Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Paspalum notatum
(Bahia grass)

Rojas-Sandoval J, 2018. Paspalum notatum (Bahia grass). Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CABI. DOI:10.1079/ISC.38954.20203483374

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Datasheet

Paspalum notatum (Bahia grass)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 02 July 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Paspalum notatum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Bahia grass
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Paspalum notatum is a perennial grass which is native to South America, and according to some authors native to Central America and the West Indies as well. It is widely naturalized in tropical, subtropical and warm temperate regions of t...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Paspalum notatum (bahiagrass); habit. Australia. March 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionPaspalum notatum (bahiagrass); habit. Australia. March 2009.
Copyright©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Paspalum notatum (bahiagrass); habit. Australia. March 2009.
HabitPaspalum notatum (bahiagrass); habit. Australia. March 2009.©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Paspalum notatum (bahiagrass); habit. Ground cover is often much sparser than many other grasses growing in the same area. Australia. June 2012.
TitleHabit
CaptionPaspalum notatum (bahiagrass); habit. Ground cover is often much sparser than many other grasses growing in the same area. Australia. June 2012.
Copyright©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Paspalum notatum (bahiagrass); habit. Ground cover is often much sparser than many other grasses growing in the same area. Australia. June 2012.
HabitPaspalum notatum (bahiagrass); habit. Ground cover is often much sparser than many other grasses growing in the same area. Australia. June 2012.©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Paspalum notatum (bahiagrass); leaves are usually hairless, sometimes with a whitish midrib. Australia. January 2005.
TitleLeaf
CaptionPaspalum notatum (bahiagrass); leaves are usually hairless, sometimes with a whitish midrib. Australia. January 2005.
Copyright©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Paspalum notatum (bahiagrass); leaves are usually hairless, sometimes with a whitish midrib. Australia. January 2005.
LeafPaspalum notatum (bahiagrass); leaves are usually hairless, sometimes with a whitish midrib. Australia. January 2005.©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Paspalum notatum (bahiagrass); ligules are short membranes, 0.3-0.6mm long. Australia. January 2005.
TitleLigule
CaptionPaspalum notatum (bahiagrass); ligules are short membranes, 0.3-0.6mm long. Australia. January 2005.
Copyright©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Paspalum notatum (bahiagrass); ligules are short membranes, 0.3-0.6mm long. Australia. January 2005.
LigulePaspalum notatum (bahiagrass); ligules are short membranes, 0.3-0.6mm long. Australia. January 2005.©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Paspalum notatum (bahiagrass); nodes are hairless. Australia. January 2005.
TitleNode
CaptionPaspalum notatum (bahiagrass); nodes are hairless. Australia. January 2005.
Copyright©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Paspalum notatum (bahiagrass); nodes are hairless. Australia. January 2005.
NodePaspalum notatum (bahiagrass); nodes are hairless. Australia. January 2005.©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Paspalum notatum (bahiagrass); sheaths and leaves are hairless. Australia. January 2005.
TitleSheath and leaf
CaptionPaspalum notatum (bahiagrass); sheaths and leaves are hairless. Australia. January 2005.
Copyright©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Paspalum notatum (bahiagrass); sheaths and leaves are hairless. Australia. January 2005.
Sheath and leafPaspalum notatum (bahiagrass); sheaths and leaves are hairless. Australia. January 2005.©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Paspalum notatum (bahiagrass); spikelets occur in two rows and are two-flowered, 2.7-4 mm long, hairless, elliptical in shape and shiny. Lower glume is absent, and the upper glume is as long as the spikelet, and similar in texture to the lower lemma. Australia. December 2004.
TitleSpikelets
CaptionPaspalum notatum (bahiagrass); spikelets occur in two rows and are two-flowered, 2.7-4 mm long, hairless, elliptical in shape and shiny. Lower glume is absent, and the upper glume is as long as the spikelet, and similar in texture to the lower lemma. Australia. December 2004.
Copyright©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Paspalum notatum (bahiagrass); spikelets occur in two rows and are two-flowered, 2.7-4 mm long, hairless, elliptical in shape and shiny. Lower glume is absent, and the upper glume is as long as the spikelet, and similar in texture to the lower lemma. Australia. December 2004.
SpikeletsPaspalum notatum (bahiagrass); spikelets occur in two rows and are two-flowered, 2.7-4 mm long, hairless, elliptical in shape and shiny. Lower glume is absent, and the upper glume is as long as the spikelet, and similar in texture to the lower lemma. Australia. December 2004.©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Paspalum notatum (bahiagrass); flowerheads are mostly digitate, with two (occasionally three) rather rigid branches 5-12 cm long that turn black when anthers and stigmas are out. Australia. December 2004.
TitleSpikelets
CaptionPaspalum notatum (bahiagrass); flowerheads are mostly digitate, with two (occasionally three) rather rigid branches 5-12 cm long that turn black when anthers and stigmas are out. Australia. December 2004.
Copyright©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Paspalum notatum (bahiagrass); flowerheads are mostly digitate, with two (occasionally three) rather rigid branches 5-12 cm long that turn black when anthers and stigmas are out. Australia. December 2004.
SpikeletsPaspalum notatum (bahiagrass); flowerheads are mostly digitate, with two (occasionally three) rather rigid branches 5-12 cm long that turn black when anthers and stigmas are out. Australia. December 2004.©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Paspalum notatum (bahiagrass); stem bases are bulbous, and purplish.. Australia. March 2009.
TitleStem bases
CaptionPaspalum notatum (bahiagrass); stem bases are bulbous, and purplish.. Australia. March 2009.
Copyright©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Paspalum notatum (bahiagrass); stem bases are bulbous, and purplish.. Australia. March 2009.
Stem basesPaspalum notatum (bahiagrass); stem bases are bulbous, and purplish.. Australia. March 2009.©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Paspalum notatum (bahiagrass); seeds.
TitleSeeds
CaptionPaspalum notatum (bahiagrass); seeds.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by the USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database/original image by Steve Hurst
Paspalum notatum (bahiagrass); seeds.
SeedsPaspalum notatum (bahiagrass); seeds.Public Domain - Released by the USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database/original image by Steve Hurst

