Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Paspalum notatum
(Bahia grass)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Paspalum notatum (Bahia grass)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 02 July 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Paspalum notatum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Bahia grass
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Paspalum notatum is a perennial grass which is native to South America, and according to some authors native to Central America and the West Indies as well. It is widely naturalized in tropical, subtropical and...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Paspalum notatum (bahiagrass); habit. Australia. March 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionPaspalum notatum (bahiagrass); habit. Australia. March 2009.
Copyright©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Paspalum notatum (bahiagrass); habit. Australia. March 2009.
HabitPaspalum notatum (bahiagrass); habit. Australia. March 2009.©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Paspalum notatum (bahiagrass); habit. Ground cover is often much sparser than many other grasses growing in the same area. Australia. June 2012.
TitleHabit
CaptionPaspalum notatum (bahiagrass); habit. Ground cover is often much sparser than many other grasses growing in the same area. Australia. June 2012.
Copyright©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Paspalum notatum (bahiagrass); habit. Ground cover is often much sparser than many other grasses growing in the same area. Australia. June 2012.
HabitPaspalum notatum (bahiagrass); habit. Ground cover is often much sparser than many other grasses growing in the same area. Australia. June 2012.©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Paspalum notatum (bahiagrass); stem base is bulbous, and purplish. Australia. March 2009.
TitleStem base
CaptionPaspalum notatum (bahiagrass); stem base is bulbous, and purplish. Australia. March 2009.
Copyright©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Paspalum notatum (bahiagrass); stem base is bulbous, and purplish. Australia. March 2009.
Stem basePaspalum notatum (bahiagrass); stem base is bulbous, and purplish. Australia. March 2009.©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Paspalum notatum (bahiagrass); nodes are hairless. Australia. January 2005.
TitleNode
CaptionPaspalum notatum (bahiagrass); nodes are hairless. Australia. January 2005.
Copyright©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Paspalum notatum (bahiagrass); nodes are hairless. Australia. January 2005.
NodePaspalum notatum (bahiagrass); nodes are hairless. Australia. January 2005.©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Paspalum notatum (bahiagrass); sheath and leaves are hairless. Australia. January 2005.
TitleSheath
CaptionPaspalum notatum (bahiagrass); sheath and leaves are hairless. Australia. January 2005.
Copyright©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Paspalum notatum (bahiagrass); sheath and leaves are hairless. Australia. January 2005.
SheathPaspalum notatum (bahiagrass); sheath and leaves are hairless. Australia. January 2005.©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Paspalum notatum (bahiagrass); leaves are usually hairless, sometimes with a whitish midrib. Australia. January 2005.
TitleLeaves
CaptionPaspalum notatum (bahiagrass); leaves are usually hairless, sometimes with a whitish midrib. Australia. January 2005.
Copyright©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Paspalum notatum (bahiagrass); leaves are usually hairless, sometimes with a whitish midrib. Australia. January 2005.
LeavesPaspalum notatum (bahiagrass); leaves are usually hairless, sometimes with a whitish midrib. Australia. January 2005.©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Paspalum notatum (bahiagrass); ligule is a short membrane, 0.3-0.6mm long. Australia. January 2005.
TitleLigule
CaptionPaspalum notatum (bahiagrass); ligule is a short membrane, 0.3-0.6mm long. Australia. January 2005.
Copyright©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Paspalum notatum (bahiagrass); ligule is a short membrane, 0.3-0.6mm long. Australia. January 2005.
LigulePaspalum notatum (bahiagrass); ligule is a short membrane, 0.3-0.6mm long. Australia. January 2005.©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Paspalum notatum (bahiagrass); flowerheads are mostly digitate, with two (occasionally three) rather rigid branches 5-12 cm long that turn black when anthers and stigmas are out. Australia. December 2004.
TitleFlowerheads
CaptionPaspalum notatum (bahiagrass); flowerheads are mostly digitate, with two (occasionally three) rather rigid branches 5-12 cm long that turn black when anthers and stigmas are out. Australia. December 2004.
Copyright©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Paspalum notatum (bahiagrass); flowerheads are mostly digitate, with two (occasionally three) rather rigid branches 5-12 cm long that turn black when anthers and stigmas are out. Australia. December 2004.
FlowerheadsPaspalum notatum (bahiagrass); flowerheads are mostly digitate, with two (occasionally three) rather rigid branches 5-12 cm long that turn black when anthers and stigmas are out. Australia. December 2004.©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Paspalum notatum (bahiagrass); spikelets occur in two rows and are two-flowered, 2.7-4 mm long, hairless, elliptical in shape and shiny. Lower glume is absent, and the upper glume is as long as the spikelet, and similar in texture to the lower lemma. Australia. December 2004.
TitleSpikelets
CaptionPaspalum notatum (bahiagrass); spikelets occur in two rows and are two-flowered, 2.7-4 mm long, hairless, elliptical in shape and shiny. Lower glume is absent, and the upper glume is as long as the spikelet, and similar in texture to the lower lemma. Australia. December 2004.
Copyright©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Paspalum notatum (bahiagrass); spikelets occur in two rows and are two-flowered, 2.7-4 mm long, hairless, elliptical in shape and shiny. Lower glume is absent, and the upper glume is as long as the spikelet, and similar in texture to the lower lemma. Australia. December 2004.
SpikeletsPaspalum notatum (bahiagrass); spikelets occur in two rows and are two-flowered, 2.7-4 mm long, hairless, elliptical in shape and shiny. Lower glume is absent, and the upper glume is as long as the spikelet, and similar in texture to the lower lemma. Australia. December 2004.©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Paspalum notatum (bahiagrass); seeds. Note scale.
TitleSeeds
CaptionPaspalum notatum (bahiagrass); seeds. Note scale.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by the USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database/original image by Steve Hurst
Paspalum notatum (bahiagrass); seeds. Note scale.
SeedsPaspalum notatum (bahiagrass); seeds. Note scale.Public Domain - Released by the USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database/original image by Steve Hurst

