Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Paspalum conjugatum
(sour paspalum)

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Datasheet

Paspalum conjugatum (sour paspalum)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Paspalum conjugatum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • sour paspalum
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Right, leafy shoot of P. conjugatum with soft, deep green blades ca 1 cm wide and up to 20 cm long.
Left, culm with an inflorescence of two slender racemes, almost horizontal, 10-15 cm long.
TitleShoot and inflorescence
CaptionRight, leafy shoot of P. conjugatum with soft, deep green blades ca 1 cm wide and up to 20 cm long. Left, culm with an inflorescence of two slender racemes, almost horizontal, 10-15 cm long.
Copyright©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
Right, leafy shoot of P. conjugatum with soft, deep green blades ca 1 cm wide and up to 20 cm long.
Left, culm with an inflorescence of two slender racemes, almost horizontal, 10-15 cm long.
Shoot and inflorescenceRight, leafy shoot of P. conjugatum with soft, deep green blades ca 1 cm wide and up to 20 cm long. Left, culm with an inflorescence of two slender racemes, almost horizontal, 10-15 cm long.©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
Spreading carpet of P. conjugatum in young tea.
TitleInfestation
CaptionSpreading carpet of P. conjugatum in young tea.
Copyright©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
Spreading carpet of P. conjugatum in young tea.
InfestationSpreading carpet of P. conjugatum in young tea.©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
a, Leaflet; b, flower; c, pod intact; d, persistent suture after joint of pod are shed; e, seed and its cross section.
TitleP. conjugatum - line drawing
Captiona, Leaflet; b, flower; c, pod intact; d, persistent suture after joint of pod are shed; e, seed and its cross section.
CopyrightSEAMEO-BIOTROP
a, Leaflet; b, flower; c, pod intact; d, persistent suture after joint of pod are shed; e, seed and its cross section.
P. conjugatum - line drawinga, Leaflet; b, flower; c, pod intact; d, persistent suture after joint of pod are shed; e, seed and its cross section.SEAMEO-BIOTROP

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Paspalum conjugatum Berg. (1762)

Preferred Common Name

  • sour paspalum

Other Scientific Names

  • Paspalum africanum Poir. (1816)
  • Paspalum bicrurum Saltzm. ex Doell (1877)
  • Paspalum ciliatifolium Trin. (1772)
  • Paspalum ciliatum Lamk. (1791)
  • Paspalum hirsutum Poir. (1804)
  • Paspalum longissimum Hochst. ex Steud. (1854)
  • Paspalum renggeri Steud.
  • Paspalum tenue Gaertn.

International Common Names

  • English: buffalo grass; carabao grass; sour grass
  • Spanish: canamazo amargo (Honduras); grama de antena; pasto horquilla; tarurco (Bolivia); yerba agria
  • French: herbe créole

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: capim-forquilla; capim-gordo; capim-noxo; grama comum; grama-forquilla
  • Colombia: horquetilla
  • Fiji: Thurston grass; ti grass; yellow grass
  • Germany: Futterhirse, Fransenblättrige
  • India: banhaptia
  • Indonesia: rumput pait
  • Japan: ogasawarasuzumenohie
  • Mexico: pata de conejo trensila
  • Peru: torourco
  • Philippines: bantotan; kanat-kanat; kauad-kauaran; kulape; sacate
  • Suriname: buta grasse
  • Taiwan: hilo grass; mu-yin-chywe-bai
  • Thailand: ya-heb
  • USA/Hawaii: hilo grass
  • Venezuela: paja mala
  • Vietnam: co san cap

EPPO code

  • PASCI (Paspalum ciliatifolium)
  • PASCO (Paspalum conjugatum)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Paspalum
  •                                 Species: Paspalum conjugatum

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page Although a number of other names have been applied to this species in the past, there now seems to be no dispute over the use of the name P. conjugatum and no problems of confusion with closely related species.

Description

Top of page P. conjugatum is a perennial grass, spreading by extensive above-ground runners with internodes 5-15 cm apart, each node producing roots and leafy shoots. The shoots, up to 30 cm high, have soft, deep green blades about 1 cm wide and up to 20 cm long, sparsely hairy on both surfaces, margins scabrid. The ligule is a very short membrane less than 1 mm long with a fringe of long hairs behind it.

Culms up to 60 cm high each with an inflorescence of two slender racemes, almost horizontal, 10-15 cm long. Spikelets are in two rows, each flattened, ovate to almost round, 1.5-1.7 mm long.