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Paspalum notatum Flüggé

Preferred Common Name

  • Bahia grass

Other Scientific Names

  • Paspalum distachyon Willd. ex Doell
  • Paspalum saltense Arechav.
  • Paspalum taphrophyllum Steud.
  • Paspalum uruguayense Arechav.

International Common Names

  • English: Bahiagrass; common Bahia; Pensacola Bahia grass
  • Spanish: alpargata; cambute; cañamazo; grama dulce; gramilla blanca; hierba de Bahia; pasto Bahia; pasto horqueta
  • French: herbe de Bahia
  • Chinese: bai xi cao

Local Common Names

  • Australia: lawn paspalum; water couch
  • Bolivia: pasto camba
  • Brazil: grama batatais; grama forquilha; grama forquinha; grama mato grosso
  • Costa Rica: gengibrillo; jenjibrillo
  • Cuba: alambrillo; cuero de buey; gramón dulce; pasto labrado; sacasebo; tejona
  • Dominican Republic: yerba Bahia; yerba tejana
  • Indonesia: rumput pencasilan
  • Jamaica: bammy grass
  • Japan: bahia garusu; amerika suzume no hie; kyuushu
  • Mexico: zacate bahia
  • Puerto Rico: grama de Bahia; yerba Bahía
  • Vietnam: co san dâú
  • Zimbabwe: Paraguay paspalum

EPPO code

  • PASNO (Paspalum notatum)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Paspalum notatum is a perennial grass which is native to South America, and according to some authors native to Central America and the West Indies as well. It is widely naturalized in tropical, subtropical and warm temperate regions of the world where it has often been introduced to be used as a forage, for erosion control and as an ornamental and lawn grass. It is well adapted to a wide range of climates and soil types, including poor infertile soils. It spreads by seeds and vegetatively by stolons and rhizomes, and once established it grows forming dense mats of stolons, rhizomes and a thick root system that inhibit the growth and establishment of other plant species. It is very persistent and competitive, and tolerates drought, sporadic flooding, and continuous grazing; it has the potential to continue dominating pastures decades after abandonment (Violi, 2000; Cook et al., 2005; Useful Tropical Plants, 2018; Newman et al., 2014; Heuzé and Tran, 2016).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Paspalum
  •                                 Species: Paspalum notatum

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Paspalum is a large genus with nearly 400 species primarily distributed across the Americas and inhabiting ecologically diverse habitats such as savannas, coastal dunes, tropical and temperate forests, and prairies (Giussani et al., 2009). Centers of highest diversity have been recognized in the Brazilian Cerrados and grasslands in Argentina, Uruguay, and southern Brazil (Zuloaga and Morrone 2005; Rua et al., 2010). A few Paspalum species are found in Africa, Asia, and Oceania, but the genus is thought to have originated in tropical South America (Rua et al., 2010). Many Paspalum species have been used as pasture grass in tropical and subtropical regions and some are economically important turf and ornamental grasses. Paspalum notatum is a perennial rhizomatous forage grass recognized as one of the major constituents of native grasslands in the New World. It is occasionally treated as having distinct varieties and many cultivars have also been developed (Cidade et al., 2008; Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018).

Description

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Perennial grass; rhizomatous. Culms 20-110 cm, erect; nodes glabrous. Sheaths glabrous or pubescent; ligules 0.2-0.5 mm; blades 5-31 cm long, 2-10 mm wide, flat or conduplicate, glabrous or pubescent. Panicles terminal, usually composed of a digitate pair of branches, 1-3 additional branches sometimes present below the terminal pair; branches 3-15 cm, diverging to erect; branch axes 0.7-1.8 mm wide, narrowly winged, glabrous, margins scabrous, terminating in a spikelet, distal spikelets sometimes reduced. Spikelets 2.5-4 mm long, 2-2.8 mm wide, solitary, appressed to the branch axes, broadly elliptic to ovate or obovate, glabrous, light stramineous to white, apices obtuse to broadly acute. Lower glumes absent; upper glumes glabrous, 5-veined; lower lemmas 5-veined, margins inrolled; upper florets light yellow to white. Caryopses 2-3 mm, white (Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018).

Paspalum notatum can be distinguished from other Paspalum species by its robust woody rhizomes and relatively narrow leaves (up to 10 mm across). Its relatively large flower spikelets (2.75-4 mm long) do not have long silky hairs on their margins and its seed-heads usually have only two branches (i.e. racemes). The upper glume is cartilaginous, the lower lemma resembling upper glume but slightly shorter; the upper lemma pale green, slightly shorter than spikelet, finely striate, obtuse (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018; Queensland Government, 2018).

