Cookies on Invasive Species Compendium

Like most websites we use cookies. This is to ensure that we give you the best experience possible.

 

Continuing to use www.cabi.org  means you agree to our use of cookies. If you would like to, you can learn more about the cookies we use.

Datasheet

Paulownia tomentosa (paulownia)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Paulownia tomentosa
  • Preferred Common Name
  • paulownia
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • P. tomentosa is a showy, aggressive ornamental introduced from East Asia. It is also grown in plantations for timber production, but has tended to escape and invade, growing rapidly in disturbed areas including...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
High yielding superior clonal P. tomentosa plantation.
TitlePlantation
CaptionHigh yielding superior clonal P. tomentosa plantation.
CopyrightCong Peihua
High yielding superior clonal P. tomentosa plantation.
PlantationHigh yielding superior clonal P. tomentosa plantation.Cong Peihua
Intercropping
TitleIntercropping
Caption
CopyrightCong Peihua
Intercropping
IntercroppingCong Peihua
Avenue
TitleAvenue
Caption
CopyrightCong Peihua
Avenue
AvenueCong Peihua
Foliage and ornamental flowers
TitleFoliage and ornamental flowers
Caption
CopyrightCong Peihua
Foliage and ornamental flowers
Foliage and ornamental flowersCong Peihua
Foliage and seed
TitleFoliage and seed
Caption
Copyright©K.M. Siddiqui
Foliage and seed
Foliage and seed©K.M. Siddiqui
Flowers on wild trees of P. tomentosa in a gully, Shandong Province, China
TitleFlowers
CaptionFlowers on wild trees of P. tomentosa in a gully, Shandong Province, China
Copyright©A.R. Pittaway
Flowers on wild trees of P. tomentosa in a gully, Shandong Province, China
FlowersFlowers on wild trees of P. tomentosa in a gully, Shandong Province, China©A.R. Pittaway

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb.) Steud.

Preferred Common Name

  • paulownia

Variety

  • Paulownia tomentosa f. pallida Rehd.
  • Paulownia tomentosa var. lanata (Dode) Schneid.
  • Paulownia tomentosa var. lucida Z. X. Chang & S. L. Shi
  • Paulownia tomentosa var. tomentosa
  • Paulownia tomentosa var. tsinlingensis (Pai) Gong Tong

Other Scientific Names

  • Bignonia tomentosa Thunb.
  • Incarvillea tomentosa (Thunb.) Spreng.
  • Paulownia grandifolia Hort. ex Wettst.
  • Paulownia imperialis Siebold & Zucc.
  • Paulownia recurva Rehd.
  • Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb.) Siebold & Zucc. ex Steud.

International Common Names

  • English: Chinese empress tree; empress tree; empress-tree; foxglove tree; karri tree; karritree; princess tree; princess-tree; royal paulownia
  • French: arbré d'anna paulownia; paulownia imperial; paulownia tomenteux
  • Chinese: mao pao tong; maopaotong; ribenpaotong; rongmaopaotong; zihuapaotong; zitong

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: paulovnia-real; quirí
  • Germany: Blauglockenbaum; Chinesischer Blauglockenbaum; Filziger Blauglockenbaum; Kaiser Paulownia; Kaiser- Paulownie; Paulownie
  • Italy: paulovia; paulownia
  • Japan: kiri
  • Netherlands: Anna-paulownaboom

EPPO code

  • PAZTO (Paulownia tomentosa)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

P. tomentosa is a showy, aggressive ornamental introduced from East Asia. It is also grown in plantations for timber production, but has tended to escape and invade, growing rapidly in disturbed areas including habitats for rare plants. It seeds profusely and resprouts from roots and stumps forming monocultures, and is proving to be a problem weed in eastern USA. It continues to be promoted, however, in North America and elsewhere, and it is possible that it could prove invasive in Europe where it continues to be introduced and planted.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Scrophulariales
  •                         Family: Scrophulariaceae
  •                             Genus: Paulownia
  •                                 Species: Paulownia tomentosa

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

The East Asian genus Paulownia is a member of the family Scrophulariaceae. The latest revision of the genus is half a century old, (Hu, 1959), and with recent discoveries in China, the total number of species is considered to be seven. P. tomentosa is an important species within this genus, and the varieties var. tsinlinggensis, var. lucida and var. lanata, and the forma pallida, are widely cultivated. Hybrids have also been bred and/or selected, some named. It is commonly known as the princess tree, royal paulownia or empress tree, reflecting its beauty as an ornamental.

Description

Top of page

P. tomentosa is a large deciduous tree with an umbrella-shaped crown and grows to 10-18 m tall with a diameter at breast height of at least 1 m. Its bark is smooth and pale yellow to brown with numerous large lenticels when young, becoming rough and grey-brown with age, often with interlaced smooth areas that are often shiny. Olive brown to dark brown twigs are stout and brittle, mostly glabrous except at the tip, around buds and along upper edges of leaf scars, lenticels pale, prominent, and elongated longitudinally. Deciduous leaves are opposite, acuminate, cordate or broadly ovate, 20-30(-40) cm long, (10-)15-30 cm wide when mature, though leaves of stump sprouts may be twice as large, acute or obtuse, base cordate, margins entire or shallowly 3-5 lobed, sometimes toothed on small plants, pubescent and dull, light-green above, undersurfaces pale-green and tomentose. Terminal bud absent, axillary buds sunken in bark, winter buds with several outer scales, superposed. Cymes penduncled, the penduncles as long or longer than the pedicels, growing on the main axis and branches of paniculate inflorescences 40-60 cm long, though SE-EPPC (2003) observed the blossoms in much smaller upright clusters only 15-30 cm long and borne at the ends of stout, hairy twigs. Calyx deeply lobed, the lobes as long or longer than the tube. Flowers perfect, fragrant, showy, corolla 8-10 cm long, purple, tubular (or bell-shaped, SE-EPPC, 2003), pale violet with yellow stripes inside, with 5 shallow, rounded, unequal lobes. Brown fruit, ovoid, pointed, woody capsules 2.5-4 cm long borne in terminal clusters, with 2 carpels and numerous (up to 2000) tiny winged seeds attached to the 2 very large placentas. Seeds, tiny, winged, flat, 1.5 mm long.

