a short-lived, winged adult. In tropical conditions the generations are not synchronized and there are several each year - possibly as many as 15 generations in favourable conditions, like the similar Maconellicoccus hirsutus.

The dispersal stage is the first-instar crawler which can survive a day or so without feeding while it locates a suitable feeding site. The larval stages and adult female (but not the male prepupa or pupa) are capable of crawling, but seldom do so unless conditions become unfavourable.

P. marginatus feeds on phloem sap and excretes sugary honeydew; this coats plant surfaces around and below the colony, and sooty mould often develops on the deposits. Ants may be attracted to colonies in search of honeydew, and their presence can deter natural enemies from attacking the mealybugs.

The climatic preferences of P. marginatus have not been documented, but its occurrence in countries that mostly lie less than 30° from the equator suggests that it probably does not tolerate cold conditions. As for most scale insects, heavy rain is likely to cause increased mortality of P. marginatus, especially of the mobile first-instar crawlers.

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Acerophagus papayae Parasite
Anagyrus Parasite Larvae
Anagyrus loecki Parasite
Apoanagyrus spp. Parasite
Pseudaphycus sp. Parasite
Pseudleptomastix mexicana Parasite

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page P. marginatus has only recently been categorized as a pest, so little information is available on its natural enemies. Two hyperparasite species were collected from heavy infestations of P. marginatus on papaya from US Virgin Islands (St Thomas) in 1998 (ME Schauff, US Department of Agriculture, Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C., unpublished data, 1998). Although no primary parasites were found, it is likely that they were present and probably belonged to the superfamily Chalcidoidea.

Four hymenopteran parasitoids of P. marginatus have been found in Mexico, and are being investigated for use in biological control (Anon., 2000).

The predatory ladybeetle used to control pest mealybugs, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri, was observed to be reluctant to feed on P. marginatus in the British Virgin Islands (Wayne deChi, Agricultural Health Specialist, Interamerican Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture (IICA), personal communication). A predatory dipteran larva (Diadiplosis sp.) has been observed eating the eggs of P. marginatus in Antigua (Wayne deChi, personal communication), and Matile-Ferrero et al. (2001) recorded two unidentified predators from French Guyana belonging to the Diptera: Cecidomyiidae, and the Coleoptera: Coccinellidae.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural dispersal (non-biotic)

As for most mealybugs, the tiny first-instar crawlers of P. marginatus disperse short distances by walking; those on exposed parts of the plant may be carried to other hosts over somewhat greater distances by gusts of wind.

Vector transmission

Passing animals, including man, may accidentally pick up crawlers of P. marginatus as they brush past infested plants, and transfer them to new host plants by the same means. Birds such as crows and mynah, and bats play an important role in disseminating P. marginatus from infested plants with ripe fruits to healthy plants (Sarma, 2013).

Agricultural practices

Vehicles moving through a crop, or pruning and harvesting activities, can help carry P. marginatus crawlers from one plant to another.

Movement in trade

As for most mealybugs, transport of infested fresh plant material can transmit P. marginatus over greater distances, and potentially from one country to another.
 

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Clothing, footwear and possessionsAir and surface transport of ornamental and crop plant material. Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx adults; eggs; larvae; nymphs; pupae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Fruits (inc. pods) adults; eggs; larvae; nymphs; pupae Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Leaves adults; eggs; larvae; nymphs; pupae Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches adults; eggs; larvae; nymphs; pupae Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Roots
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Impact

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Colonies of P. marginatus excrete honeydew, which coats nearby plant surfaces. Fouling of plant leaves by honeydew and sooty mould blocks out air and light, impairing photosynthesis and reducing plant productivity. Fouled fruit, for example, papaya, may be of reduced value or unmarketable. Heavy infestations of thin-skinned fruit crops such as papaya can make them unmarketable. P. marginatus causes significant damage to cassava in Central America, and has the capacity to cause serious damage to papaya, other tropical fruit and ornamentals such as Annona and Hibiscus spp. (Anon., 2000; Miller et al., 2001). The species is a quarantine threat to farmers and horticulturalists in tropical countries around the world. Since its accidental introduction to Cuba in 1999, P. marginatus has been under close surveillance; so far no economic damage has been observed on major crops there (Anon., 2000).

The accidental introduction of P. marginatus to Indonesia and India presents a serious economic threat to the agricultural industry in these countries (Muniappan, 2009).

Diagnosis

Top of page Authoritative identification requires preparation of good quality slide mounts of adult females, and identification using the key provided by Williams and Granara de Willink (1992). This publication also provides advice on how to prepare slide mounts of mealybugs, as do Watson and Chandler (2000).

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page P. marginatus may show very similar symptoms to pink hibiscus mealybug (Maconellicoccus hirsutus) on Hibiscus, Annona species and other ornamental plants. M. hirsutus is the more serious pest of the two (Pollard, 1999). Although superficially similar in the field, they can be distinguished by the colour of the body contents when crushed on white paper: P. marginatus is yellow; M. hirsutus is pink. When preserved in 80% alcohol, P. marginatus turn black (Miller et al., 2001) within 24-48 h, whereas M. hirsutus specimens turn darker brown but do not go black. When adult females are mounted on microscope slides, the species can be easily distinguished: P. marginatus has eight-segmented antennae and dorsal oral rim ducts located only in marginal areas; M. hirsutus has nine-segmented antennae and rows of dorsal oral rim ducts across all the body segments.