Plant Type

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Grass / sedge
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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The native range of Paspalum notatum is still uncertain. According to some authors, it is native to South America from Peru to Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay (Zuloaga et al., 2008; Clayton et al., 2018), but according to others it extends to Mexico, Central America and the West Indies (Davidse et al., 1994; Zuloaga et al., 2003; Broome et al., 2007; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; USDA-ARS, 2018).  P. notatum has also been widely introduced in tropical and warm-temperate regions of the world and can be found cultivated and naturalized in the United States, Asia, Africa, the Mediterranean region and Australia, and on some islands in the Pacific Ocean (Clayton et al., 2018; DAISIE, 2018; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018; GRIIS, 2018; PIER, 2018; PROSEA, 2018; PROTA, 2018; USDA-ARS, 2018).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 17 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BeninPresentIntroduced
Burkina FasoPresentIntroduced
BurundiPresentIntroduced
CameroonPresentIntroduced
Central African RepublicPresentIntroduced
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentIntroduced
Côte d'IvoirePresentIntroduced
EswatiniPresentIntroduced
GabonPresentIntroduced
GuineaPresentIntroduced
KenyaPresentIntroduced
MadagascarPresentIntroduced
MalawiPresentIntroduced
RwandaPresentIntroduced
Saint Helena
-Tristan da CunhaPresentIntroduced
South AfricaPresentIntroduced
TanzaniaPresentIntroduced
UgandaPresentIntroduced
ZambiaPresentIntroduced
ZimbabwePresentIntroduced

Asia

BhutanPresentIntroduced
ChinaPresentIntroduced
-FujianPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized and cultivated
-GansuPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized and cultivated
-HebeiPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized and cultivated
-YunnanPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized and cultivated
IndiaPresentIntroduced
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentIntroduced
IndonesiaPresentIntroduced
-Lesser Sunda IslandsPresentIntroduced
JapanPresentIntroduced
-Bonin IslandsPresentIntroduced
MyanmarPresentIntroduced
PhilippinesPresentIntroduced
South KoreaPresentIntroduced
TaiwanPresentIntroduced
ThailandPresentIntroduced
VietnamPresentIntroduced

Europe

France
-CorsicaPresentIntroduced
GreecePresentIntroducedNaturalized
ItalyPresentIntroduced
Portugal
-AzoresPresentIntroducedNaturalized

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresentNative
BelizePresentSources differ as to whether it is native or introduced
Cayman IslandsPresentSources differ as to whether it is native or introduced
Costa RicaPresentSources differ as to whether it is native or introduced
CubaPresentSources differ as to whether it is native or introduced and whether or not it is invasive
DominicaPresentNative
Dominican RepublicPresentSources differ as to whether it is native or introduced
El SalvadorPresentSources differ as to whether it is native or introduced
GrenadaPresentNative
GuadeloupePresentNative
GuatemalaPresentSources differ as to whether it is native or introduced
HaitiPresentSources differ as to whether it is native or introduced
HondurasPresentSources differ as to whether it is native or introduced
JamaicaPresentSources differ as to whether it is native or introduced
MartiniquePresentNative
MexicoPresentSources differ as to whether it is native or introduced
MontserratPresentNative
NicaraguaPresentSources differ as to whether it is native or introduced
PanamaPresentSources differ as to whether it is native or introduced
Puerto RicoPresentSources differ as to whether it is native or introduced
Saint LuciaPresentNative
Saint MartinPresentNative
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentNative
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroduced
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentSources differ as to whether it is native or introduced
United StatesPresentIntroducedInvasiveReported as invasive in Georgia and Hawaii
-AlabamaPresentIntroduced
-ArkansasPresentIntroduced
-CaliforniaPresentIntroduced
-FloridaPresentIntroduced
-GeorgiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasive
-IllinoisPresentIntroduced
-LouisianaPresentIntroduced
-MississippiPresentIntroduced
-New JerseyPresentIntroduced
-North CarolinaPresentIntroduced
-OklahomaPresentIntroduced
-South CarolinaPresentIntroduced
-TennesseePresentIntroduced
-TexasPresentIntroduced
-VirginiaPresentIntroduced

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedInvasive
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroducedInvasive
FijiPresentIntroducedInvasive
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
GuamPresentIntroduced

South America

ArgentinaPresentNative
BoliviaPresentNative
BrazilPresentNative
-AcrePresentNative
-AmapaPresentNative
-BahiaPresentNative
-Distrito FederalPresentNative
-Espirito SantoPresentNative
-GoiasPresentNative
-Mato GrossoPresentNative
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentNative
-Minas GeraisPresentNative
-ParaPresentNative
-ParanaPresentNative
-Rio de JaneiroPresentNative
-Rio Grande do SulPresentNative
-Santa CatarinaPresentNative
-Sao PauloPresentNative
ColombiaPresentIntroduced
EcuadorPresentIntroduced
GuyanaPresent
ParaguayPresentNative
PeruPresentNative
SurinamePresent
UruguayPresentNative
VenezuelaPresentIntroduced

History of Introduction and Spread

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Paspalum notatum has been widely introduced in tropical and warm-temperate regions of the world, including areas in Asia, the Americas, Africa, Europe, Australia and the Pacific, as a forage and turf grass and for erosion control and ground cover (Heuzé and Tran, 2016; DAISIE, 2018; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018; PROSEA, 2018; PIER, 2018; Queensland Government, 2018). 