Plant Type

Top of page Broadleaved
Perennial
Seed propagated
Tree
Vegetatively propagated
Woody

Distribution

Top of page

P. tomentosa is native to China, and is widely distributed in central and northern regions, especially Shaanxi, Shanxi, Gansu, Henan, Hebei, Shandong, Anhui, Hubei, Jiangsu, and the Liaoning peninsula. It occurs in Japan and South Korea, but some Japanese taxonomists believe that these are naturalized populations resulting from past introduction and cultivation of this species in these countries, though Japan is accepted here as part of the native range (USDA-ARS, 2008). Within P. tomentosa, the three varieties have distinct distributions. P. tomentosa var. lucida occurs mainly in northern China, var. lanata in the northern Yangtse River region and var. tsinlingensis in central and southwestern China (Jiang, 1988).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaPresentNative Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2007; USDA-ARS, 2008Exact native range in China unclear due to extensive cultivation
-AnhuiPresentNative Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2007; USDA-ARS, 2008
-FujianPresentCABI, 2005
-GansuPresentNative Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2007; USDA-ARS, 2008
-GuangdongPresentCABI, 2005
-GuangxiPresentCABI, 2005
-GuizhouPresent Not invasive Chen et al., 1995
-HebeiPresentNative Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2007; USDA-ARS, 2008
-HenanPresentNative Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2007; USDA-ARS, 2008
-HubeiPresentNative Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2007; USDA-ARS, 2008
-HunanPresentNative Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2007; USDA-ARS, 2008
-JiangsuPresentNative Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2007; USDA-ARS, 2008
-JiangxiPresentNative Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2007; USDA-ARS, 2008
-LiaoningPresentNative Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2007; USDA-ARS, 2008
-ShaanxiPresentNative Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2007; USDA-ARS, 2008
-ShandongPresentNative Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2007; USDA-ARS, 2008
-ShanxiPresentNative Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2007; USDA-ARS, 2008
-SichuanPresentNative Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2007; USDA-ARS, 2008
-YunnanPresent Not invasive Chen et al., 1995
-ZhejiangPresentCABI, 2005
IndiaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Verma et al., 2005
-Himachal PradeshPresentIntroduced Not invasive Verma et al., 2005
JapanPresentNative Not invasive USDA-ARS, 2008
-HokkaidoPresentCABI, 2005
-HonshuPresentCABI, 2005
-KyushuPresentCABI, 2005
-Ryukyu ArchipelagoPresentCABI, 2005
-ShikokuPresentCABI, 2005
Korea, DPRPresent Not invasive Yoo and Jung, 1997
Korea, Republic ofPresent Not invasive Yoo and Jung, 1997
PakistanPresentIntroduced Not invasive Siddiqui and Khan, 1989; Bajwa and Gul, 2000
TaiwanPresentIntroduced Not invasive Hu, 1959
TurkeyPresentIntroduced Not invasive Boydak, 2000

North America

USALocalisedIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2008; USDA-NRCS, 2008
-AlabamaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2008
-AlaskaPresentCABI, 2005
-ArizonaPresentCABI, 2005
-ArkansasPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2008
-ConnecticutPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2008
-DelawarePresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2008
-FloridaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2008
-GeorgiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Haysom and Murphy, 2003; USDA-NRCS, 2008
-IllinoisPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2008
-IndianaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2008
-KansasPresentCABI, 2005
-KentuckyPresentIntroduced Invasive Haysom and Murphy, 2003; USDA-NRCS, 2008
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2008
-MarylandPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2008
-MassachusettsPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2008
-MinnesotaPresentCABI, 2005
-MississippiPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2008
-MissouriPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2008
-New JerseyPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2008
-New YorkPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2008
-North CarolinaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2008
-North DakotaPresentCABI, 2005
-OhioPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2008
-OklahomaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2008
-OregonPresentIntroduced Invasive Haysom and Murphy, 2003
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2008
-Rhode IslandPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2008
-South CarolinaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2008
-South DakotaPresentCABI, 2005
-TennesseePresentIntroduced Invasive Haysom and Murphy, 2003; USDA-NRCS, 2008
-TexasPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2008
-VirginiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2008
-West VirginiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2008

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroduced1950s Not invasive Jiang, 1988; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2008
BrazilPresentIntroduced1950s Not invasive Jiang, 1988
GuyanaPresentCABI, 2005
ParaguayPresentIntroduced1950s Not invasive Jiang, 1988

Europe

AustriaPresentCABI, 2005
BelgiumPresentCABI, 2005
CroatiaPresentIntroducedIdzojtic and Zebec, 2006"Potentially dangerous"
FrancePresentIntroduced Not invasive Jeanmonod and Schlüssel, 2006Corsica, subspontaneous
-CorsicaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Jeanmonod and Schlüssel, 2006Subspontaneus
GermanyPresentCABI, 2005
HungaryUnconfirmed recordCABI, 2005
ItalyPresentIntroduced Not invasive Gridelli et al., 2002; Mezzalira and Colonna, 2002Plantations in northern Italy
SwitzerlandPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced Not invasive Horisberger, 1997Single tree
UKPresentCABI, 2005

Oceania

AustraliaLocalisedIntroduced1950s Not invasive Jiang, 1988; PIER, 2008
-New South WalesPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced Not invasive Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney, 2008
-QueenslandPresentIntroduced Not invasive Batianoff and Butler, 2002; PIER, 2008; Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney, 2008
-South AustraliaPresentCABI, 2005
-TasmaniaPresentCABI, 2005
-VictoriaPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced Not invasive Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney, 2008
New ZealandPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2008

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page
In the past, P. tomentosa has been introduced as an ornamental in many European countries and in the USA. It was brought to Europe in the 1830s by the Dutch East India Company, and taken to North America a few years later, and has been naturalized in the eastern USA and is also grown on the west coast (SE-EPPC, 2003). P. tomentosa is regarded by many as an invasive species in parts of eastern USA, but Williams (1993) noted that “Unlike many exotic woody plants naturalized in forests of the eastern United States, P. tomentosa is non-invasive and functions much as it does in the mesophytic forests of eastern Asia, producing small, scattered populations that arise chiefly as a result of large-scale disturbance”, observing that in a streamside forest in Virginia, USA, P. tomentosa trees were 6-30 years old (mean 17) with strong peaks in the 18 and 20 year age classes demonstrating episodic establishment in the early 1970s following Hurricane Camille.

