Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Paspalum scrobiculatum
(ricegrass paspalum)

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Datasheet

Paspalum scrobiculatum (ricegrass paspalum)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Paspalum scrobiculatum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • ricegrass paspalum
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • P. scrobiculata is a common weed in the tropics. It is listed as a noxious weed by USDA-APHIS (USDA-ARS, 2003) but is not wide...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
P. scrobiculatum showing leaves and panicle, Rokupr Upland Farm, Sierra Leone.
TitleHabit
CaptionP. scrobiculatum showing leaves and panicle, Rokupr Upland Farm, Sierra Leone.
Copyright©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
P. scrobiculatum showing leaves and panicle, Rokupr Upland Farm, Sierra Leone.
HabitP. scrobiculatum showing leaves and panicle, Rokupr Upland Farm, Sierra Leone.©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
P. scrobiculatum showing panicle, Rokupr Upland Farm, Sierra Leone.
TitlePanicle
CaptionP. scrobiculatum showing panicle, Rokupr Upland Farm, Sierra Leone.
Copyright©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
P. scrobiculatum showing panicle, Rokupr Upland Farm, Sierra Leone.
PanicleP. scrobiculatum showing panicle, Rokupr Upland Farm, Sierra Leone.©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
Inflorescence of P. scrobiculatum.
TitleInflorescence
CaptionInflorescence of P. scrobiculatum.
CopyrightJohn Terry
Inflorescence of P. scrobiculatum.
InflorescenceInflorescence of P. scrobiculatum.John Terry

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Paspalum scrobiculatum L.

Preferred Common Name

  • ricegrass paspalum

Other Scientific Names

  • Paspalum akoense Hay.
  • Paspalum auriculatum
  • Paspalum barbatum Schum.
  • Paspalum cartilagineum var. horneri
  • Paspalum commersonii Lam.
  • Paspalum horneri var. lanceolatum
  • Paspalum lamprocaryon
  • Paspalum orbiculare Forst.
  • Paspalum polystachyum R. Br.
  • Paspalum zollingeri var. bispicatum

International Common Names

  • English: creeping paspalum; ditch millet; Indian paspalum; kodo; kodo millet; rice grass; scrobic; water couch
  • Spanish: mijo koda
  • French: herbe à épée

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Kodahirse
  • India: arika; haraka; kodra
  • India/Madhya Pradesh: kondon
  • India/Tamil Nadu: varagu
  • Japan: suzumenokobie

EPPO code

  • PASSC (Paspalum scrobiculatum)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page P. scrobiculata is a common weed in the tropics. It is listed as a noxious weed by USDA-APHIS (USDA-ARS, 2003) but is not widely considered to be highly invasive. It is not considered an environmental invasive on Pacific Islands (PIER, 2004).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Paspalum
  •                                 Species: Paspalum scrobiculatum

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page Clayton and Renvoize (1982) comment that P. scrobiculatum is 'a polymorphic species, but with variation apparently quite continuous; possibly a swarm of apomicts.' Some of the variants were given specific status until quite recently with P. scrobiculatum (s.s.) representing the erect annual form sometimes used as a crop, P. commersonii and P. orbiculare the more weedy perennial forms, and P. polystachyum, a particularly robust form.

Description

Top of page P. scrobiculatum is a tufted annual or perennial grass up to 150 cm tall. Culms stout, erect, glabrous, somewhat bulbous at base, sheaths 7-14 cm long, glabrous or with sparse hairs at the collar, compressed, basal ones often purplish; ligule very short, 1 mm, membranous, but with a dense row of hairs just behind it; blades flat, 12-40 cm long, 3-12 mm wide, acute, scabrous, glaucous on upper surface. Inflorescence has four to six racemes, these are 2-4 cm long, alternate, distant, their axis 4-9 cm long, villous at base, sometimes pilose in the axils. Rachis 1-1.5 mm wide, scabrous, usually reddish on the margins; spikelets paired, 2-2.5 mm long, broadly elliptic, imbricate, glabrous. Second glume and sterile lemma 3-nerved. Fertile lemma indurated, finely pitted; caryopsis 1.5 mm long, compressed-elliptic, pale (Stone, 1970).