In the United States, Paspalum notatum was first introduced from Brazil in 1913 at the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station in Gainesville. In the 1920s, the Argentinean variety known as “Pensacola” was introduced to Florida in ships' ballast. In the 1940s the USDA intentionally introduced different cultivars to be used for forage and erosion control across southeastern states. Today, P. notatum is thought to cover over two million hectares across the United States (Beaty and Powell, 1978; Violi, 2000; Newman et al., 2014; USDA-NRCS, 2018).

In Puerto Rico, Paspalum notatum was apparently introduced in 1940 from Venezuela (Más and García-Molinari, 2006), and now it can be found naturalized in wet meadows, on slopes and along streams at lower to middle elevations (Liogier and Martorell, 2000).

In Zimbabwe, Paspalum notatum was introduced for grazing and slope erosion control; now it can be found as an occasional escape in disturbed places and roadsides, mainly in and around urban areas (Hyde et al., 2018).

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of new introductions of Paspalum notatum is very high. This species has been extensively planted for forage, turf, and soil stabilization across tropical and warm-temperature regions of the world and it is actively promoted as an excellent grass due to its adaptation to different climates and soil types (including infertile soils) and its tolerance of drought, sporadic flooding, and continuous grazing and traffic. It has repeatedly escaped from cultivation and easily colonizes new habitats until it becomes the dominant species (Violi, 2000; Cook et al., 2005; Useful Tropical Plants, 2018; Newman et al., 2014).

Habitat

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Paspalum notatum can be found growing in dry habitats, moist grasslands, wetlands, disturbed sites, shrublands, forest edges, open ground, savannas, roadsides, irrigation channels, and active and abandoned pastures at elevation from near sea level to 2000m.  It is often planted in gardens and lawns in parks and recreational areas, and can be a weed in fields and plantations (Cook et al., 2005; Heuzé and Tran, 2016; Useful Tropical Plants, 2018; PROSEA, 2018; Vibrans, 2018).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalWetlands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalWetlands Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalWetlands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
FreshwaterIrrigation channels Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
FreshwaterIrrigation channels Present, no further details Natural
FreshwaterIrrigation channels Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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In Mexico, Paspalum notatum is listed as a weed in maize, sugarcane, rice, oat, agave, and coffee plantations (Vibrans, 2018). In the southern USA it is reported to inhibit the natural restoration of native Pinus palustris and Pinus elliottii forests.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
AgaveAgavaceaeMain
    Avena sativa (oats)PoaceaeMain
      Coffea arabica (arabica coffee)RubiaceaeMain
        Oryza sativa (rice)PoaceaeMain
          Pinus elliottii (slash pine)PinaceaeWild host
            Pinus palustris (longleaf pine)PinaceaeWild host
              SaccharumPoaceaeMain
                Zea mays (maize)PoaceaeMain

                  Growth Stages

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                  Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

                  Biology and Ecology

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                  Genetics

                  The chromosome number reported for Paspalum notatum is 2n = 20, 30, 40, 50 (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018; Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018; PROSEA, 2018).  This species includes several genotypes differing in both ploidy level and reproductive system. The diploid type (2n=2x= 20) is sexual and self-incompatible, while the tetraploid type (2n=4x= 40) is self-compatible, pseudogamous and apomictic. Apomixis in the tetraploid type can be either obligate or facultative.  The tetraploid types are usually considered as the typical form of P. notatum in botanical terms, and the diploid types are often classified as botanical varieties. Triploid  (2n=3x=30) and even pentaploid (2n=5x= 50) individuals have also occasionally been collected from natural populations. Polyploidy and apomixis are important mechanisms in the evolution of the genus Paspalum (Quarin et al., 2001; Cidade et al., 2008; PROSEA, 2018).

                  Reproductive Biology

                  Paspalum notatum has hermaphroditic flowers and different ploidy levels, which influences reproduction. The tetraploid types are generally considered apomicts, and reproduce by unfertilized but viable seeds. The diploid forms reproduce sexually, and are usually highly cross-pollinated. The sexually reproducing types are wind-pollinated (Violi, 2000; Quarin et al., 2001; Cidade et al., 2008; PROSEA, 2018). The species is a heavy seeder and seed yields of 100-350 kg/ha have been reported.

                  Physiology and Phenology

                  In China, Paspalum notatum has been recorded flowering and fruiting in September (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018). In Zimbabwe, it produces flowers from December to April (Hyde et al., 2018). In Nicaragua, it has been recorded flowering and fruiting from June to August (Flora of Nicaragua, 2018). In Costa Rica it has been recorded with flowers and fruits from June to December (Hammel et al., 2003).  In the United States, inflorescences emerge from May to July and flowering usually occurs over a 4-week period. In Florida, seeds mature from June through the summer (Violi, 2000).

                  Longevity

                  Paspalum notatum is a perennial grass.

                  Associations

                  Paspalum notatum is used as a food-plant by the larval stage of Cnaphalocrocis trapezalis (Hyde et al., 2018).  Root associations with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and the diazotrophic (nitrogen fixing) bacterium Azorhizophilus paspali have been reported (Cook et al., 2005).