The tree was introduced to the parks of central and southern Europe in 1830 as an ornamental, with widespread plantation establishment for timber in Italy after 1989, and as windbreaks in the Mediterranean (Mezzalira and Colonna, 2002). Since the 1950s it has been gradually introduced to Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina and Australia, and is used mainly for timber production (Jiang, 1988).

Risk of Introduction

Top of page

P. tomentosa is on invasive species lists for the states of Connecticut and Tennessee, USA (USDA-NRCS, 2008) and is showing invasive characteristics elsewhere. It has also failed risk assessments for Australia and the Pacific (PIER, 2008). It may become invasive where already introduced in Europe and South America, but noting its value as a fast-growing plantation timber and ornamental species, it is highly likely that it will be further introduced elsewhere, where it could also become invasive.

Habitat

Top of page

P. tomentosa naturally occurs in deciduous and mixed forests, and to a lesser extent in secondary forest. Where introduced, it is becoming common on roadsides, clearings, forest margins, cliffs, steep rocky slopes, riverbanks and disturbed habitats including fire sites and forests defoliated by pests such as gypsy moths, and landslides (Remaley, 1998; SE-EPPC, 2003; PIER, 2008). It may also be occasionally near gardens or in pavement cracks or similar places. It can invade rapidly after disturbances such as fire, construction or floods, and its ability to resprout prolifically allows it to survive fire, cutting, and even bulldozing on building sites. It tolerates high soil acidity, drought, and low soil fertility, but prefers full sunlight, ample soil moisture and fertile soil.

Habitat List

Top of page
CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial-managed
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rocky areas / lava flows Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Biology and Ecology

Top of page
Genetics
 
Many provenance trials have been conducted in the main growing areas of P. tomentosa in China, with superior provenances identified and plus trees propagated and planted in large-scale plantations. Further provenance trials are being conducted to identify Paulownia witches' broom (PWB) resistance or frost tolerance, and three research institutes are involved, Beijing Research Institute, National Paulownia Research Institute, and Henan Agricultural University, with several germplasm banks established (Jiang et al., 1981; Xiong et al., 1994). It is known to hybridise with P. fortunei in Beijing, China (Kumar et al., 1999), and a hybrid has been selected for improved growth and wind resistance (Ni and Shi, 1998).
 
Reproductive Biology
 
P. tomentosa can reproduce from seed or from root sprouts; the latter can grow to over 5m (15 ft) in a single season. The root branches are shallow and horizontal without a strong taproot. Seed-forming pollen is fully developed before the onset of winter, and in spring the flowers are pollinated by insects, seeds germinating within a few days on suitable substrate; seedlings grow quickly and flowering in 8-10 years (Remaley, 1998; SE-EPPC, 2003). The perfect flowers are borne in terminal panicles up to 25 cm long in April and May before leaves emerge, woody capsules 3-5 cm long turning brown as they mature in September or October and persist on the tree through the winter. Trees start bearing fruit after 8-10 years and are very prolific, each capsule containing up to 2000 seeds and a large tree may produce as many as 20 million seeds a year. The tiny, flat, winged seeds weigh about 0.17 mg and as the capsules break open on the trees throughout the winter and into spring, wind dissemination occurs easily (Bonner, 1990). Substantial long-term seed banks do form within temperate forest gaps and patterns of above-ground vegetation can have substantial effects on their dynamics (Hyatt and Casper, 2000).
 
Physiology and Phenology
 
P. tomentosa is a strongly light-demanding species which readily colonizes exposed fertile soil, and tolerates drought, wind and weeds, and has an ability to sucker; regenerate rapidly, and self-prune. In central China, plantations of P. tomentosa are intensively managed, with trees reaching a mean height of 15 m and a mean diameter of 30 cm in 10 years (Li and Wang, 1987).
Seeds are not dormant but light is required for germination, which is epigeal and can occur quickly and they grow rapidly when conditions are favourable. Like most pioneer species, P. tomentosa needs bare soil, sufficient moisture, and direct sunlight for good seedling establishment, and seedlings are very intolerant of shade. On good sites P. tomentosa grows rapidly, plantations at 3000-7000 trees/ha can yield saw logs in 15 years, and heights of 13 m in 11 years have been reported in Russia, but on poor sites such as surface mine spoils, growth is considerably slower, though its ability to survive and reproduce on harsh sites has made it a favourite for revegetation (Bonner, 1990). Although resprouting ability is dependent upon belowground biomass, P. tomentosa seedlings can resprout at an early age, even in low light. This ability may allow the species to become established even in areas of high herbivore density (Longbrake and McCarthy, 2001). Roots sprout easily.
 
Environmental Requirements
 
P. tomentosa is found in a wide range of temperate semi-humid or semi-arid sites, with an altitude range up to 3000 m. It is the hardiest species of the genus and is fairly frost resistant with some provenances tolerating a minimum temperature of -18°C, however seedlings and young trees are more susceptible to frost damage (Zhu et al., 1986). In China, the natural range extends south of the 0°C January isotherm in areas which receive an annual rainfall of at least 1020 mm. P. tomentosa tolerates a maximum temperature of 40°C, but generally prefers milder areas in subtropical and temperate climates with an optimum annual temperature of 24-29°C and an annual rainfall of approximately 1000 mm though tolerating mean annual rainfall of 500-2500 mm. Such subtropical and temperate climates are found in the Yellow River and Yangtse River ranges in China, and in central and northern China growth of P. tomentosa is particularly favoured by the long dry season. A modified description of climatic requirements (see climatic data table of this data sheet) was prepared by CSIRO (see Booth and Jovanovic, 2000).