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Paspalum notatum Flüggé

Preferred Common Name

  • Bahia grass

Other Scientific Names

  • Paspalum distachyon Willd. ex Doell
  • Paspalum saltense Arechav.
  • Paspalum taphrophyllum Steud.
  • Paspalum uruguayense Arechav.

International Common Names

  • English: Bahiagrass; common Bahia; Pensacola Bahia grass
  • Spanish: alpargata; cambute; cañamazo; grama dulce; gramilla blanca; hierba de Bahia; pasto Bahia; pasto horqueta
  • French: herbe de Bahia
  • Chinese: bai xi cao

Local Common Names

  • Australia: lawn paspalum; water couch
  • Bolivia: pasto camba
  • Brazil: grama batatais; grama forquilha; grama forquinha; grama mato grosso
  • Costa Rica: gengibrillo; jenjibrillo
  • Cuba: alambrillo; cuero de buey; gramón dulce; pasto labrado; sacasebo; tejona
  • Dominican Republic: yerba Bahia; yerba tejana
  • Indonesia: rumput pencasilan
  • Jamaica: bammy grass
  • Japan: bahia garusu; amerika suzume no hie; kyuushu
  • Mexico: zacate bahia
  • Puerto Rico: grama de Bahia; yerba Bahía
  • Vietnam: co san dâú
  • Zimbabwe: Paraguay paspalum

EPPO code

  • PASNO (Paspalum notatum)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

Paspalum notatum is a perennial grass which is native to South America, and according to some authors native to Central America and the West Indies as well. It is widely naturalized in tropical, subtropical and warm temperate regions of the world where it has often been introduced to be used as a forage, for erosion control and as an ornamental and lawn grass. It is well adapted to a wide range of climates and soil types, including poor infertile soils. It spreads by seeds and vegetatively by stolons and rhizomes, and once established it grows forming dense mats of stolons, rhizomes and a thick root system that inhibit the growth and establishment of other plant species. It is very persistent and competitive, and tolerates drought, sporadic flooding, and continuous grazing; it has the potential to continue dominating pastures decades after abandonment (Violi, 2000; Cook et al., 2005; Useful Tropical Plants, 2018; Newman et al., 2014; Heuzé and Tran, 2016).

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Paspalum
  •                                 Species: Paspalum notatum

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

Paspalum is a large genus with nearly 400 species primarily distributed across the Americas and inhabiting ecologically diverse habitats such as savannas, coastal dunes, tropical and temperate forests, and prairies (Giussani et al., 2009). Centers of highest diversity have been recognized in the Brazilian Cerrados and grasslands in Argentina, Uruguay, and southern Brazil (Zuloaga and Morrone 2005; Rua et al., 2010). A few Paspalum species are found in Africa, Asia, and Oceania, but the genus is thought to have originated in tropical South America (Rua et al., 2010). Many Paspalum species have been used as pasture grass in tropical and subtropical regions and some are economically important turf and ornamental grasses. Paspalum notatum is a perennial rhizomatous forage grass recognized as one of the major constituents of native grasslands in the New World. It is occasionally treated as having distinct varieties and many cultivars have also been developed (Cidade et al., 2008; Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018).

Description

Top of page

Perennial grass; rhizomatous. Culms 20-110 cm, erect; nodes glabrous. Sheaths glabrous or pubescent; ligules 0.2-0.5 mm; blades 5-31 cm long, 2-10 mm wide, flat or conduplicate, glabrous or pubescent. Panicles terminal, usually composed of a digitate pair of branches, 1-3 additional branches sometimes present below the terminal pair; branches 3-15 cm, diverging to erect; branch axes 0.7-1.8 mm wide, narrowly winged, glabrous, margins scabrous, terminating in a spikelet, distal spikelets sometimes reduced. Spikelets 2.5-4 mm long, 2-2.8 mm wide, solitary, appressed to the branch axes, broadly elliptic to ovate or obovate, glabrous, light stramineous to white, apices obtuse to broadly acute. Lower glumes absent; upper glumes glabrous, 5-veined; lower lemmas 5-veined, margins inrolled; upper florets light yellow to white. Caryopses 2-3 mm, white (Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018).