                  Environmental Requirements

                  Paspalum notatum is adapted to grow in tropical and subtropical zones, at elevations from near sea level to 2000 m. It grows vigorously under high temperatures and long days. In temperate regions, the highest growth rates occur during the warmest months (Newman et al., 2014). It prefers areas with mean annual temperature ranging from 18°C to 30°C (but can tolerate 5°C - 36°C) and mean annual rainfall in the range 900 – 2100 mm (but tolerates 750 - 2500 mm). It can grow on sandy and clay soil with pH in the range 5.5-6.5 (but tolerates 4.3 to 8.4). Some types are salt tolerant, withstanding up to 4500 ppm NaCl in irrigation water.  It has good drought tolerance and is fairly tolerant of flooding (plants can survive up to 36 days of flooding), but does not tolerate frosty conditions. It grows best in partially shaded areas, but can succeed in full sun and also in quite dense shade.  Although it prefers to grow in fertile soils, it can maintain dense stands on infertile soils, probably due to its association with nitrogen fixing bacteria (Cook et al., 2005; Useful Tropical Plants, 2018; Heuzé and Tran, 2016).

                  Climate

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                  ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
                  Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
                  Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
                  As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
                  Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
                  Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
                  Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
                  Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year

                  Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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                  Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
                  35 35 0 2000

                  Air Temperature

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                  Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
                  Mean annual temperature (ºC) 18 30
                  Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 36
                  Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 5

                  Rainfall

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                  ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
                  Mean annual rainfall7502500mm; lower/upper limits

                  Rainfall Regime

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                  Bimodal
                  Summer
                  Uniform
                  Winter

                  Soil Tolerances

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                  Soil drainage

                  • free
                  • seasonally waterlogged

                  Soil reaction

                  • acid
                  • alkaline
                  • neutral

                  Soil texture

                  • heavy
                  • light
                  • medium

                  Special soil tolerances

                  • infertile
                  • saline

                  Natural enemies

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                  Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
                  Cladosporium herbarum Pathogen not specific N
                  Claviceps paspali Pathogen not specific N
                  Claviceps purpurea Pathogen not specific N
                  Colletotrichum graminicola Pathogen not specific N
                  Gibberella gordonii Pathogen not specific
                  Helicotylenchus dihystera Parasite not specific N
                  Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus Parasite not specific N
                  Hoplolaimus pararobustus Parasite not specific N
                  Paratrichodorus minor Parasite not specific
                  Pratylenchus brachyurus Parasite not specific N
                  Radopholus similis Parasite not specific N
                  Scapteriscus borellii Herbivore Plants|Roots not specific
                  Scapteriscus vicinus Herbivore Plants|Roots not specific
                  Scutellonema clathricaudatum Parasite not specific
                  Spodoptera Herbivore not specific
                  Sporisorium paspali-notati Pathogen not specific
                  Thanatephorus cucumeris Pathogen not specific
                  Tylenchorhynchus claytoni Parasite not specific
                  Xiphinema ifacolum Parasite not specific

                  Notes on Natural Enemies

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                  Paspalum notatum is affected by fungal diseases caused by Claviceps paspali (which can make it toxic to livestock -- Wallau et al., 2019), Cladosporium herbarum, Claviceps purpurea, Colletotrichum graminicola, Fusarium heterosporum [F. lolii or Gibberella gordonii], Omphalia sp. [Omphalina sp.], Phyllachora andropogonis, Puccinia substriata, Rhizoctonia solani [or Thanatephorus cucumeris], Sphacelotheca paspali-notati [Sporisorium paspali-notati], and Ustilago paspali [Sporisorium paspali]. Leaf lesions caused by Helminthosporium micropus [Curvularia micropus] have been noted on several cultivars (Violi, 2000; Cook et al., 2005).

                  Nematode species isolated from Paspalum notatum include: Helicotylenchus cavenessi, H. dihystera, H. pseudorobustus, Hoplolaimus pararobustus, Pratylenchus brachyurus, P. pratensis, Radopholus similis, Scutellonema clathricaudatum, Trichodorus christiei [Paratrichodorus minor], Tylenchorhynchus claytoni, and Xiphinema ifacolum (Cook et al., 2005).

                  The main insect pests are the tawny mole cricket (Scapteriscus vicinus or Neoscapteriscus vicinus), southern mole cricket (S. borellii or N. borellii), and short-winged mole cricket (S. abbreviatus or N. abbreviatus), which feed on the roots, leading to thinning of stands and patch death. Armyworms (Spodoptera spp.) can also damage stands. Seeds are attractive and consumed by seed-eating birds, mice and rats (Violi, 2000; Cook et al., 2005).

                  Means of Movement and Dispersal

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                  Natural Dispersal

                  Paspalum notatum spreads by seeds and vegetatively by stolons and rhizomes. The tough stolons close to the ground have short internodes and root freely from the nodes, forming a dense mat.

                  Vector Transmission (Biotic)

                  Paspalum notatum is a heavy seeder and seed yields of 100-350 kg/ha have been reported. Seeds are spread readily in the dung of animals (typically ruminants, but also birds and rodents).

                  Accidental Introduction

                  Seeds and rhizome fragments can be dispersed as contaminants in grass and crop seeds, hay and agricultural machinery.