P. tomentosa is grown on a diversity of soil types with a pH range 5-8.5 (Zhu et al., 1986), preferring moist, freely drained sands, loams or clays on steep slopes or open valleys, and only rarely on saline and alkaline soils. However, fertile farmland is necessary for high-production plantations.

Climate

Top of page
ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
A - Tropical/Megathermal climate Tolerated Average temp. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
B - Dry (arid and semi-arid) Tolerated < 860mm precipitation annually
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
BW - Desert climate Tolerated < 430mm annual precipitation
C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

Top of page
Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
40 28 3 3000

Air Temperature

Top of page
Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) >-18
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 14 20
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 26 33
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) -10 10

Rainfall

Top of page
ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration39number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall5002500mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Summer
Uniform

Soil Tolerances

Top of page

Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • shallow

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page
The main pest found on P. tomentosa in China is the defoliator Eumeta variegata (syn. Clania variegate) which develops one generation in northern China and two generations in the south, with seedling stock the major source of spread (Yang and Li, 1982; Yang et al., 1975). Paulownia witches' broom (PWB) is the main disease found in P. tomentosa plantations, caused by a phytoplasma identified by distinctive yellow broom-like shoots which die back in the autumn. In its native range it is spread by Halymorpha picus and infected nursery stock, though seeds from infected trees grow disease-free. It is commonly found in seedlings and young trees (3-6 years old) which can greatly reduce growth; and it may also occur in adult trees but has little effect. Anthracnose disease is a another major disease in saplings, which injures leaves, petolies and shoots and causes early leaf drop. P. tomentosa also suffers damping-off disease caused by Rhizoctinia solani and Fusarium spp. (Zhu et al., 1986). Other diseases include the nematode Meloidogyne marioni which infects seedling roots leading to mortality, and the fungus Sphaceloma tsugii which commonly damages seedling shoots and causes dieback. Zheng et al. (2006) report that at least 10 species of fungi infect Paulownia spp., of which eight can live on P. tomentosa, and four of these, Ascochyta paulowniae, Gloeosporium kawakamii, Mycosphaerella corylea and Phyllactinia paulowniae appear to be host specific, and 113 insects in 39 families within 7 orders associated with Paulownia, of which all are listed along with their host-specificity.
 
No major insect pests are known for P. tomentosa in the USA, though minor damage from several foliage diseases has been reported including Phyllosticta paulowniae, Phyllactinia guttata and Uncinula clintonii (Bonner, 1990), and polyphagous pests such as Mylabris pustulata and Helicoverpa armigera (Verma et al., 2005).

In Peshawar, Pakistan, five Paulownia spp. including P. tomentosa, were attacked by fourteen insect species: Agrotis ypsilon [Agrotis ipsilon] (Noctuidae) Aleuroplatus pectiniferus (Aleyrodidae), Catopsilia crocale [Catopsilia pomona form crocale] (Pieridae), Cyrtopeltis tenuis (Miridae) Drosicha stebbingii (Margarodidae), Heliothis armigera [Helicoverpa armigera] (Noctuidae), Heliothis peltigera (Noctuidae), Lymantria sp. (Lymantriidae), Myzus persicae (Aphididae), Odontotermes obesus (Termitidae), Plusia orichalcea [Thysanoplusia orichalcea] (Noctuidae), P. nigrisigna [Autographa nigrisigna] (Noctuidae), Phycodes radiata (Glyphipterygidae) and Precis orithya (Nymphalidae), and among these, D. stebbingii appeared in epidemic form on P. tomentosa and P. fortunei (Bajwa and Gul, 2000). Mehrotra (1997) also records many diseases of Paulownia from India and their management.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page
Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)
 
One tree is capable of producing twenty million seeds that are easily transported in water or wind (SE-EPPC, 2003). However, being so small and light and winged, wind appears to be the principal means of dispersal.
 
Intentional Introduction

The only means for long-distance dispersal has been due to intentional introduction as an ornamental and forestry species.

Pathway Causes

Top of page
CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Forestry Yes Yes SE-EPPC, 2003
Habitat restoration and improvement Yes Yes SE-EPPC, 2003
Ornamental purposes Yes Yes SE-EPPC, 2003

Pathway Vectors

Top of page
VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Water Yes SE-EPPC, 2003
Wind Yes SE-EPPC, 2003

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive
Environment (generally) Negative

Impact

Top of page

Economic Impact

P. tomentosa is one of the most important trees in China, being fast-growing with high-quality wood, with over one billion trees in plantations producing about 3 million cubic metres of timber annually worth over US$55 million, used in furniture, decorative products and musical instruments. P. tomentosa is also suitable for use in agroforestry systems in temperate sub-humid areas, though a disadvantage is that it grows well only on fertile land. More research is needed in order to improve wood properties and stress tolerance, and increase its use in plantations.
 
Social Impact

P. tomentosa
is native to western and central China where historical records describe its medicinal, ornamental and timber uses as early as 300 BC, and it has been cultivated for many centuries in Japan where it is valued in many traditions (SE-EPPC, 2003). On a negative side, trees cause maintenance problems on roadsides, paths and in gardens (PIER, 2008).
 
Environmental Impact

P. tomentosa
can colonize rocky cliffs and scoured riparian zones where it may compete with rare plants in such marginal habitats.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page

Uses

Top of page
P. tomentosa has a sparse crown and a deep, widely-distributed root system and high adaptability, and is such suitable for use in agroforestry and afforestation. In temperate zones, P. tomentosa is suitable for intercropping with wheat, oilseed rape and sweet potato (Jiang, 1988), and in the sub-tropics it may be intercropped with tea and bamboo. It can also be used for windbreaks on farmlands, roadsides or canal-banks. In some European countries, P. tomentosa is cultivated as an ornamental due to its beautiful flowers, and is found in arboreta, botanical gardens and parks. P. tomentosa is also believed to reduce sulphur dioxide pollution and grows in environments where other trees may suffer leaf loss (Zhu et al., 1986).