Paspalum notatum can be distinguished from other Paspalum species by its robust woody rhizomes and relatively narrow leaves (up to 10 mm across). Its relatively large flower spikelets (2.75-4 mm long) do not have long silky hairs on their margins and its seed-heads usually have only two branches (i.e. racemes). The upper glume is cartilaginous, the lower lemma resembling upper glume but slightly shorter; the upper lemma pale green, slightly shorter than spikelet, finely striate, obtuse (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018; Queensland Government, 2018).

Plant Type

Top of page Grass / sedge
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

Top of page

The native range of Paspalum notatum is still uncertain. According to some authors, it is native to South America from Peru to Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay (Zuloaga et al., 2008; Clayton et al., 2018), but according to others it extends to Mexico, Central America and the West Indies (Davidse et al., 1994; Zuloaga et al., 2003; Broome et al., 2007; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; USDA-ARS, 2018).  P. notatum has also been widely introduced in tropical and warm-temperate regions of the world and can be found cultivated and naturalized in the United States, Asia, Africa, the Mediterranean region and Australia, and on some islands in the Pacific Ocean (Clayton et al., 2018; DAISIE, 2018; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018; GRIIS, 2018; PIER, 2018; PROSEA, 2018; PROTA, 2018; USDA-ARS, 2018).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 30 Jun 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BeninPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2018)
Burkina FasoPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2018)
BurundiPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2018)
CameroonPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2018)
Central African RepublicPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2018)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2018)
Côte d'IvoirePresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2018)
EswatiniPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2018)
GabonPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2018)
GuineaPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2018)
KenyaPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2018)
MadagascarPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2018)
MalawiPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2018)
RwandaPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2018)
Saint Helena
-Tristan da CunhaPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2018)
South AfricaPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2018)
TanzaniaPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2018)
UgandaPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2018)
ZambiaPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2018)
ZimbabwePresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2018)

Asia

BhutanPresentIntroducedGRIIS (2018)
ChinaPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2018)
-FujianPresentIntroducedNaturalizedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2018)Naturalized and cultivated
-GansuPresentIntroducedNaturalizedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2018)Naturalized and cultivated
-HebeiPresentIntroducedNaturalizedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2018)Naturalized and cultivated
-YunnanPresentIntroducedNaturalizedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2018)Naturalized and cultivated
IndiaPresentIntroducedGRIIS (2018)
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2018)
IndonesiaPresentIntroducedPROSEA (2018)
-Lesser Sunda IslandsPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2018)
JapanPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2018)
-Bonin IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER (2018)
MyanmarPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2018)
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2018)
South KoreaPresentIntroducedGRIIS (2018)
TaiwanPresentIntroducedGRIIS (2018)
ThailandPresentIntroducedPROSEA (2018)
VietnamPresentIntroducedPROSEA (2018)

Europe

France
-CorsicaPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2018)
GreecePresentIntroducedNaturalizedDAISIE (2018)
ItalyPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2018)
Portugal
-AzoresPresentIntroducedNaturalizedDAISIE (2018)

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresentNativeBroome et al. (2007)
BelizePresentClayton et al. (2018); USDA-ARS (2018)Sources differ as to whether it is native or introduced
Cayman IslandsPresentAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); Clayton et al. (2018)Sources differ as to whether it is native or introduced
Costa RicaPresentClayton et al. (2018); USDA-ARS (2018)Sources differ as to whether it is native or introduced
CubaPresentAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); Oviedo Prieto et al. (2012); Clayton et al. (2018)Sources differ as to whether it is native or introduced and whether or not it is invasive
DominicaPresentNativeBroome et al. (2007)
Dominican RepublicPresentAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); Clayton et al. (2018)Sources differ as to whether it is native or introduced
El SalvadorPresentClayton et al. (2018); USDA-ARS (2018)Sources differ as to whether it is native or introduced
GrenadaPresentNativeBroome et al. (2007)
GuadeloupePresentNativeBroome et al. (2007)
GuatemalaPresentClayton et al. (2018); USDA-ARS (2018)Sources differ as to whether it is native or introduced
HaitiPresentAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); Clayton et al. (2018)Sources differ as to whether it is native or introduced
HondurasPresentClayton et al. (2018); USDA-ARS (2018)Sources differ as to whether it is native or introduced
JamaicaPresentAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); Clayton et al. (2018)Sources differ as to whether it is native or introduced
MartiniquePresentNativeBroome et al. (2007)
MexicoPresentClayton et al. (2018); USDA-ARS (2018)Sources differ as to whether it is native or introduced
MontserratPresentNativeBroome et al. (2007)
NicaraguaPresentClayton et al. (2018); USDA-ARS (2018)Sources differ as to whether it is native or introduced
PanamaPresentClayton et al. (2018); USDA-ARS (2018)Sources differ as to whether it is native or introduced
Puerto RicoPresentMás and García-Molinari (2006); Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); Clayton et al. (2018)Sources differ as to whether it is native or introduced
Saint LuciaPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
Saint MartinPresentNativeBroome et al. (2007)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentNativeBroome et al. (2007)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2018)
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); Clayton et al. (2018)Sources differ as to whether it is native or introduced
United StatesPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS (2018)Reported as invasive in Georgia and Hawaii
-AlabamaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2018)
-ArkansasPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2018)
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2018)
-FloridaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2018)
-GeorgiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveGeorgia Exotic Pest Plant Council (2006)
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2018)
-IllinoisPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2018)
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2018)
-MississippiPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2018)
-New JerseyPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2018)
-North CarolinaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2018)
-OklahomaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2018)
-South CarolinaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2018)
-TennesseePresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2018)
-TexasPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2018)
-VirginiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2018)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedInvasiveQueensland Government (2018)
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedInvasiveQueensland Government (2018)
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedInvasiveQueensland Government (2018)
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroducedInvasiveQueensland Government (2018)
FijiPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2018)
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveFlorence et al. (2013)
GuamPresentIntroducedPIER (2018)