                  Intentional Introduction

                  Paspalum notatum has been extensively introduced as a forage, lawn and ornamental grass, and for soil stabilization and erosion control.

                  (Sources for the whole Movement and Dispersal section: Violi, 2000; Cook et al., 2005; Newman et al., 2014; Heuzé and Tran, 2016; PROSEA, 2018; USDA-NRCS, 2018; USDA-ARS, 2018).

                  Pathway Causes

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                  CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
                  Digestion and excretionSeed dispersed in animal dung Yes Cook et al. (2005)
                  Escape from confinement or garden escapeSeeds, stolons, and rhizomes in garden waste Yes Violi (2000)
                  ForageGrown in pastures Yes Yes Heuzé and Tran (2016)
                  Garden waste disposalSeeds, stolons and, rhizomes Yes Violi (2000)
                  Habitat restoration and improvementOften planted for erosion control, slope stabilization Yes Yes Cook et al. (2005)
                  Hitchhikergarden waste, grass and crop seeds, hay and agricultural machinery Yes
                  Internet salesSeveral commercial cultivars are available Yes Yes Heuzé and Tran (2016)
                  Ornamental purposesSeveral commercial cultivars are available Yes Yes Heuzé and Tran (2016)

                  Pathway Vectors

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                  VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
                  Debris and waste associated with human activitiesSeeds and rhizomes from pastures and lawns Yes Violi (2000)
                  Machinery and equipmentSeeds and rhizomes Yes Yes Violi (2000)
                  MailSeveral commercial cultivars are available Yes Yes Heuzé and Tran (2016)
                  Mulch, straw, baskets and sodUsed for hay/mulch Yes Yes Cook et al. (2005)
                  LivestockSeeds dispersed in manure Yes Violi (2000)
                  Ship ballast water and sedimentIntroduced into Florida in ship ballast Yes Violi (2000)

                  Impact Summary

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                  CategoryImpact
                  Cultural/amenity Positive
                  Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
                  Environment (generally) Positive and negative

                  Economic Impact

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                  In Mexico, Paspalum notatum is listed as a weed in maize, sugarcane, rice, oat, agave, and coffee plantations (Vibrans, 2018).

                  If infected by Claviceps paspali it can be toxic to livestock (Wallau et al., 2019).

                  Environmental Impact

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                  Paspalum notatum is an aggressive grass that easily invades disturbed sites, abandoned and active pastures, roadsides, open grounds and forest edges. It can rapidly dominate pastures and areas where it has been intentionally planted and then spread into adjacent disturbed habitats. Once established, it grows forming a dense mat of stolons/rhizomes, and a dense root system which can be up to 2 m deep and inhibits the establishment and growth of other plant species. It has the potential to continue dominating pastures decades after abandonment.

                  In the United States, Paspalum notatum is inhibiting the natural restoration of native pine forests across the southern states. Native forests of Pinus palustris and Pinus elliottii are generally able to re-establish in abandoned pastures following cultivation or grazing, but the presence in these pastures of Paspalum notatum and its extensive and dense mat of roots and rhizomes inhibits forest regeneration.

                  In Australia, Paspalum notatum is regarded as an environmental weed, and it is common in eastern Queensland, some parts of eastern New South Wales, and coastal districts of southern Victoria and Western Australia (Queensland Government, 2018).

                  Risk and Impact Factors

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                  Invasiveness
                  • Proved invasive outside its native range
                  • Has a broad native range
                  • Abundant in its native range
                  • Highly adaptable to different environments
                  • Is a habitat generalist
                  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
                  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
                  • Tolerant of shade
                  • Highly mobile locally
                  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
                  • Long lived
                  • Fast growing
                  • Has high reproductive potential
                  • Gregarious
                  • Reproduces asexually
                  Impact outcomes
                  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
                  • Monoculture formation
                  • Negatively impacts agriculture
                  • Reduced native biodiversity
                  • Threat to/ loss of native species
                  Impact mechanisms
                  • Competition - monopolizing resources
                  • Competition - smothering
                  • Rapid growth
                  Likelihood of entry/control
                  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
                  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
                  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
                  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
                  • Difficult/costly to control

                  Uses

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                  Paspalum notatum is planted as permanent forage for intensively grazed pastures and as a stable drought-resistant ground cover, particularly in high-traffic and shaded areas and to protect slopes and terraces from soil erosion. It is also used as a lawn grass and provides suitable material for compost, mulch and hay (Violi, 2000; Cook et al., 2005; Newman et al., 2014; Heuzé and Tran, 2016; PROSEA, 2018; USDA-ARS, 2018).

                  Paspalum notatum is also used in rotation with annual crops in integrated pest management of nematodes and fungal diseases (Newman et al., 2014). It is commonly used in rotations with crops susceptible to nematodes such as tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) and peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) (Violi, 2000; Cook et al., 2005; Newman et al., 2014; PROSEA, 2018). 