P. tomentosa wood is light (250-360 kg/cubic metre) with straight grain and low shrinkage, is easy to plane, saw and carve without splitting or warping, though its nail-holding ability and resistance to fire and decay is low. It is used for furniture, particularly smoke-proof cupboards resistant to insect attack, and being relatively light, it is used for model airplanes and gliders, and interior panels on airplanes, vehicles and ships. The soundboards of some Chinese musical instruments are made from P. tomentosa wood due to its good resonance properties as are traditional musical instruments in Korea (
Yoo and Jung, 1997). The wood is also used for oil drums, wine and beer barrels, tea boxes, fruit boxes, grain storage containers, traditional handicrafts, ornaments, agricultural tools, and especially beehives which maintain suitable temperatures resulting in increased honey production (Zhu et al., 1986). In recent years, P. tomentosa has been used for plywood and particleboard manufacture, and for kitchen utensils such as wooden bowls, plates and rice steamers (Zhu, 1980).

The flowers and leaves are traditionally used as fodder for pigs, goats and rabbits in Sichuan and Hebei (Zhu et al., 1986), flowers containing 3-4% glucose and 9% soluble sugars; leaves containing over 4% glucose and soluble sugars. Leaves, containing over 3% nitrogen, are also used as a green manure in rural areas. P. tomentosa has been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat bronchitis, coughs, asthma and high blood pressure, and flowers, leaves and bark are effective in treating chronic tracheitis. Many of the uses are dealt with in papers promoted the multipurpose nature of the tree, such as “Can Paulownia species be miracle trees?” (Boydak, 2000).

Uses List

Top of page

Environmental

  • Agroforestry
  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Land reclamation
  • Ornamental
  • Revegetation
  • Shade and shelter
  • Soil conservation
  • Windbreak

Fuels

  • Fuelwood

General

  • Ornamental

Materials

  • Fibre
  • Wood/timber

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical

Wood Products

Top of page

Containers

  • Boxes
  • Cases
  • Cooperage
  • Crates
  • Pallets
  • Tanks
  • Vats

Pulp

  • Short-fibre pulp

Roundwood

  • Building poles
  • Piles
  • Pit props
  • Posts
  • Roundwood structures
  • Stakes
  • Transmission poles

Sawn or hewn building timbers

  • Carpentry/joinery (exterior/interior)
  • Exterior fittings
  • Fences
  • Flooring
  • For light construction
  • Gates
  • Wall panelling

Wood-based materials

  • Fibreboard
  • Flakeboard
  • Improved wood
  • Laminated strand lumber
  • Laminated veneer lumber
  • Laminated wood
  • Medium density fibreboard
  • Oriented strand lumber
  • Oriented strandboard
  • Parallel strand lumber
  • Particleboard
  • Plywood
  • Waferboard
  • Wood cement

Woodware

  • Industrial and domestic woodware
  • Musical instruments
  • Sports equipment
  • Tool handles

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page

P. tomentosa resembles the USA native catalpa tree, Catalpa speciosa in size, leaf and flower structure but can be differentiated easily by having small round capsules in clusters and not long thin pods as in catalpa, having hollowed or chambered pith and not solid as in catalpa, and leaves are not whorled and have a less elongated tip with catalpa leaves whorled and more distinctly pointed at the tip (SE-EPPC, 2003).

References

Top of page

Arnold LE; Gertner GZ, 1988. Field scale Paulownia management trials. Forestry Research Report Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Illinois, No. 88-6, 7 pp.; 5 ref.

Bajwa GA; Gul H, 2000. Some observations on insect species of Paulownia species at Pakistan Forest Institute Campus, Peshawar. Pakistan Journal of Forestry, 50(1/2):71-80.

Bak C; La J, 1991. Detection of mycoplasma-like organisms in some trees by fluorescence microscopy with berberine sulphate. Journal of Korean Forestry Society, 80(2):232-236.

Batianoff GN; Butler DW, 2002. Assessment of invasive naturalized plants in south-east Queensland. Plant Protection Quarterly, 17(1):27-34.

Beckjord PR, 1984. Second season top and root development of potted, 1-0, bareroot Paulownia tomentosa seedlings. Tree Planters' Notes, 35(2):16-19; 1 pl.; 9 ref.

Bonner FT, 1990. Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb.) Sieb. & Zucc. ex Steud. Silvics of North America. Agriculture Handbook, 654. Washington DC, USA: USDA-FS.

Booth TH; Jovanovic T, 2000. Improving descriptions of climatic requirements in the CABI Forestry Compendium. A report for the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research. CSIRO - Forestry and Forest Products, Client Report No. 758.

Boydak M, 2000. Can paulownia species be miracle trees? (Paulownia türleri mucize agaçlar olabilirler mi?.) Orman Mühendisligi, 36(9):4-9.

Bruneau G, 1988. Clonal micropropagation of Paulownia. [Micropropagation clonale du Paulownia.] Annales de Recherches Sylvicoles, AFOCEL, France, 1987, 61-75; 23 ref.

Burger DW; Liu L; Wu L, 1985. Rapid micropropagation of Paulownia tomentosa. HortScience, 20(4):760-761; 2 pl.; 5 ref.

CABI, 2005. Forestry Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CABI.

Chaudhry MA, 1993. Phenological and morphological studies on different Paulownia species growing at Peshawar. Pakistan Journal of Forestry, 43(4):221-226; 11 ref.

Chen JQ, 1983. Studies on wood properties and its uses in Paulownia genus. Scientia Silvae Sinicae, 19(1-3):57-63, 153-167, 284-291.