South America

ArgentinaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
BoliviaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
BrazilPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
-AcrePresentNativeFlora do Brasil (2018)
-AmapaPresentNativeFlora do Brasil (2018)
-BahiaPresentNativeFlora do Brasil (2018)
-Distrito FederalPresentNativeFlora do Brasil (2018)
-Espirito SantoPresentNativeFlora do Brasil (2018)
-GoiasPresentNativeFlora do Brasil (2018)
-Mato GrossoPresentNativeFlora do Brasil (2018)
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentNativeFlora do Brasil (2018)
-Minas GeraisPresentNativeFlora do Brasil (2018)
-ParaPresentNativeFlora do Brasil (2018)
-ParanaPresentNativeFlora do Brasil (2018)
-Rio de JaneiroPresentNativeFlora do Brasil (2018)
-Rio Grande do SulPresentNativeFlora do Brasil (2018)
-Santa CatarinaPresentNativeFlora do Brasil (2018)
-Sao PauloPresentNativeFlora do Brasil (2018)
ColombiaPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2018)
EcuadorPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2018)
GuyanaPresentFunk et al. (2007)
ParaguayPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
PeruPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
SurinamePresentFunk et al. (2007)
UruguayPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2018)

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page

Paspalum notatum has been widely introduced in tropical and warm-temperate regions of the world, including areas in Asia, the Americas, Africa, Europe, Australia and the Pacific, as a forage and turf grass and for erosion control and ground cover (Heuzé and Tran, 2016; DAISIE, 2018; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018; PROSEA, 2018; PIER, 2018; Queensland Government, 2018). 

In the United States, Paspalum notatum was first introduced from Brazil in 1913 at the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station in Gainesville. In the 1920s, the Argentinean variety known as “Pensacola” was introduced to Florida in ships' ballast. In the 1940s the USDA intentionally introduced different cultivars to be used for forage and erosion control across southeastern states. Today, P. notatum is thought to cover over two million hectares across the United States (Beaty and Powell, 1978; Violi, 2000; Newman et al., 2014; USDA-NRCS, 2018).

In Puerto Rico, Paspalum notatum was apparently introduced in 1940 from Venezuela (Más and García-Molinari, 2006), and now it can be found naturalized in wet meadows, on slopes and along streams at lower to middle elevations (Liogier and Martorell, 2000).

In Zimbabwe, Paspalum notatum was introduced for grazing and slope erosion control; now it can be found as an occasional escape in disturbed places and roadsides, mainly in and around urban areas (Hyde et al., 2018).

Risk of Introduction

Top of page

The risk of new introductions of Paspalum notatum is very high. This species has been extensively planted for forage, turf, and soil stabilization across tropical and warm-temperature regions of the world and it is actively promoted as an excellent grass due to its adaptation to different climates and soil types (including infertile soils) and its tolerance of drought, sporadic flooding, and continuous grazing and traffic. It has repeatedly escaped from cultivation and easily colonizes new habitats until it becomes the dominant species (Violi, 2000; Cook et al., 2005; Useful Tropical Plants, 2018; Newman et al., 2014).

Habitat

Top of page

Paspalum notatum can be found growing in dry habitats, moist grasslands, wetlands, disturbed sites, shrublands, forest edges, open ground, savannas, roadsides, irrigation channels, and active and abandoned pastures at elevation from near sea level to 2000m.  It is often planted in gardens and lawns in parks and recreational areas, and can be a weed in fields and plantations (Cook et al., 2005; Heuzé and Tran, 2016; Useful Tropical Plants, 2018; PROSEA, 2018; Vibrans, 2018).

Habitat List

Top of page
CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Natural
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Wetlands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Wetlands Present, no further details Natural
Wetlands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Freshwater
Irrigation channels Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Irrigation channels Present, no further details Natural
Irrigation channels Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page

In Mexico, Paspalum notatum is listed as a weed in maize, sugarcane, rice, oat, agave, and coffee plantations (Vibrans, 2018). In the southern USA it is reported to inhibit the natural restoration of native Pinus palustris and Pinus elliottii forests.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

Top of page
Plant nameFamilyContext
AgaveAgavaceaeMain
Avena sativa (oats)PoaceaeMain
Coffea arabica (arabica coffee)RubiaceaeMain
Oryza sativa (rice)PoaceaeMain
Pinus elliottii (slash pine)PinaceaeWild host
Pinus palustris (longleaf pine)PinaceaeWild host
SaccharumPoaceaeMain
Zea mays (maize)PoaceaeMain