Distribution

Top of page Originally described from S. America but now pan-tropical.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BhutanWidespreadParker, 1992
Brunei DarussalamWidespreadHolm et al., 1979; Waterhouse, 1993
CambodiaPresentHolm et al., 1979; Waterhouse, 1993
ChinaPresentWang et al., 1990
-GuangdongPresentWang et al., 1990
-HainanPresentWang et al., 1990
-YunnanPresentWang et al., 1990
IndiaWidespreadHolm et al., 1979
IndonesiaWidespreadHolm et al., 1979; Waterhouse, 1993
-KalimantanWidespreadHolm et al., 1979
LaosPresentMoody, 1989; Waterhouse, 1993
MalaysiaWidespreadHolm et al., 1979; Waterhouse, 1993
-SabahWidespreadHolm et al., 1979
-SarawakWidespreadHolm et al., 1979
MyanmarPresentHolm et al., 1979; Waterhouse, 1993
PhilippinesWidespreadHolm et al., 1979; Waterhouse, 1993
SingaporePresentWaterhouse, 1993
Sri LankaWidespreadHolm et al., 1979
TaiwanWidespreadHolm et al., 1979
ThailandWidespreadHolm et al., 1979; Waterhouse, 1993
VietnamPresentHolm et al., 1979; Waterhouse, 1993

Africa

BeninPresentHolm et al., 1979
CameroonPresentHepper, 1972
CongoWidespreadHolm et al., 1979
Côte d'IvoireWidespreadHolm et al., 1979
EthiopiaPresentFröman and Persson, 1974
GhanaWidespreadHolm et al., 1979
GuineaWidespreadHolm et al., 1979
LiberiaPresentHolm et al., 1979
MauritiusPresentHolm et al., 1979
NigeriaWidespreadHolm et al., 1979
Sierra LeonePresentHepper, 1972
TanzaniaPresentClayton and Renvoize, 1982
UgandaPresentClayton and Renvoize, 1982

North America

MexicoPresentHolm et al., 1979
USAPresentHolm et al., 1979
-AlabamaPresentHitchcock, 1950
-FloridaPresentHitchcock, 1950
-HawaiiWidespreadHolm et al., 1979
-MississippiPresentHitchcock, 1950
-TexasPresentHitchcock, 1950

Central America and Caribbean

Costa RicaWidespreadHolm et al., 1979
CubaPresentHolm et al., 1979
Dominican RepublicPresentHolm et al., 1979
JamaicaPresentHolm et al., 1979
Puerto RicoPresentHolm et al., 1979
Trinidad and TobagoWidespreadHolm et al., 1979

South America

BrazilPresentLorenzi, 1982
-AlagoasPresentLorenzi, 1982
-AmapaPresentLorenzi, 1982
-AmazonasPresentLorenzi, 1982
-BahiaPresentLorenzi, 1982
-CearaPresentLorenzi, 1982
-Espirito SantoPresentLorenzi, 1982
-GoiasPresentLorenzi, 1982
-MaranhaoPresentLorenzi, 1982
-Mato GrossoPresentLorenzi, 1982
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentLorenzi, 1982
-Minas GeraisPresentLorenzi, 1982
-ParaPresentLorenzi, 1982
-ParaibaPresentLorenzi, 1982
-ParanaPresentLorenzi, 1982
-PernambucoPresentLorenzi, 1982
-PiauiPresentLorenzi, 1982
-Rio de JaneiroPresentLorenzi, 1982
-Rio Grande do NortePresentLorenzi, 1982
-Rio Grande do SulPresentLorenzi, 1982
-RondoniaPresentLorenzi, 1982
-Santa CatarinaPresentLorenzi, 1982
-Sao PauloPresentLorenzi, 1982
-SergipePresentLorenzi, 1982
ColombiaWidespreadHolm et al., 1979
PeruWidespreadHolm et al., 1979
SurinamePresentHolm et al., 1979
VenezuelaPresentHolm et al., 1979

Oceania

American SamoaWidespreadWhistler, 1983
AustraliaWidespreadHolm et al., 1979
Cook IslandsPresentPurea, 1985
FijiWidespreadHolm et al., 1979
Papua New GuineaWidespreadHolm et al., 1979
SamoaWidespreadWhistler, 1983
TongaPresentWhistler, 1983

Habitat

Top of page A species originally of forests and forest borders in the humid tropics, P. conjugatum is associated mainly with plantation and other perennial crops where it can tolerate partial shade, though also thriving in full sun. It is also tolerant of poor, acid soils.