Chen JQ; Yang JJ; Liu P, 1992. Wood science. Beijing, China: China Forestry Publishing House.

Chen LongQing; Wang ShunAn; Xhen ZhiYuan; Feng XingWei; Chen LQ; Wang SA; Chen ZY; Feng XW, 1995. Investigation on the species and distribution of Paulownia in Yunnan and Guizhou. Journal of Huazhong Agricultural University, 14(4):392-396; 6 ref.

Chen ZY, 1986. Some notes on taxonomy of Paulownia Genus. Journal of Central Agricultural College, 5(3):23-30.

Damtoft S, 1994. Biosynthesis of catalpol. Phytochemistry, 35(5):1187-1189; 10 ref.

Ding JianQing; Reardon R; Wu Y; Zheng Hao; Fu WeiDong, 2006. Biological control of invasive plants through collaboration between China and the United States of America: a perspective. Biological Invasions, 8(7):1439-1450. http://www.springerlink.com/content/x674387257182527/fulltext.pdf

Donald DGM, 1990. Paulownia - the tree of the future? South African Forestry Journal, No. 154: 94-98; 13 ref.

Dong H; Buijtenen JP van; Van Buijtenen JP, 1994. A Paulownia seed source trial in east Texas and its implications to species introduction. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry, 18(2):65-67; 13 ref.

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2007. Flora of China Web. Cambridge, USA: Harvard University Herbaria. http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/

Fujiwara T; Oku Y; Saiki H, 1987. Variation of cross-sectional dimensions of wood fibres within annual rings in some hardwood species. Bulletin of the Kyoto University Forests, No. 59, 258-265; 7 ref.

Galunder R; Gorissen I, 1987. On Littorella Uniflora Lepidium heterophyllum and other plant finds in Bergisches land West Germany and its environs. Floristis-Che, 21(1):40-45.

Giba Z; Grubisic D; Konjevic R, 1994. The effect of electron acceptors on the phytochrome-controlled germination of Paulownia tomentosa seeds. Physiologia Plantarum, 91(2):290-294; 24 ref.

Gong T, 1976. Studies on Taxonomy of Paulownia Genus. Journal of Taxonomy, 14(2):1- 15.

Gridelli G; Zanuttini R; Brunetti M, 2002. Paulownia tomentosa: technological characteristics of wood from a plantation in northern Italy. Physical-mechanical properties. (Paulownia tomentosa: caratteristiche tecnologiche del legname proveniente da una piantagione dell'Italia settentrionale. Proprietà fisico-meccaniche.) Sherwood - Foreste ed Alberi Oggi, 8(1):37-40.

Haysom K; Murphy S, 2003. The status of invasiveness of forest tree species outside their natural habitat: a global review and discussion paper. Rome, Italy: FAO. http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/006/J1583E/J1583E00.htm

Hemmerly TE, 1989. New commercial tree for Tennessee: princess tree, Paulownia tomentosa Steud. (Scrophulariaceae). Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science, 64(1):5-8; 18 ref.

Ho KC; Jacobs G, 1995. Occurrence and recovery of vitrification in tissue cultures of Paulownia species. Bulletin of Taiwan Forestry Research Institute New Series, 10(4):391-403.

Horisberger D, 1997. Rarity in the environment of the practising forester. Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Forstwesen, 148(9):705-715.

Hsieh HJ, 1983. Study on paulownia diseases found in Taiwan. Bulletin, Taiwan Forestry Research Institute, No. 388:i + 24 pp.

Hu SY, 1959. A monograph of the genus Paulownia. Quarterly Journal of the Taiwan Museum, Vol. XII. Nos. 1/2:1-54.

Huang QC; Lin JF; Dong MS; Gui YL; Gu SR; Xu TY, 1986. Callus induction and formation of adventitious buds of Paulownia elongata X P. tomentosa in vitro. Scientia Silvae Sinicae, 22(3):291-294; 8 ref.

Hyatt LA; Casper BB, 2000. Seed bank formation during early secondary succession in a temperate deciduous forest. Journal of Ecology (Oxford), 88(3):516-527.

Idzojtic M; Zebec M, 2006. Distribution of the tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima/Mill./Swingle) and spreading of invasive woody alien species in Croatia. (Rasprostranjenost pajasena (Ailanthus altissima/Mill./Swingle) i sirenje invazivnih drvenastih neofita u Hrvatskoj.) Glasnik za Sumske Pokuse, No.Posebno izdanje 5:315-323.

Iizuka M, 1985. The cultivation of Paulownia in South-East Asia. Tropical Forestry, No. 3, 45-50; 11 ref.

Isikawa H, 1987. Generation of adventitious plant organs by tissue culture methods in forest trees. Bulletin of the Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Japan, No. 343, 119-153; 83 ref.

Jeanmonod D; Schlüssel A, 2006. Notes and contributions on Corsican flora, XXI. (Notes et contributions h la flore de Corse, XXI.) Candollea, 61(1):93-134.

Jiang JP, 1979. Preliminary Insecticide Experiment of Paulownia Witche's Broom in Paulownia Seedling Stage. Henan Scien- Technology in Forestry and Agriculture, 7:5-8.

Jiang JP, 1985. Silvicultural Techniques for Paulownia. Beijing, China: Agriculture Press.

Jiang JP, 1988. Silviculture of Paulownia. Beijing, China: China Forestry Publishing House.

Jiang JP; Li RX; Liu TZ; Tiao DW; Xiong YG; Wang Hd; Miao JB; Li DF; Ma QJ, 1981. Breeding and extension for the Henan Paulownia hybrid No. 1 (P. tomensosa x P. fortunei). In: Tan BY, ed. Proceedings of Paulownia. Beijing, China: Chinese Forestry Publishing House, 85-87.

Johnson JE; Pease JW, Watson D G (ed. ), Zazueta FS (ed.), Bottcher AB del, 1992. Tree crops for the farm: computer aided decision-making. Computers in agricultural extension programs: proceedings of the 4th International Conference 28 31 January 1992, Orlando, Florida, 406-410; 3 ref.