There are numerous other species of Paracoccus native to the Neotropical region, and they can be difficult to separate. Authoritative identification requires preparation of good quality slide mounts of adult females, and identification using the key provided by Williams and Granara de Willink (1992).

Prevention and Control

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As an exotic introduction to the Caribbean islands, there are good prospects for classical biological control of P. marginatus by hymenopteran parasitoids originating from its area of origin in Central America (Pollard, 1999). In situations where the mealybugs are heavily attended by ants, for their honeydew, control of ants by the use of sticky bands on the trunk or branches may help enhance the effectiveness of natural enemies. Spacing or pruning of trees, to ensure their canopies do not touch, will reduce the spread of mealybugs between trees.

A biological control programme developed by the USDA/APHIS has been successfully implemented against P. marginatus in Florida, Caribbean Islands, countries in South America, Guam and Palau and is currently being implemented in the Hawaiian Islands and Tinian in the Mariana Islands (Muniappan, 2009). Three parasitoids have been identified (Anagyrus loecki, Pseudleptomastix mexicana and Acerophagus papayae) and are being reared in Puerto Rico in order to supply countries in need. 

References

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Amarasekare KG, Mannion CM, Epsky ND, 2010. Host instar susceptibility and selection and interspecific competition of three introduced parasitoids of the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). Environmental Entomology, 39(5):1506-1512. http://docserver.ingentaconnect.com/deliver/connect/esa/0046225x/v39n5/s14.pdf?expires=1288936988&id=0000&titleid=10265&checksum=4BE164E6FC985C6C3C4D18618AEB57EE

Angeles Martínez Mde los, Surís M, 2005. Morphological comparison of Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) presents in cassava and papaya Cuban field. (Comparación morfológica de Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) presentes en plantaciones Cubanas de yuca y frutabomba.) Revista de Protección Vegetal, 20(3):165-168.

Ayyasamy R, Regupathy A, 2010. Need and scope for insecticide resistance management for the invasive papaya mealy bug Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink in small scale papaya farming system in Tamil Nadu, India. Resistant Pest Management Newsletter, 19(2):23-28. http://whalonlab.msu.edu/rpmnews/general/rpm_archive.htm

Banu JG, Suruliveru T, Amutha M, Gapalakrishnan N, 2010. Susceptibility of cotton mealy bug, Paracoccus marginatus to entomopathogenic fungi. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 18(1):247-248. http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:apps&type=home

CABI/EPPO, 2012. Paracoccus marginatus. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No.June. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 614 (1st revision).

Chen ShuPei, Wong JenYu, Wu WenJen, 2011. Preliminary report on the occurrence of papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink, in Taiwan. Journal of Taiwan Agricultural Research, 60(1):72-76.

Dale PS, Maddison PA, 1984. Transport services as an aid to insect dispersal in the South Pacific. In: Laird M, ed. Commerce and the spread of pests and disease vectors. New York, USA: Prpger Publishers, 225-256

Galanihe LD, Jayasundera MUP, Vithana A, Asselaarachchi N, Watson GW, 2010. Occurrence, distribution and control of papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), an invasive alien pest in Sri Lanka. Tropical Agricultural Research and Extension, 13(3):81-86. http://www.sljol.info/index.php/TARE/article/view/3143/2522

Germain JF, Pastou D, Lucas E, Minatchy J, Hostachy H, 2010. [English title not available]. (Paracoccus marginatus, une nouvelle cochenille sur papayer a` la Re´union.) Phytoma, 633:9-10.

Germain JF, Sookar P, Buldawoo I, Permalloo S, Quilici S, 2014. Three species of potentially invasive scale insects new for Mauritius (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Pseudococcidae). (Trois espèces de Cochenilles potentiellement invasives nouvelles pour l'île Maurice (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Pseudococcidae).) Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France, 119(1):27-29.

IITA, 2015. Food security and livelihoods at risk as destructive pest invades Tanzania. The fast spreading and highly destructive papaya mealybug reaches Tanzani. IITA Press Release, 20 April 2015. http://www.iita.org/2015-press-releases/-/asset_publisher/CxA7/content/food-security-and-livelihoods-at-risk-as-destructive-pest-invades-tanzania?redirect=%2F2015-press-releases#.VUn-OEbwuHs

IPPC, 2009. Introduction of papaya mealybug. IPPC Official Pest Report, IDN-02/1. Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/index.php?id=1110520&no_cache=1&type=pestreport&L=0

IPPC, 2012. (Apparition d'une nouvelle cochenille sur le papayer à Libreville Gabon). In: IPPC Official Pest Report (No. GAB-01/3) Rome, Italy: FAO, https://www.ippc.int/

IPPC, 2015. The papaya mealy bug (Paracoccus marginatus) in Cameroon. In: IPPC Official Pest Report (No. CMR-03/4) Rome, Italy: FAO, https://www.ippc.int/

Jn Pierre L, 2008. Mitigating the Threat of Invasive Alien Species in the Insular Caribbean (Saint Lucia). Report to CABI. 56 pp.

Jothi BD, Surulivelu T, Rajan TS, Valarmathi R, 2011. First record on the establishment of the parasitoid (Acerophagus papayae Noyes and Schauff) of papaya mealybug (Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink) on cotton. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 24(4):536-537. http://203.129.218.157/ojs/index.php/kjas/article/viewFile/1141/2100

Krishnakumar R, Rajan VP, 2009. Record of papaya mealy bug Paracoccus marginatus infesting mulberry in Kerala. Insect Environment, 15(3):142.

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