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page P. conjugatum is associated mainly with perennial crops, including the tree crops tea, rubber, etc, but also sugarcane. It may also be troublesome in slower-growing annual crops or in almost any crop established without adequate land preparation.

Biology and Ecology

Top of page P. conjugatum spreads by both stolons and seeds. Optimum temperature for germination is 25-35°C. Under some conditions, dormancy has not been detected but new seed was shown to have a light requirement (Pamplona, 1975) and after storage in the dark for one year, light was again required to break dormancy (Sauerborn, 1985; Sauerborn and Koch, 1988). Viability was shown to decline after about 1 year (Sauerborn, 1985). Germination occurs mainly in the top 2.5 cm of the soil (Horng and Leu, 1978).

It tolerates shade and grows strongly down to 24% of full sunlight, but can also persist as a dominant species in full sun (Pamplona, 1975; Somarriba and Somarriba, 1988). Flowering occurs freely and does not depend on any critical daylength (Sauerborn, 1985).

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Brachycyttarus griseus
Cleitodiplosis graminis

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page Natural enemies have been listed by Waterhouse (1994) but few, if any, cause conspicuous damage. Only two arthropods have potential for biological control: the gall-forming fly Cleitodiplosis graminis from Brazil and the bagworm Brachycyttarus griseus from Malaysia, Vietnam, Philippines, etc. However, there has been no effort to date to exploit most of these natural enemies, at least partly because of concern for closely related pasture species such as P. dilatatum.

Impact

Top of page P. conjugatum is an abundant and often dominant weed in perennial crops of the humid tropics, especially tea, rubber, oilpalm, fruit and forest tree crops. Soedarsan et al. (1976) noted marked competitive effects on tea within 2 months of establishment of the weed. Stem diameters of rubber were reduced 37-54% by competition with almost pure P. conjugatum (Pamplona, 1975).

It is relatively useless as a pasture grass being low in protein and palatable only when very young (Beetle, 1974).

It may also act as an alternative host for crop pests and diseases, including sugarcane leaf scald (Xanthomonas albilineans) (Persley, 1973).

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Peucedanum sandwicense (makou)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesHawaiiCompetition (unspecified)US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011a
Phyllostegia glabra var. lanaiensis (ulihi phyllostegia)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1995
Phyllostegia knudsenii (Waimea phyllostegia)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition (unspecified)US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009b
Phyllostegia wawrana (fuzzystem phyllostegia)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009a
Pittosporum napaulenseNo DetailsHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resources; Competition - smotheringUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009a
Platydesma rostrataCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resources; Competition - smotheringUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009a
Pritchardia viscosa (stickybud pritchardia)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - stranglingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998
Psychotria hobdyi (Hobdy's wild-coffee)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered species; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - stranglingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010
Schiedea hookeri (sprawling schiedea)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resources; Ecosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011b
Schiedea kauaiensis (Kauai schiedea)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008a
Schiedea nuttalliiCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resources; Competition - smotheringUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1999
Pteris lidgatei (Lidgate's brake)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009c
Viola helenae (Wahiawa stream violet)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition (unspecified); Ecosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008b

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - smothering
  • Competition - strangling

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page A number of other Paspalum species have somewhat similar inflorescence, but these rarely have the same spreading habit and confusion is unlikely.

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

P. conjugatum is suppressed by nitrogen application in pasture (Caille and Thomas, 1994) but is not suppressed by slashing or grazing sheep (Ahmad Faiz, 1992).

In sufficiently humid situations, legume cover crops are the main means of control in rubber, oilpalm, etc. Some legumes may have allelopathic effect on the weed as well as shading it (Sahid et al., 1993).

Solarization has given good suppression for up to 3 months (Ragone and Wilson, 1988).

Chemical Control

Older herbicides which may still be of value in some situations include MSMA and DSMA (Wuan et al., 1982), but asulam and dalapon have had insufficient activity (Pamplona, 1975) and amitrole only a moderate effect (Donado and Fullerton, 1974). Glyphosate is now the usual herbicide of choice. Activity of glyphosate is increased by additives including urea or surfactants (Sandbrink et al., 1993; Purea, 1985; Lee, 1984). Various proprietary herbicide mixtures based on glyphosate have proved effective e.g. glyphosate plus dicamba (Teng and Teh, 1990). Also, a mixture of metsulfuron with glyphosate or paraquat can give superior results to any of the three herbicides alone (Chung and Chang, 1990).

Glufosinate does not generally have a long-lasting effect but is superior to paraquat (Purusotman et al., 1988) and results can also be improved by addition of surfactant (Langeluddeke et al., 1989).