Kierkeier P, 1983. Examination of the reduction in volume and speed of biodegradation of autumn leaves. [Uberprufung des Sackungsvolumens und der Verwitterungsgeschwindigkeit von Herbstlaub.] Zeitschrift fur Vegetationstechnik im Landschafts und Sportstattenbau, 6(3):109-112; 2 ref.

Krugman SL, 1990. Woody fiber crops. In: Janick J, Simon JE, eds. Advances in New Crops. Proceedings of the First National Symposium, New Crops: Research, Development, Economics. Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. Portland, Oregon, USA; Timber Press, 275-277.

Krussmann G, 1978. Handbook of broad leaved trees and shrubs. Vol. III. PRU-Z. [Handbuch der Laubgeholze. Band III. PRU-Z.] 1978, 496 pp.; many pl. and fig.

Kuala K, 1987. In vitro micropropagation of Paulownia. Transactions of the Kentucky Academy, 48(3-4):71-75.

Kumar PP; Rao CD; Rajaseger G; Rao AN, 1999. Seed surface architecture and random amplified polymorphic DNA profiles of Paulownia fortunei, P. tomentosa and their hybrid. Annals of Botany, 83(2):103-107.

Li JS, 1975. Preliminary notes on insect pests and diseases of Paulownia in Henan Province. Bulletin of Xuchang Scien- Technology, 1:13-23.

Li SR, 1980. Studies on nutrient accumulation, consumption and its utilization of light energy in Paulownia seedling stage. Journal of Henan Agriculture University, 3:23-30.

Li SR; Jiang JP; Li F; Liu YZ, 1980. Research on light shining in the intercropping between Paulownia and crops. Journal of Henan Agriculture University, 1:35-40.

Li SR; Jiang JP; Li F; Lui YZ, 1980. Research on light shining in the intercropping between Paulownia and crops. Journal of Henan Agriculture University, 1, 35-40.

Li XS; Wang KJ, 1987. Keys to integrated control management of Paulownia witches' broom. Extension of Forestry Technology, 1:14-16.

Lin TP; Wang YS, 1991. Paulownia taiwaniana, a hybrid between P. fortunei and P. kawakamii (Scrophulariaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution, 178(3-4):259-269; 8 ref.

Longbrake ACW; McCarthy BC, 2001. Biomass allocation and resprouting ability of princess tree (Paulownia tomentosa: Scrophulariaceae) across a light gradient. American Midland Naturalist, 146(2):388-403.

Lu X; Chen S; Li M; Chang X, 1990. Research on the biomass of Paulownia. Forest Research, 3(5):421-426.

Mehrotra MD, 1997. Diseases of Paulownia and their management. Indian Forester, 123(1):66-72.

Melhuish JH Jr; Gentry CE; Beckjord PR, 1990. Paulownia tomentosa seedling growth at differing levels of pH, nitrogen, and phosphorus. Journal of Environmental Horticulture, 8(4):205-207; 1 pl.; 10 ref.

Mezzalira G; Colonna MB, 2002. Paulownia, a multifunctional wood variety. (Paulownia, un arboricoltura da legno multifunzionale.) Informatore Agrario, 58(1):65-73.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2008. Tropicos database. St Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

Neelay VR; Sah AK, 1983. A note on Paulownia trials -- future hope for social forestry. Indian Forester, 109(1):10-11; 3 ref.

Neil PE, 1990. Early performance of Paulownia species. Banko Janakari, 2(3):220-222; 8 ref.

Ni SQ; Shi SZ, 1998. The breeding of elite clone of Paulownia x jiangsuensis Cl. '3'. Journal of Jiangsu Forestry Science and Technology, 25(2):1-6.

Nowack R, 1987. Naturalization of Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb) Steud. in the Hine- Neckar region west. Floristische Rundbriefe, 21(1):25-32.

Olmstead RG; Reeves PA, 1995. Evidence for the polyphyly of the Scrophulariaceae based on Chloroplast RBCL and NDHF sequences. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 82(2):176-193.

Olson JR; Carpenter SB, 1985. Specific gravity, fibre length, and extractive content of young paulownia. Wood and Fiber Science, 17(4):428-438; 21 ref.

PIER, 2008. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. USA: Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Remaley T, 1998. Princess Tree: Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb.) Sieb. & Zucc. ex Steud. Washington DC, USA: Bureau of Land Management, Plant Conservation Alliance. http://www.nps.gov/plants/alien/fact/pato1.htm

Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney, 2008. Australia's Virtual Herbarium. Sydney, Australia: Royal Botanic Gardens. http://avhtas.tmag

SE-EPPC, 2003. Princess Tree. Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb.) Sieb. & Zucc. ex Steud. Invasive Plants of the Eastern United States. Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council Invasive Plant Manual. http://www.invasive.org/eastern/eppc/princess.html

Siddiqui KM; Khan M, 1989. Introduction of Paulownia in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Forestry, 39(4):171-176; 5 ref.

Sticher O; Lahloub MF, 1982. Phenolic glycosides of Paulownia tomentosa. Planta Medica, 46(3):145-148; BLL; 26 ref.

Streets RJ, 1962. Exotic forest trees in the British Commonwealth. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press.

Takahashi A; Dong YK; Zhao CR; Wei YL; Nakao T; Tanaka C, 1991. The research study of the physical and mechanical properties of Chinese kiri woods (Paulownia spp.) and its use. Part II. Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture, Shimane University, 25: 137-142; 14 ref.

Tan SS; Wu GJ, 1983. Preliminary investigation on diseases of Paulownia in China. Proceedings of the 2nd National Forest Disease Congress, 6-12.

Tian GuoZhong; Xiong YaoGuo; Wang Yue; Zhao DanNing; Li Feng; Xu Gang, 1994. Resistances of different clones of Paulownia to witches' broom agent mycoplasma-like organisms (MLO). Forest Research, 7(2):155-161; 7 ref.