Plant Type

Top of page Annual
Grass / sedge
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated

Distribution

Top of page This species is found throughout the Paleotropics and in south-eastern USA (USDA-ARS, 2003). It is widely cultivated in India, which is probably its centre of origin. It is native to Africa, tropical Asia and Australia. The distribution in the Pacific is given in PIER (2004).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BhutanPresentNativeNoltie, 2000
Brunei DarussalamPresentNativeHolm et al., 1991; Waterhouse, 1993
CambodiaRestricted distributionNativeHolm et al., 1991; Waterhouse, 1993; EPPO, 2014
ChinaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-GuangdongPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
-GuangxiPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
-HainanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
-Hong KongRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-HunanWidespreadNative Invasive Holm et al., 1991
-YunnanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
East TimorWidespreadNativeHolm et al., 1991
IndiaRestricted distributionNative Invasive Holm et al., 1991; EPPO, 2014
-SikkimPresentNativeNoltie, 2000
-West BengalPresentNativeNoltie, 2000
IndonesiaRestricted distributionNative Invasive Holm et al., 1991; Waterhouse, 1993; EPPO, 2014
JapanRestricted distributionNative Invasive Holm et al., 1991; EPPO, 2014
Korea, DPRRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
LaosPresentWaterhouse, 1993
MalaysiaRestricted distributionNative Invasive Holm et al., 1991; Waterhouse, 1993; EPPO, 2014
MyanmarPresentNativeWaterhouse, 1993; USDA-ARS, 2003
PakistanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
PhilippinesRestricted distributionNative Invasive Holm et al., 1991; Waterhouse, 1993; EPPO, 2014
SingaporePresentWaterhouse, 1993
Sri LankaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
TaiwanRestricted distributionNative Invasive Holm et al., 1991; EPPO, 2014
ThailandRestricted distributionNative Invasive Holm et al., 1991; Waterhouse, 1993; EPPO, 2014
VietnamPresentWaterhouse, 1993

Africa

AngolaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
BeninPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
BotswanaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
Burkina FasoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
CameroonPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
Congo Democratic RepublicRestricted distributionNative Invasive Holm et al., 1991; EPPO, 2014
Côte d'IvoireRestricted distributionNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003; EPPO, 2014
GambiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
GhanaRestricted distributionNative Invasive Holm et al., 1991; EPPO, 2014
GuineaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
KenyaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
LiberiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
MalawiPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
MaliPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
MauritaniaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
MauritiusRestricted distributionNative Invasive Holm et al., 1991; EPPO, 2014
MozambiquePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
NamibiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
NigeriaRestricted distributionNative Invasive Holm et al., 1991; EPPO, 2014
RéunionPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
SenegalRestricted distributionNativeHolm et al., 1991; EPPO, 2014
Sierra LeonePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
South AfricaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
SudanPresentHolm et al., 1991
SwazilandPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
TanzaniaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
TogoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
UgandaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
ZambiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
ZimbabwePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003

North America

USARestricted distributionIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2003
-HawaiiPresentWagner et al., 1999
-MarylandRestricted distributionIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2003
-New JerseyRestricted distributionIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2003