                  Uses List

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                  Animal feed, fodder, forage

                  • Fodder/animal feed
                  • Forage

                  Environmental

                  • Amenity
                  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
                  • Soil improvement

                  Materials

                  • Mulches

                  Prevention and Control

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                  Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

                  The most effective method for controlling Paspalum notatum is a combination of mechanical removal and herbicide applications.  The above-ground cover of P. notatum plants should be cut using a disk harrow, trimmer or lawn mower, but all the pieces of rhizomes and roots should be removed to avoid re-sprouting. Herbicides should be applied to resprouts and young plants, but repeated treatments may be necessary to achieve control. Herbicides such as metsulfuron methyl, glyphosate, imazaquin, imazameth and imazethapyr have been used. Small seedlings and young plants are sensitive to phenoxy herbicides (Violi, 2000; Cook et al., 2005; Newman et al., 2014).

                  References

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                  Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., Strong, M. T., 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies, Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

                  Beaty, E. R., Powell, J. D., 1978. Growth and management of Pensacola bahiagrass. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 33(4), 191-193.

                  Broome, R., Sabir, K., Carrington, S., 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. In: Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database , Barbados: University of the West Indies.http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

                  Cidade, F. W., Dall'Agnol, M., Bered, F., Souza-Chies, T. T. de, 2008. Genetic diversity of the complex Paspalum notatum Flügge (Paniceae: Panicoideae). Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 55(2), 235-246. doi: 10.1007/s10722-007-9231-8

                  Clayton, WD, Govaerts, R, Harman, KT, Williamson, H, Vorontsova, M, 2018. World Checklist of Poaceae. Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

                  Cook, B. G., Pengelly, B. C., Brown, S. D., Donnelly, J. L., Eagles, D. A., Franco, M. A., Hanson, J., Mullen, B. F., Partridge, I. J., Peters, M., Schultze-Kraft, R., 2005. Tropical Forages: an interactive selection tool. In: Tropical Forages: an interactive selection tool . Brisbane, Australia: CSIRO, DPI&F, CIAT, ILRI.http://www.tropicalforages.info/

                  DAISIE, 2018. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. In: Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe . http://www.europe-aliens.org/

                  Davidse G, Sousa Sánchez M, Chater AO, 1994. Flora Mesoamericana. Volumen 6. Alismataceae a Cyperaceae, Mexico City, Mexico: Instituto de Biologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM).xvi + 543 pp.

                  Flora do Brasil, 2018. Brazilian flora 2020. In: Brazilian flora 2020 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Rio de Janeiro Botanic Garden.http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br

                  Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018. Flora of China. In: Flora of China St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

                  Flora of Nicaragua, 2018. Flora of Nicaragua. (Flora de Nicaragua). In: Flora de Nicaragua St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://tropicos.org/Project/FN

                  Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018. Flora of North America North of Mexico. In: Flora of North America North of Mexico St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1

                  Florence, J, Chevillotte, H, Ollier, C, Meyer, J-Y, 2013. Nadeaud botanical database of the Herbarium of French Polynesia. (Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP)). https://nadeaud.ilm.pf/

                  Funk, V., Hollowell, T., Berry, P., Kelloff, C., Alexander, S. N., 2007. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Washington, USA: Department of Systematic Biology - Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution 55, 584 pp.

                  Georgia Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2006. List of non-native invasive plants in Georgia. Wildland Weeds, 9, 15-18. https://www.se-eppc.org/wildlandweeds/pdf/Fall2006-GAExoticsList-pp15-18.pdf

                  Giussani, L. M., Zuloaga, F. O., Quarín, C. L., Cota-Sánchez, J. H., Ubayasena, K., Morrone, O., 2009. Phylogenetic relationships in the genus Paspalum (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae): an assessment of the Quadrifaria and Virgata informal groups. Systematic Botany, 34(1), 32-43. doi: 10.1600/036364409787602258

                  GRIIS, 2018. Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species. http://www.griis.org/

                  Hammel, B. E., Grayum, M. H., Herrera, C., Zamora, N. , 2003. Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica, Volumen III: Monocotiledóneas (Orchidaceae-Zingiberaceae), [ed. by Hammel, B. E., Grayum, M. H., Herrera, C., Zamora, N. ]. St. Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press.xvi + 884 pp.

                  Heuzé V, Tran G, 2016. Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum). In: Feedipedia, a programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO, https://www.feedipedia.org/node/402

                  Hyde, M. A., Wursten, B. T., Ballings, P., Coates Palgrave, M., 2018. Flora of Zimbabwe. In: Flora of Zimbabwe . http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/

                  Liogier, H. A., Martorell, L. F., 2000. Flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands: a systematic synopsis, (Edn 2 (revised)) . San Juan, Puerto Rico: La Editorial, University of Puerto Rico.382 pp.

                  Más, EG, García-Molinari, O, 2006. (Guia ilustrada de yerbas comunes en Puerto Rico). Puerto Rico: University of Puerto Rico and USDA-NRCS.viii + 303 pp.