Turner GD; Lau RR; Young DR, 1988. Effect of acidity on germination and seedling growth of Paulownia tomentosa. Journal of Applied Ecology, 25(2):561-567; 28 ref.

USDA-ARS, 2008. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2008. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

Verma TD; Ajay Sharma; Anil Sood, 2005. Insect pests of Robinia pseudoacacia and Paulownia tomentosa in Solan District of Himachal Pradesh. Indian Forester, 131(9):1235-1237. http://www.indianforester.org

Wang K; Pang H, 1995. Detection of mycoplasma-like organism associated with Paulownia tissue culture witches' broom by polymerize chain reaction (CPR). Forest Research, 8(2):215-218.

Wang QB; Shogren JF, 1992. Characteristics of the crop-paulownia system in China. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 39(3-4):145-152; 14 ref.

Williams CE, 1993. Age structure and importance of naturalized Paulownia tomentosa in central Virginia streamside forest. Castanea, 58(4):243-249.

Wilson G, 1988. Paulownia: A tree for intercropping between other crops. Wanatca (West Australian Nut & Tree Crop Association), 13:44-47.

Xiong YaoGuo; Zhu ZhaoHua; Lin JingZhong; Zheng ZZ; Xiong YG; Zhu ZH; Lin JZ, 1994. Study on the variation and correlation of seedling characteristics of Paulownia. Forest Research, 7(2):149-154; 3 ref.

Xiong YG; Zhu ZH, 1991. Selection and breeding in Paulownia genus. In: Tu ZY, Huang MR, eds. Genetic Improvement on Broad-leaved Trees. Beijing, China: Scientific and Technical Documants Publishing House, 199-230.

Yang JX, Li WH 1987. Studies on Sphaceloma tsugii in Paulowina trees. Bulletin of forest pests, 3: 5-8.

Yang KC, 1986. The ultrastructure of pits in Paulownia tomentosa. Wood and Fiber Science, 18(1):118-126; 25 ref.

Yang YQ; Li JS, 1982. Control of pests and diseases in forests. Henan, China: Henan Science and Technology Press. 10-15.

Yang YQ; Zhou YJ; Gao GY, 1975. Preliminary investigation on insect pests and diseases of Paulownia in Henan Province. Bulletin of Science-Technology of Henan Agriculture College, 1:1-5.

Yoo TaeKyung; Jung HeeSuk, 1997. Effect of moisture contents and density of Paulownia tomentosa on acoustical properties. Mokchae Konghak = Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, 25(2):61-66.

Yoshikawa N; Nakamura H; Sahashi N; Kubono T; Katsube K; Shoji T; Takahashi T, 1994. Amplification and nucleotide sequences of ribosomal protein and 16S rRNA genes of mycoplasma-like organism associated with paulownia witches' broom. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 60(5):569-575

Yuan TL, 1984. Some studies on witches' broom disease of Paulownia in China. International Journal of Tropical Plant Diseases, 2(2):181-190

Zhang C; Yao Y; Liu T, 1995. Studies on the Growth Response of Young Paulownia Plantation to Different Soil Texture. Forest Research, 8(1), 115-118.

Zhao D; Song Y; Song L, 1992. Study on the genotypic stability and grown adaptability of Paulownia clones. Forest Research, 5(5):524-530.

Zhao D; Xiong Y; Son L; Li F; Xu G, 1993. Dynamic analysis of the annual growth of paulownia clones in seedling stage. Forest Research, 6(1):39-45.

Zhao DN, 1995. Effect of multiple trait selection on tree trunk from improvement in Paulownia. In: Li ZY, ed. Advances in Paulownia research. Beijing, China: China Forestry Publishing House, 133-137.

Zheng H; Jia H; Lian Y; Lu X; Zhang W, 1990. Studies on the effect of rare-earth on nursery stock growth in Paulownia spp. Forest Research, 3(3):275-279.

Zheng H; Wu Y; Ding J; Binion D; Fu W; Reardon R, 2006. Invasive plants of Asian origin established in the US and their natural enemies. Volume 1. Chinese Academy of Sciences and USDA Forest Service. http:\\www.us/foresthealth/technology/pdfs/IPAOv1ed2.pdf

Zheng WJ, 1978. Silvicultural techniques for major forest trees in China. Volume 1. Beijing, China; China Agriculture Press.

Zheng WJ, 1979. China flora. Tomus, 67(2):28-44.

Zhu ZH, 1980. Research on Paulownia. Beijing, China: China Agriculture Press.

Zhu ZH, 1981. A discussion on the distribution centre and flora of Paulownia genus. Scientia Silvae Sinicae, 17(3):12-20; 17 ref.

Zhu ZH, 1982. Proceedings on Paulownia. Beijing, China: China Forestry Publishing House.

Zhu ZH, 1995. Study on the species, distribution and synthetically characteristics of genus Paulownia. In: Xiong YG, ed. Paulownia Genetic Improvement. China: Chinese Science And Technology Press.

Zhu ZH, 1995a. An approach to the distributive center and flora of genus Paulownia. In: Xiong YG, Zhao D, eds. Paulownia Genetic Improvement. China: Chinese Science and Technology Press.

Zhu ZH; Chao CJ; Lu XY; Xiong YG, 1986. Paulownia in China: cultivation and utilization. 1986, vi + 65 pp.; Published jointly with the Asian Network for Biological Sciences, Singapore; 9 ref.

Zhu ZH; Xiong YG, 1989a. Selection and breeding for 7 super Paulownia clones. Paulownia, 2: 15-21.

Zhu Zh; Xiong YG, 1989b. Test on 7 super Paulownia clones at seedling stage. Paulownia, 2: 8-14.

Contributors

Top of page

29/02/2008 Updated by:

Nick Pasiecznik, Consultant, France

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map
Download KML file Download CSV file
Creative Commons Licence
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Please click OK to ACCEPT or Cancel to REJECT

Creative Commons Licence
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Please click OK to ACCEPT or Cancel to REJECT