For selective control in broad-leaved crops that might be damaged by the above non-selective herbicides, bromacil has been effective in pineapple (Mendoza, 1979; Lee, 1983) while several of the specific graminicides have proved highly effective, sometimes more so than glyphosate, e.g. fluazifop-butyl (Seth and Madin, 1984; Parker, 1982; Utomo and Soebardjo, 1986) and sethoxydim (Parker, 1982). Others are likely to be effective also.

References

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Ahmad-Faiz MA, 1992. Comparison of three weeding methods in rubber cultivation. Planters' Bulletin Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia, 212-213:99-101

Beetle AA, 1974. Sour paspalum - tropical weed or forage? Journal of Range Management, 27(5):347-349

Caille T, 1994. Interspecific competition for weed control in Brachiaria decumbens in Martinique. Maîtrise des adventices par voie non chimique. Communications de la quatrième conférence internationale I.F.O.A.M., Dijon, France, 5-9 July 1993., Ed. 2:301-304

Chung GF, Chang SH, 1990. Bioefficacy of herbicides in immature oil palm and rubber. Planter, 66(768):143-150

Clayton WD, Renvoize SA, 1982. Flora of Tropical East Africa. Graminea (Part 3). Rotterdam, The Netherlands: A.A. Balkema, 448 pp

Donado W, Fullerton T, 1974. Relative responses of seven tropical grasses to sub-lethal doses of five herbicides. Asociacion Latinoamericana de Malezas "ALAM" [y] Sociedad Colombiana de Control de Malezas y Fisiologia Vegetal "COMALFI". Resumenes de los Trabajos en el II Congreso ALAM y VI Seminario, COMALFI, Cali, 1974., 84-85

Fröman B, Persson S, 1974. An Illustrated Guide to the Grasses of Ethiopia. Assella, Ehiopia: Chilalo Awraja Development Unit

Hepper FN, ed. , 1972. Flora of West Tropical Africa, Volume III (Part 2), 2nd edn. London, UK: Crown Agents

Hitchcock AS, 1950. Manual of the grasses of the United States. USDA Miscellaneous Publication 200. Washington, D.C., USA: USDA

Holm LG, Pancho JV, Herberger JP, Plucknett DL, 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons, 391 pp

Holm LG, Plucknett DL, Pancho JV, Herberger JP, 1977. The World's Worst Weeds. Distribution and Biology. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University Press of Hawaii

Horng LC, Leu LS, 1978. The effects of depth and duration of burial on the germination of ten annual weed seeds. Weed Science, 26(1):4-10

Kostermans AJGH, Wirjahardja S, Dekker RJ, 1987. The weeds: description, ecology and control. Weeds of rice in Indonesia [edited by Soerjani, M.; Kostermans, A.J.G.H.; Tjitrosoepomo, G.] Jakarta, Indonesia; Balai Pustaka, 24-565

Langeluddeke P, Kocur J, Strilghuk DR, 1989. Possibilities for improving the efficacy of glufosinate-ammonium. Proceedings, 12th Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society Conference Taipei, Taiwan; Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society, No. 2:503-510

Lee SA, 1983. Effectiveness of pre-emergence herbicides at three localities in peninsular Malaysia. MARDI Research Bulletin, 11(3):320-327

Lee SA, 1984. Effect of TK36AC on the control of Paspalum conjugatum Berg. by glyphosphate. MAPPS Newsletter, 8(1):4-6

Lorenzi H, 1982. Weeds of Brazil, terrestrial and aquatic, parasitic, poisonous and medicinal. (Plantas daninhas de Brasil, terrestres, aquaticas, parasitas, toxicas e medicinais.) Nova Odessa, Brazil: H. Lorenzi, 425 pp

Mendoza SP Jr, 1979. Weed management in pineapple. Weed control in tropical crops [Moody, K. (Editor)]. Weed Science Society of the Philippines. Manila Philippines, 147-148

Moody K, 1989. Weeds reported in Rice in South and Southeast Asia. Manila, Philippines: International Rice Research Institute

Pamplona PP, 1975. Studies on the biology, competition and control of sourgrass (Paspalum conjugatum Berg.). Biotrop Newsletter, No. 12:13

Parker C, 1982. The activity of some new herbicides and mixtures on tropical perennial grass weeds. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Rijksuniversiteit Gent, 47(1):51-60

Parker C, 1992. Weeds of Bhutan. Weeds of Bhutan., vi + 236 pp

Persley GJ, 1973. Naturally occurring alternative hosts of Xanthomonas albilineans in Queensland. Plant Disease Reporter, 57:1040-1042