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

Genetics

The chromosome number reported for Paspalum notatum is 2n = 20, 30, 40, 50 (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018; Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018; PROSEA, 2018).  This species includes several genotypes differing in both ploidy level and reproductive system. The diploid type (2n=2x= 20) is sexual and self-incompatible, while the tetraploid type (2n=4x= 40) is self-compatible, pseudogamous and apomictic. Apomixis in the tetraploid type can be either obligate or facultative.  The tetraploid types are usually considered as the typical form of P. notatum in botanical terms, and the diploid types are often classified as botanical varieties. Triploid  (2n=3x=30) and even pentaploid (2n=5x= 50) individuals have also occasionally been collected from natural populations. Polyploidy and apomixis are important mechanisms in the evolution of the genus Paspalum (Quarin et al., 2001; Cidade et al., 2008; PROSEA, 2018).

Reproductive Biology

Paspalum notatum has hermaphroditic flowers and different ploidy levels, which influences reproduction. The tetraploid types are generally considered apomicts, and reproduce by unfertilized but viable seeds. The diploid forms reproduce sexually, and are usually highly cross-pollinated. The sexually reproducing types are wind-pollinated (Violi, 2000; Quarin et al., 2001; Cidade et al., 2008; PROSEA, 2018). The species is a heavy seeder and seed yields of 100-350 kg/ha have been reported.

Physiology and Phenology

In China, Paspalum notatum has been recorded flowering and fruiting in September (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018). In Zimbabwe, it produces flowers from December to April (Hyde et al., 2018). In Nicaragua, it has been recorded flowering and fruiting from June to August (Flora of Nicaragua, 2018). In Costa Rica it has been recorded with flowers and fruits from June to December (Hammel et al., 2003).  In the United States, inflorescences emerge from May to July and flowering usually occurs over a 4-week period. In Florida, seeds mature from June through the summer (Violi, 2000).

Longevity

Paspalum notatum is a perennial grass.

Associations

Paspalum notatum is used as a food-plant by the larval stage of Cnaphalocrocis trapezalis (Hyde et al., 2018).  Root associations with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and the diazotrophic (nitrogen fixing) bacterium Azorhizophilus paspali have been reported (Cook et al., 2005).

Environmental Requirements

Paspalum notatum is adapted to grow in tropical and subtropical zones, at elevations from near sea level to 2000 m. It grows vigorously under high temperatures and long days. In temperate regions, the highest growth rates occur during the warmest months (Newman et al., 2014). It prefers areas with mean annual temperature ranging from 18°C to 30°C (but can tolerate 5°C - 36°C) and mean annual rainfall in the range 900 – 2100 mm (but tolerates 750 - 2500 mm). It can grow on sandy and clay soil with pH in the range 5.5-6.5 (but tolerates 4.3 to 8.4). Some types are salt tolerant, withstanding up to 4500 ppm NaCl in irrigation water.  It has good drought tolerance and is fairly tolerant of flooding (plants can survive up to 36 days of flooding), but does not tolerate frosty conditions. It grows best in partially shaded areas, but can succeed in full sun and also in quite dense shade.  Although it prefers to grow in fertile soils, it can maintain dense stands on infertile soils, probably due to its association with nitrogen fixing bacteria (Cook et al., 2005; Useful Tropical Plants, 2018; Heuzé and Tran, 2016).

Climate

Top of page
ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

Top of page
Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
35 35 0 2000

Air Temperature

Top of page
Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 18 30
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 36
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 5

Rainfall

Top of page
ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall7502500mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal
Summer
Uniform
Winter

Soil Tolerances

Top of page

Soil drainage

  • free
  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • saline

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Cladosporium herbarum Pathogen not specific N
Claviceps paspali Pathogen not specific N
Claviceps purpurea Pathogen not specific N
Colletotrichum graminicola Pathogen not specific N
Gibberella gordonii Pathogen not specific
Helicotylenchus dihystera Parasite not specific N
Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus Parasite not specific N
Hoplolaimus pararobustus Parasite not specific N
Paratrichodorus minor Parasite not specific
Pratylenchus brachyurus Parasite not specific N
Radopholus similis Parasite not specific N
Scapteriscus borellii Herbivore Roots not specific
Scapteriscus vicinus Herbivore Roots not specific
Scutellonema clathricaudatum Parasite not specific
Spodoptera Herbivore not specific
Sporisorium paspali-notati Pathogen not specific
Thanatephorus cucumeris Pathogen not specific
Tylenchorhynchus claytoni Parasite not specific
Xiphinema ifacolum Parasite not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page

Paspalum notatum is affected by fungal diseases caused by Claviceps paspali (which can make it toxic to livestock -- Wallau et al., 2019), Cladosporium herbarum, Claviceps purpurea, Colletotrichum graminicola, Fusarium heterosporum [F. lolii or Gibberella gordonii], Omphalia sp. [Omphalina sp.], Phyllachora andropogonis, Puccinia substriata, Rhizoctonia solani [or Thanatephorus cucumeris], Sphacelotheca paspali-notati [Sporisorium paspali-notati], and Ustilago paspali [Sporisorium paspali]. Leaf lesions caused by Helminthosporium micropus [Curvularia micropus] have been noted on several cultivars (Violi, 2000; Cook et al., 2005).