South America

BrazilRestricted distributionHolm et al., 1991; EPPO, 2014

Oceania

American SamoaPresentPIER, 2004
AustraliaRestricted distributionNative Invasive Holm et al., 1991; EPPO, 2014
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
-New South WalesPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
-QueenslandPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
-Western AustraliaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2003
Cook IslandsPresentPIER, 2004
FijiRestricted distribution Invasive Holm et al., 1991; EPPO, 2014
French PolynesiaPresentPIER, 2004
GuamPresentPIER, 2004
KiribatiPresentPIER, 2004
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentPIER, 2004
NauruPresentPIER, 2004
New CaledoniaPresentPIER, 2004
NiuePresentPIER, 2004
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentPIER, 2004
PalauPresentPIER, 2004
Papua New GuineaWidespread Invasive Holm et al., 1991
Solomon IslandsPresentPIER, 2004
TongaPresentPIER, 2004
VanuatuPresentPIER, 2004
Wallis and Futuna IslandsPresentPIER, 2004

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page P. scrobiculatum has been introduced to many parts of the world as an agricultural crop either as a grain crop or as a pasture species.

Habitat

Top of page P. scrobiculatum is a common weed of wastelands and fields in the tropics. Usually found in exposed areas, but tolerant of shade. In Fiji it is abundant at elevations up to 1300 m (Smith, 1979). In Hawaii it is common on slopes in poor soils where few other grasses will grow, and in wet, swampy ground up to 1100 m (Wagner et al., 1999).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Protected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Wetlands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
Corchorus olitorius (jute)TiliaceaeMain

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall00mm; lower/upper limits

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free
  • impeded
  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • shallow

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Soil, sand and gravel Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx seeds
Growing medium accompanying plants seeds
True seeds (inc. grain) seeds

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collections None
Animal/plant products None
Biodiversity (generally) Negative
Crop production Negative
Environment (generally) Negative
Fisheries / aquaculture None
Forestry production Negative
Human health None
Livestock production Negative
Native fauna None
Native flora Negative
Rare/protected species None
Tourism None
Trade/international relations None
Transport/travel None

Impact

Top of page Holm et al. (1991) record this species (as 'P. scrobiculatum') as a 'serious' weed in India, the Philippines, Senegal, Taiwan and Thailand, and as a 'principal' weed in Côte d'Ivoire, Korea and Mauritius; also (as 'P. orbiculare') as a 'serious' weed in Ghana; and (as 'P. commersonii') as a 'principal' weed in Malaysia, Nigeria and Swaziland.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact outcomes
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Reduced native biodiversity
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Pest and disease transmission
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant

Uses

Top of page Widely cultivated as a minor millet in Africa and Asia, especially India (Senthivel et al., 1994; Anon., 1996; Ramasamy et al., 1996). Also used for forage (Bisset et al., 1974; Kitamura and Nada, 1986; Su and Lin, 1994; Compere et al., 1995) and as a feed supplement (Kapoor et al., 1987). In India, it has been used as a substrate for mushroom production (Kumar and Chandra, 1998) and for medicinal purposes (Roy and Pal, 1994).

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed
  • Forage

Human food and beverage

  • Cereal

Materials

  • Poisonous to mammals

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page Often found in association with P. conjugatum but distinguished from it by the tufted habit and more compact flower head.

References

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Anon., 1996. Lost Crops of Africa. Volume 1: Grains. Washington DC, USA: National Academy Press.

Baghel MS; Yadva HS; Tomar; MS; Verma; SNP, 1991. Intercropping of pulse and oil seeds with kodo millet in dryland. Bhartiya Krishi Anusandhan Patrika, 6(1):34-38.

Bisset WJ; Marlowe GWC, 1974. Productivity and dynamics of two Siratro based pastures in the Burnett coastal foothills of south east Queensland. Tropical Grasslands, 8(1):17-24.

Christopher J; Raj PS; Pillai KG, 1987. Cytomorphological studies of three species of Paspalum Linn. from South India. Cytologia, 52(3):487-491.

Clayton WD; Renvoize SA, 1982. Gramineae (Part 3). In: Polhill RM, ed. Flora of Tropical East Africa. Rotterdam, Netherlands: Balkema.