Purea M, 1985. A preliminary investigation into economising the use of glyphosate by using urea as a synergist in the Cook Islands. Alafua Agricultural Bulletin, 10(1):9-11

Purusotman R, Tseu CCT, Langelueddeke P, 1988. Crop tolerance and mixed weed control in cocoa with Basta. Planter, 64(745):171-179

Ragone D, Wilson JE, 1988. Control of weeds, nematodes and soil-borne pathogens by soil solarization. Alafua Agricultural Bulletin, 13(1):13-20

Sahid I, Tasrif A, Sastroutomo SS, Latiff A, 1993. Allelopathic potential of legume cover crops on selected weed species. Plant Protection Quarterly, 8(2):49-53

Sandbrink JJ, Dayawon MM, Kassebaum JW, 1993. Non-silicone-based surfactants as glyphosate rainfastness adjuvants. Pesticide Science, 38(2-3):272-273

Sauerborn J, 1985. Studies on the segetal flora of taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) and on the germination biology of selected weeds of Western Samoa. PLITS (Plant Protection Information Tropics/Subtropics), 3(1):85 pp

Sauerborn J, Koch W, 1988. An investigation of the germination of six tropical arable weeds. Weed Research, UK, 28(1):47-52

Seth AK, Madin RW, 1984. Current status of weed control practices in tropical plantations with special references to South-East Asia. Proceedings, 7th Australian Weeds Conference, 1984, Volume 2, 24-38

Soedarsan A, Noormandias, Santika H, 1976. Effects of some weed species on the growth of young tea. Proceedings of 5th Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society Conference, Tokyo, Japan, 1975., 87-91

Somarriba E, Somarriba EJ, 1988. Pasture growth and floristic composition under the shade of guava (Psidium guajava L.) trees in Costa Rica. Agroforestry Systems, 6(2):153-162

Teng YT, Teh KH, 1990. Wallop (glyphosate + dicamba): a translocative broad spectrum herbicide for effective general weed control in young and mature oil palm. BIOTROP Special Publication, No. 38:165-174

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1995. Lana'i Plant Cluster Recovery Plan. In: Lana'i Plant Cluster Recovery Plan : US Fish and Wildlife Service.138 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998. Kauai II: Addendum to the Recovery Plan for the Kauai Plant Cluster. In: Kauai II: Addendum to the Recovery Plan for the Kauai Plant Cluster : US Fish and Wildlife Service.84 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1999. Recovery Plan for Multi-Island Plants. In: Recovery Plan for Multi-Island Plants : US Fish and Wildlife Service.206 pp. + appendices.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Schiedea kauaiensis (no common name). In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Schiedea kauaiensis (no common name) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.6 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Viola helenae (no common name). In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Viola helenae (no common name) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.6 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Phyllostegia wawrana (no common name). In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Phyllostegia wawrana (no common name) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.5 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Phyllostegia knudsenii (no common name). In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Phyllostegia knudsenii (no common name) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.6 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Pteris lidgatei (no common name). In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Pteris lidgatei (no common name) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.7 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. Schiedea nuttallii (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Schiedea nuttallii (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.13 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Determination of Endangered Status for 48 Species on Kauai and designation of Critical Habitat: Final Rule. In: Determination of Endangered Status for 48 Species on Kauai and designation of Critical Habitat: Final Rule : US Fish and Wildlife Service.i + 205 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing 23 Species on Oahu as Endangered and Designating Critical Habitat for 124 Species. In: Federal Register , 76(148) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.46362-46593. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-08-02/pdf/2011-17162.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Schiedea hookeri (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Schiedea hookeri (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.20 pp.

Utomo IH, Soebardja B, 1986. Problems of grass weeds in some terrestrial crops and its control. Biotrop Special Publication, No.24:301-306

Wang Z, Xin M, Ma D, eds. , 1990. Farmland Weeds of China. Beijing, China: Agricultural Publishing House

Waterhouse DF(Editor), 1994. Biological control of weeds: Southeast Asian prospects. Canberra, Australia; Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR), v + 302 pp

Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp

Whistler WA, 1983. Weed handbook of Western Polynesia. Schriftenreihe der Deutschen Gesellschaft fnr Technische Zusammenarbeit, 157 pp

Wuan TL, Wong SP, Zavesky TC, 1982. The use of MSMA and DSMA for post-emergence weed control in tropical and sub-tropical agricultural crops. Proceedings, British Crop Protection Conference -- Weeds, Vol.2:709-716

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

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