Nematode species isolated from Paspalum notatum include: Helicotylenchus cavenessi, H. dihystera, H. pseudorobustus, Hoplolaimus pararobustus, Pratylenchus brachyurus, P. pratensis, Radopholus similis, Scutellonema clathricaudatum, Trichodorus christiei [Paratrichodorus minor], Tylenchorhynchus claytoni, and Xiphinema ifacolum (Cook et al., 2005).

The main insect pests are the tawny mole cricket (Scapteriscus vicinus or Neoscapteriscus vicinus), southern mole cricket (S. borellii or N. borellii), and short-winged mole cricket (S. abbreviatus or N. abbreviatus), which feed on the roots, leading to thinning of stands and patch death. Armyworms (Spodoptera spp.) can also damage stands. Seeds are attractive and consumed by seed-eating birds, mice and rats (Violi, 2000; Cook et al., 2005).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page

Natural Dispersal

Paspalum notatum spreads by seeds and vegetatively by stolons and rhizomes. The tough stolons close to the ground have short internodes and root freely from the nodes, forming a dense mat.

Vector Transmission (Biotic)

Paspalum notatum is a heavy seeder and seed yields of 100-350 kg/ha have been reported. Seeds are spread readily in the dung of animals (typically ruminants, but also birds and rodents).

Accidental Introduction

Seeds and rhizome fragments can be dispersed as contaminants in grass and crop seeds, hay and agricultural machinery.

Intentional Introduction

Paspalum notatum has been extensively introduced as a forage, lawn and ornamental grass, and for soil stabilization and erosion control.

(Sources for the whole Movement and Dispersal section: Violi, 2000; Cook et al., 2005; Newman et al., 2014; Heuzé and Tran, 2016; PROSEA, 2018; USDA-NRCS, 2018; USDA-ARS, 2018).

Pathway Causes

Top of page
CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Digestion and excretionSeed dispersed in animal dung Yes Cook et al., 2005
Escape from confinement or garden escapeSeeds, stolons, and rhizomes in garden waste Yes Violi, 2000
ForageGrown in pastures Yes Yes Heuzé and Tran, 2016
Garden waste disposalSeeds, stolons and, rhizomes Yes Violi, 2000
Habitat restoration and improvementOften planted for erosion control, slope stabilization Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005
Hitchhikergarden waste, grass and crop seeds, hay and agricultural machinery Yes
Internet salesSeveral commercial cultivars are available Yes Yes Heuzé and Tran, 2016
Ornamental purposesSeveral commercial cultivars are available Yes Yes Heuzé and Tran, 2016

Pathway Vectors

Top of page
VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesSeeds and rhizomes from pastures and lawns Yes Violi, 2000
Machinery and equipmentSeeds and rhizomes Yes Yes Violi, 2000
MailSeveral commercial cultivars are available Yes Yes Heuzé and Tran, 2016
Mulch, straw, baskets and sodUsed for hay/mulch Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005
LivestockSeeds dispersed in manure Yes Violi, 2000
Ship ballast water and sedimentIntroduced into Florida in ship ballast Yes Violi, 2000

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative

Economic Impact

Top of page

In Mexico, Paspalum notatum is listed as a weed in maize, sugarcane, rice, oat, agave, and coffee plantations (Vibrans, 2018).

If infected by Claviceps paspali it can be toxic to livestock (Wallau et al., 2019).

Environmental Impact

Top of page

Paspalum notatum is an aggressive grass that easily invades disturbed sites, abandoned and active pastures, roadsides, open grounds and forest edges. It can rapidly dominate pastures and areas where it has been intentionally planted and then spread into adjacent disturbed habitats. Once established, it grows forming a dense mat of stolons/rhizomes, and a dense root system which can be up to 2 m deep and inhibits the establishment and growth of other plant species. It has the potential to continue dominating pastures decades after abandonment.

In the United States, Paspalum notatum is inhibiting the natural restoration of native pine forests across the southern states. Native forests of Pinus palustris and Pinus elliottii are generally able to re-establish in abandoned pastures following cultivation or grazing, but the presence in these pastures of Paspalum notatum and its extensive and dense mat of roots and rhizomes inhibits forest regeneration.

In Australia, Paspalum notatum is regarded as an environmental weed, and it is common in eastern Queensland, some parts of eastern New South Wales, and coastal districts of southern Victoria and Western Australia (Queensland Government, 2018).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - smothering
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

Top of page

Paspalum notatum is planted as permanent forage for intensively grazed pastures and as a stable drought-resistant ground cover, particularly in high-traffic and shaded areas and to protect slopes and terraces from soil erosion. It is also used as a lawn grass and provides suitable material for compost, mulch and hay (Violi, 2000; Cook et al., 2005; Newman et al., 2014; Heuzé and Tran, 2016; PROSEA, 2018; USDA-ARS, 2018).

Paspalum notatum is also used in rotation with annual crops in integrated pest management of nematodes and fungal diseases (Newman et al., 2014). It is commonly used in rotations with crops susceptible to nematodes such as tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) and peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) (Violi, 2000; Cook et al., 2005; Newman et al., 2014; PROSEA, 2018). 