                  Newman Y, Vendramini J, Blount A, 2014. Bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum): Overview and Management. Florida, USA: University of Florida.https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ag342 Document SS-AGR-332, Agronomy Department, UF/IFAS Extension

                  Oviedo Prieto, R., Herrera Oliver, P., Caluff, M. G., et al., 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

                  PIER, 2018. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii.http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

                  PROSEA, 2018. Plant Resources of South-East Asia. Bogor, Indonesia: PROSEA Foundation.http://proseanet.org/prosea/e-prosea.php

                  PROTA, 2018. PROTA4U web database. In: PROTA4U web database Wageningen and Nairobi, Netherlands\Kenya: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.https://www.prota4u.org/database/

                  Quarin, C. L., Espinoza, F., Martinez, E. J., Pessino, S. C., Bovo, O. A., 2001. A rise of ploidy level induces the expression of apomixis in Paspalum notatum. Sexual Plant Reproduction, 13(5), 243-249. doi: 10.1007/s004970100070

                  Queensland Government, 2018. Weeds of Australia, Biosecurity Queensland Edition. In: Weeds of Australia, Biosecurity Queensland Edition , Australia: Queensland Government.http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/media/Html/search.html

                  Rua, G. H., Speranza, P. R., Vaio, M., Arakaki, M., 2010. A phylogenetic analysis of the genus Paspalum (Poaceae) based on cpDNA and morphology. Plant Systematics and Evolution, 288(3/4), 227-243. doi: 10.1007/s00606-010-0327-9

                  USDA-ARS, 2018. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

                  USDA-NRCS, 2018. The PLANTS Database. In: The PLANTS Database Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team.https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

                  Useful Tropical Plants, 2018. Useful tropical plants database. In: Useful tropical plants database : K Fern.http://tropical.theferns.info/

                  Vibrans, H., 2018. Weeds of Mexico. (Malezas de México). In: Malezas de México . http://www.conabio.gob.mx/malezasdemexico/2inicio/home-malezas-mexico.htm

                  Violi H, 2000. Element Stewardship Abstract for Paspalum notatum Flüggé: Bahia grass, Bahiagrass. Arlington, Virginia, USA: The Nature Conservancy.11 pp. (un-numbered). https://www.invasive.org/gist/esadocs/documnts/paspnot.pdf

                  Wallau M, Vendramini J, Dubeux J, Blount A, 2019. Bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flueggé): Overview and Pasture Management. Florida, USA: University of Florida.10 pp. https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ag342 UF/IFAS Extension Publication #SS-AGR-332

                  Zuloaga, F. O., Morrone, O., 2005. Revisión de las especies de Paspalum para América del Sur austral (Argentina, Bolivia, Sur del Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay), [ed. by Zuloaga, F. O., Morrone, O.]. St. Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press.vii + 297 pp.

                  Zuloaga, F. O., Morrone, O., Belgrano, M. J., 2008. Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentina, Sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay). Volumen 1: Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae y Monocotyledoneae, [ed. by Zuloaga, F. O., Morrone, O., Belgrano, M. J.]. St. Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press.xcvi + 983 pp.

                  Zuloaga, F. O., Morrone, O., Davidse, G., Filgueiras, T. S., Peterson, P. M., Soreng, R. J., Judziewicz, E. J., 2003. Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): III. Subfamilies Panicoideae, Aristidoideae, Arundinoideae and Danthonioideae, [ed. by Zuloaga, F. O., Morrone, O., Davidse, G., Filgueiras, T. S., Peterson, P. M., Soreng, R. J., Judziewicz, E. ]. Washington, USA: Department of Systematic Biology - Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution.662 pp.

                  Distribution References

                  Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

                  Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. In: Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

                  CABI, 2020. CABI Distribution Database: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

                  Clayton WD, Govaerts R, Harman KT, Williamson H, Vorontsova M, 2018. World Checklist of Poaceae., Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

                  DAISIE, 2018. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. In: Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. http://www.europe-aliens.org/

                  Flora do Brasil, 2018. Brazilian flora 2020. In: Brazilian flora 2020. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Rio de Janeiro Botanic Garden. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br

                  Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018. Flora of China. In: Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

                  Florence J, Chevillotte H, Ollier C, Meyer J-Y, 2013. Nadeaud botanical database of the Herbarium of French Polynesia. (Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP))., https://nadeaud.ilm.pf/

                  Funk V, Hollowell T, Berry P, Kelloff C, Alexander S N, 2007. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Washington, USA: Department of Systematic Biology - Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. 55, 584 pp.

                  Georgia Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2006. List of non-native invasive plants in Georgia. Wildland Weeds. 15-18. https://www.se-eppc.org/wildlandweeds/pdf/Fall2006-GAExoticsList-pp15-18.pdf

                  GRIIS, 2018. Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species., http://www.griis.org/

                  Más EG, García-Molinari O, 2006. (Guia ilustrada de yerbas comunes en Puerto Rico)., Puerto Rico: University of Puerto Rico and USDA-NRCS. viii + 303 pp.

                  Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 6 (Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

                  PIER, 2018. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

                  PROSEA, 2018. Plant Resources of South-East Asia., Bogor, Indonesia: PROSEA Foundation. http://proseanet.org/prosea/e-prosea.php

                  Queensland Government, 2018. Weeds of Australia, Biosecurity Queensland Edition. In: Weeds of Australia, Biosecurity Queensland Edition. Australia: Queensland Government. http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/media/Html/search.html

                  Taggart J B, Sasser J G, Dodson J W Jr, Ellis J M, 2015. Distribution and management of invasive plant populations in state park properties of the North Carolina Coastal Plain. Natural Areas Journal. 35 (3), 476-484. DOI:10.3375/043.035.0314

                  USDA-ARS, 2018. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

                  USDA-NRCS, 2018. The PLANTS Database. In: The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

                  Links to Websites

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                  WebsiteURLComment
                  GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

                  Contributors

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                  16/07/18: Original text by:

                  Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany, Smithsonian NMNH, Washington, DC, USA

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