Compere R; Dupont J; Majerus JP; Buldgen A, 1994. Management of high-altitude grasslands on acid soils in the central region of the Zanre-Nile ridge, Rwanda. 1. Site characteristics. Bulletin des Recherches Agronomiques de Gembloux, 29(4):449-473; 9 ref.

Dubey RK; Shukla RS; Dubey N, 1994. Association analysis in gamma treated kodo millet cv. JNK115. Journal of Soils and Crops, 4(2):113-116.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Gupta SP; Narain U; Mohit Singh; Shukla TN, 1982. A new leaf blight of 'kondon' (Paspalum scrobiculatum L.) from India. National Academy Science Letters, 5(2):41

Holm GL; Pancho JV; Herberger JP; Plucknett DL, 1991. A Geographical Atlas of World Weeds. Krieger, Malabar, Florida.

Hurt CR; Hardy MB; Tainton; NM, 1993. Identification of key grass species under grazing in the Highland Sourveld of Natal. African Journal of Range and Forage Science, 10(2): 96-102.

Jain AK, 1995. Management of head smut in kodo-millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum L.). Annals of Agricultural Research, 16(2):172-178

Kapoor PN; Netke SP; Bajpai LD, 1987. Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition, 4(2):83-88.

Kitamura M; Nada Y, 1986. Preliminary evaluation of 24 tropical grasses introduced into sub-tropical Japan. Journal of Japanese Society of Grassland Science, 32(3):278-280.

Kumar S; Chandra KD, 1988. Studies on the utilization of rice bran for spawn production of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing. Indian Journal of Mushrooms, 14(1-2):10-15.

Nema AG; Kulkarni SN; Pall BS, 1979. Bacterial leaf streak of kodo (Paspalum scrobiculatum L.). Science and Culture, 45(9):365-366

Noltie HJ, 2000. Flora of Bhutan including a record of plants from Sikkim and Darjeeling. Volume 3 Part 2. The Grasses of Bhutan. Edinburgh, UK: Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh and Royal Government of Bhutan.

Onkar Singh; Sharma RP; Singh RP; Singh D, 1984. Effect of sowing dates on the incidence of shootfly (Atherigona simplex) and yield of some improved kodo (Paspalum scrobiculatum) strains. Bulletin of Entomology, 25(1):22-26.

PIER, 2004. Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk. Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry. http://www.hear.org/pier/.

Raja VDG; Natarajan US, 1974. Occurrence of pests of kodo millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 71(3):623-624

Ramasamy M; Vairavan K; Srinivasan K, 1996. Production potential and economics of cereal based cropping system in red lateritic soils of Pudukkottai district. Madras Agricultural Journal, 83(4):236-239.

Roy B; Pal DC, 1994. Some interesting new uses of four plants. Ethnobiology in human welfare: abstracts of the fourth international congress of ethnobiology, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India, 17-21 November, 1994., 290.

Sastry MS; Singh YP; Jain VK, 1975. Kodo poisoning in animals [Paspalum scrobiculatum]. Indian Journal of Animal Health, 14(2):183-184.

Senthivel S; Solaiappan U; Subramanian S, 1994. Agricultural Science Digest, Karnal, 14(3-4):197-200.

Smith AC, 1979. Flora Vitiensis nova: A new flora of Fiji. Volume I. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii, USA: National Tropical Botanical Garden, 494 pp.

Stone BC, 1970. The flora of Guam. Micronesica 6:218.

Su SJ; Lin JR, 1994. Report on pratacultural system engineering of hilly land in Fujian Province, China. Pratacultural Science, 11(1):38-41.

USDA-ARS, 2003. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2003. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, USA. http://plants.usda.gov.

Wagner WL; Herbst DR; Sohmer SH, 1999. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawaii, Revised ed. Honolulu, USA: University of Hawaii Press.

Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp.

Yadava HS; Ahmad MS; Singh SB, 1996. Phenotypic stability for grain yield and fodder yield in Kodo-millet. Crop Research Hisar, 12(3): 343-348.

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

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