Uses List

Top of page

Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed
  • Forage

Environmental

  • Amenity
  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Soil improvement

Materials

  • Mulches

Prevention and Control

Top of page

Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

The most effective method for controlling Paspalum notatum is a combination of mechanical removal and herbicide applications.  The above-ground cover of P. notatum plants should be cut using a disk harrow, trimmer or lawn mower, but all the pieces of rhizomes and roots should be removed to avoid re-sprouting. Herbicides should be applied to resprouts and young plants, but repeated treatments may be necessary to achieve control. Herbicides such as metsulfuron methyl, glyphosate, imazaquin, imazameth and imazethapyr have been used. Small seedlings and young plants are sensitive to phenoxy herbicides (Violi, 2000; Cook et al., 2005; Newman et al., 2014).

References

Top of page

Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., Strong, M. T., 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies, Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Beaty, E. R., Powell, J. D., 1978. Growth and management of Pensacola bahiagrass. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 33(4), 191-193.

Broome, R., Sabir, K., Carrington, S., 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. In: Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database , Barbados: University of the West Indies.http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Cidade, F. W., Dall'Agnol, M., Bered, F., Souza-Chies, T. T. de, 2008. Genetic diversity of the complex Paspalum notatum Flügge (Paniceae: Panicoideae). Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 55(2), 235-246. doi: 10.1007/s10722-007-9231-8

Clayton, WD, Govaerts, R, Harman, KT, Williamson, H, Vorontsova, M, 2018. World Checklist of Poaceae. Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

Cook, B. G., Pengelly, B. C., Brown, S. D., Donnelly, J. L., Eagles, D. A., Franco, M. A., Hanson, J., Mullen, B. F., Partridge, I. J., Peters, M., Schultze-Kraft, R., 2005. Tropical Forages: an interactive selection tool. In: Tropical Forages: an interactive selection tool . Brisbane, Australia: CSIRO, DPI&F, CIAT, ILRI.http://www.tropicalforages.info/

DAISIE, 2018. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. In: Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe . http://www.europe-aliens.org/

Davidse G, Sousa Sánchez M, Chater AO, 1994. Flora Mesoamericana. Volumen 6. Alismataceae a Cyperaceae, Mexico City, Mexico: Instituto de Biologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM).xvi + 543 pp.

Flora do Brasil, 2018. Brazilian flora 2020. In: Brazilian flora 2020 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Rio de Janeiro Botanic Garden.http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018. Flora of China. In: Flora of China St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of Nicaragua, 2018. Flora of Nicaragua. (Flora de Nicaragua). In: Flora de Nicaragua St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://tropicos.org/Project/FN

Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018. Flora of North America North of Mexico. In: Flora of North America North of Mexico St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1

Florence, J, Chevillotte, H, Ollier, C, Meyer, J-Y, 2013. Nadeaud botanical database of the Herbarium of French Polynesia. (Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP)). https://nadeaud.ilm.pf/

Funk, V., Hollowell, T., Berry, P., Kelloff, C., Alexander, S. N., 2007. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Washington, USA: Department of Systematic Biology - Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution 55, 584 pp.

Georgia Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2006. List of non-native invasive plants in Georgia. Wildland Weeds, 9, 15-18. https://www.se-eppc.org/wildlandweeds/pdf/Fall2006-GAExoticsList-pp15-18.pdf

Giussani, L. M., Zuloaga, F. O., Quarín, C. L., Cota-Sánchez, J. H., Ubayasena, K., Morrone, O., 2009. Phylogenetic relationships in the genus Paspalum (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae): an assessment of the Quadrifaria and Virgata informal groups. Systematic Botany, 34(1), 32-43. doi: 10.1600/036364409787602258

GRIIS, 2018. Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species. http://www.griis.org/

Hammel, B. E., Grayum, M. H., Herrera, C., Zamora, N. , 2003. Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica, Volumen III: Monocotiledóneas (Orchidaceae-Zingiberaceae), [ed. by Hammel, B. E., Grayum, M. H., Herrera, C., Zamora, N. ]. St. Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press.xvi + 884 pp.

Heuzé V, Tran G, 2016. Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum). In: Feedipedia, a programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO, https://www.feedipedia.org/node/402

Hyde, M. A., Wursten, B. T., Ballings, P., Coates Palgrave, M., 2018. Flora of Zimbabwe. In: Flora of Zimbabwe . http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/

Liogier, H. A., Martorell, L. F., 2000. Flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands: a systematic synopsis, (Edn 2 (revised)) . San Juan, Puerto Rico: La Editorial, University of Puerto Rico.382 pp.

Más, EG, García-Molinari, O, 2006. (Guia ilustrada de yerbas comunes en Puerto Rico). Puerto Rico: University of Puerto Rico and USDA-NRCS.viii + 303 pp.

Newman Y, Vendramini J, Blount A, 2014. Bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum): Overview and Management. Florida, USA: University of Florida.https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ag342 Document SS-AGR-332, Agronomy Department, UF/IFAS Extension

Oviedo Prieto, R., Herrera Oliver, P., Caluff, M. G., et al., 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

PIER, 2018. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii.http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

PROSEA, 2018. Plant Resources of South-East Asia. Bogor, Indonesia: PROSEA Foundation.http://proseanet.org/prosea/e-prosea.php

PROTA, 2018. PROTA4U web database. In: PROTA4U web database Wageningen and Nairobi, Netherlands\Kenya: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.https://www.prota4u.org/database/

Quarin, C. L., Espinoza, F., Martinez, E. J., Pessino, S. C., Bovo, O. A., 2001. A rise of ploidy level induces the expression of apomixis in Paspalum notatum. Sexual Plant Reproduction, 13(5), 243-249. doi: 10.1007/s004970100070

Queensland Government, 2018. Weeds of Australia, Biosecurity Queensland Edition. In: Weeds of Australia, Biosecurity Queensland Edition , Australia: Queensland Government.http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/media/Html/search.html

Rua, G. H., Speranza, P. R., Vaio, M., Arakaki, M., 2010. A phylogenetic analysis of the genus Paspalum (Poaceae) based on cpDNA and morphology. Plant Systematics and Evolution, 288(3/4), 227-243. doi: 10.1007/s00606-010-0327-9

USDA-ARS, 2018. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2018. The PLANTS Database. In: The PLANTS Database Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team.https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

Useful Tropical Plants, 2018. Useful tropical plants database. In: Useful tropical plants database : K Fern.http://tropical.theferns.info/

Vibrans, H., 2018. Weeds of Mexico. (Malezas de México). In: Malezas de México . http://www.conabio.gob.mx/malezasdemexico/2inicio/home-malezas-mexico.htm

Violi H, 2000. Element Stewardship Abstract for Paspalum notatum Flüggé: Bahia grass, Bahiagrass. Arlington, Virginia, USA: The Nature Conservancy.11 pp. (un-numbered). https://www.invasive.org/gist/esadocs/documnts/paspnot.pdf

Wallau M, Vendramini J, Dubeux J, Blount A, 2019. Bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flueggé): Overview and Pasture Management. Florida, USA: University of Florida.10 pp. https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ag342 UF/IFAS Extension Publication #SS-AGR-332

Zuloaga, F. O., Morrone, O., 2005. Revisión de las especies de Paspalum para América del Sur austral (Argentina, Bolivia, Sur del Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay), [ed. by Zuloaga, F. O., Morrone, O.]. St. Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press.vii + 297 pp.

Zuloaga, F. O., Morrone, O., Belgrano, M. J., 2008. Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentina, Sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay). Volumen 1: Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae y Monocotyledoneae, [ed. by Zuloaga, F. O., Morrone, O., Belgrano, M. J.]. St. Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press.xcvi + 983 pp.

Zuloaga, F. O., Morrone, O., Davidse, G., Filgueiras, T. S., Peterson, P. M., Soreng, R. J., Judziewicz, E. J., 2003. Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): III. Subfamilies Panicoideae, Aristidoideae, Arundinoideae and Danthonioideae, [ed. by Zuloaga, F. O., Morrone, O., Davidse, G., Filgueiras, T. S., Peterson, P. M., Soreng, R. J., Judziewicz, E. ]. Washington, USA: Department of Systematic Biology - Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution.662 pp.

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. In: Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

CABI, 2020. CABI Distribution Database: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Clayton WD, Govaerts R, Harman KT, Williamson H, Vorontsova M, 2018. World Checklist of Poaceae., Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

DAISIE, 2018. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. In: Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. http://www.europe-aliens.org/

Flora do Brasil, 2018. Brazilian flora 2020. In: Brazilian flora 2020. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Rio de Janeiro Botanic Garden. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018. Flora of China. In: Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Florence J, Chevillotte H, Ollier C, Meyer J-Y, 2013. Nadeaud botanical database of the Herbarium of French Polynesia. (Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP))., https://nadeaud.ilm.pf/

Funk V, Hollowell T, Berry P, Kelloff C, Alexander S N, 2007. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Washington, USA: Department of Systematic Biology - Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. 55, 584 pp.

Georgia Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2006. List of non-native invasive plants in Georgia. Wildland Weeds. 15-18. https://www.se-eppc.org/wildlandweeds/pdf/Fall2006-GAExoticsList-pp15-18.pdf

GRIIS, 2018. Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species., http://www.griis.org/

Más EG, García-Molinari O, 2006. (Guia ilustrada de yerbas comunes en Puerto Rico)., Puerto Rico: University of Puerto Rico and USDA-NRCS. viii + 303 pp.

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 6 (Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

PIER, 2018. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

PROSEA, 2018. Plant Resources of South-East Asia., Bogor, Indonesia: PROSEA Foundation. http://proseanet.org/prosea/e-prosea.php

Queensland Government, 2018. Weeds of Australia, Biosecurity Queensland Edition. In: Weeds of Australia, Biosecurity Queensland Edition. Australia: Queensland Government. http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/media/Html/search.html

USDA-ARS, 2018. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2018. The PLANTS Database. In: The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

Links to Websites

Top of page
WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

Top of page

16/07/18: Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany, Smithsonian NMNH, Washington, DC, USA

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map