Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Parlatoria oleae
(olive scale)

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Datasheet

Parlatoria oleae (olive scale)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Parlatoria oleae
  • Preferred Common Name
  • olive scale
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Parlatoria oleae (Colvée)

Preferred Common Name

  • olive scale

Other Scientific Names

  • Diaspis oleae Colvee, 1880
  • Diaspis squamosus Newstead & Theobald in Theobald, 1904
  • Parlatorea oleae (Colvée) Lindinger, 1912
  • Parlatoria affinis Newstead, 1897
  • Parlatoria calianthina Berlese & Leonardi, 1896
  • Parlatoria judaica Bodenheimer, 1924
  • Parlatoria morrisoni Bodenheimer, 1944
  • Parlatoria oleae Leonardi, 1920
  • Syngenaspis oleae MacGillivray, 1921

International Common Names

  • English: olive parlatoria scale (Europe)
  • Spanish: cochinilla violeta del olivo (Argentina)

Local Common Names

  • Egypt: plum scale
  • Germany: Schildlaus, Graue Obstbaumlöffel-
  • Israel: knimat haparlatoria shel hazayt
  • Turkey: zeytin kabuklu biti

EPPO code

  • PARLOL (Parlatoria oleae)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Coccoidea
  •                                 Family: Diaspididae
  •                                     Genus: Parlatoria
  •                                         Species: Parlatoria oleae

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentNHM (1978)
EgyptPresent, LocalizedZaher et al. (1982); Moursi and Mesbah (1985); CABI (Undated)
KenyaPresent, LocalizedRosen (1978)
LibyaPresentNHM (1979)
MoroccoPresentNHM (1940)
SudanPresentNakahara (1982)
TunisiaPresentMansour et al. (2011)

Asia

AfghanistanPresent, LocalizedRamaseshiah (1985); Fowjhan and Kozár (1994)
BangladeshPresentNHM (1981)
ChinaPresent, LocalizedTang (1984)
-XinjiangPresent, LocalizedTang (1984)
GeorgiaPresent, LocalizedYasnosh and Mindiashvili (1972); Aleksidze et al. (1995); CABI (Undated)
IndiaPresent, LocalizedHUFFAKER et al. (1962); Butani (1975)
-BiharPresentNHM (1915)
-Himachal PradeshPresentVerma and Dinabandhoo (2005)
-Jammu and KashmirPresentNHM (1923)
-MaharashtraPresentNHM (1940)
-PunjabPresentNHM (1978)
-Uttar PradeshPresent, LocalizedNHM (1981); CABI (Undated)
IranPresent, LocalizedHUFFAKER et al. (1962); Kaussari (1970); CABI (Undated)
IraqPresent, LocalizedSelim et al. (1981)
IsraelPresent, LocalizedGerson (1977); Rosen (1978); Nestel et al. (1995); Pinhassi et al. (1996)
JordanPresentNakahara (1982)
LebanonPresentNakahara (1982)
PakistanPresent, WidespreadNakahara (1982); CABI (Undated);
Saudi ArabiaPresentNakahara (1982)
SyriaPresentNakahara (1982)
TurkeyPresent, LocalizedCABI (Undated);
TurkmenistanPresent, LocalizedHUFFAKER et al. (1962); Myartseva (1972); Myartseva (1984)

Europe

BulgariaPresent, LocalizedGomaa (1978)
CroatiaPresentCABI (Undated); Milek et al. (2017)Original citation: Milek and ?imala (2008)
CyprusPresentNakahara (1982); CABI (Undated)
CzechoslovakiaPresent, LocalizedCABI (Undated)Original citation: Kozar & Konstantinov, 1981
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresent, LocalizedVelimirovic (1990)
FrancePresent, LocalizedViggiani (1978)
-CorsicaPresentStreito et al. (2014)
GreecePresent, LocalizedViggiani (1978); Paloukis (1979); Argyriou and Kourmadas (1981); CABI (Undated)
HungaryPresent, LocalizedCABI (Undated)Original citation: Kozar & Konstantinov, 1981
ItalyPresent, LocalizedViggiani (1978); Laccone (1981); Scortichini (1987); Vacante and Gerson (1987); Viggiani (1989)
MaltaPresentNakahara (1982)
PolandPresent, LocalizedCABI (Undated)Original citation: Kozar & Konstantinov, 1981
PortugalPresentNakahara (1982)
RussiaPresentHUFFAKER et al. (1962); CABI (Undated)
SpainPresent, LocalizedAndres (1979)
United KingdomPresentHUFFAKER et al. (1962)

North America

MexicoPresent, LocalizedMiller (1996)
United StatesPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-ArizonaPresent, LocalizedHUFFAKER et al. (1962); Kosztarab (1996)
-CaliforniaPresent, LocalizedHUFFAKER et al. (1962); Rosen (1978); Ehler and Endicott (1984); Kosztarab (1996)
-DelawarePresent, LocalizedKosztarab (1996)
-MarylandPresent, LocalizedKosztarab (1996)
-TexasPresent, LocalizedHart (1980)

South America

ArgentinaPresent, LocalizedHUFFAKER et al. (1962); Mallea et al. (1972); Garcia (1973)
BoliviaPresent, LocalizedSquire (1972)
BrazilPresent, LocalizedCosta Lima (1936)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / abnormal shape
Fruit / discoloration
Fruit / external feeding
Fruit / premature drop
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / wilting
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Stems / dieback
Stems / external feeding
Whole plant / external feeding

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Anthemus aspidioti Parasite
Anthemus inconspicuus Parasite USA shrubs
Aphytis africanus Parasite Abou-Elhagag, 2004
Aphytis chilensis Parasite
Aphytis diaspidis Parasite Abou-Elhagag, 2004
Aphytis hispanicus Parasite
Aphytis maculicornis Parasite Adults/Nymphs Republic of Georgia; USA olives; shrubs
Aphytis mytilaspidis Parasite
Aphytis paramaculicornis Parasite Adults/Nymphs California
Aphytis proclia Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Aphytis sp. nr. proclia Parasite Adults/Nymphs USA shrubs
Cheletogenes ornatus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Chilocorus renipustulatus Predator Adults/Nymphs California; USA; Turkmenistan Citrus; shrubs
Coccophagoides utilis Parasite Adults/Nymphs Greece; USSR shrubs
Encarsia aurantii Parasite Abou-Elhagag, 2004
Encarsia lounsburyi Parasite
Encarsia perniciosi Parasite
Encarsia sp. nr. citrina Parasite Adults/Nymphs USA shrubs
Eutogenes africanus Predator
Grandjeanella bella Parasite Saboori and Çobanoglu, 2010
Habrolepis rouxi Parasite USA shrubs
Nephus bipunctatus Predator Adults/Nymphs Turkmenistan plums
Scymnus rubromaculatus Predator Adults/Nymphs Turkmenistan plums

References

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Abou-Elhagag GH, 2004. Abundance of olive scale insect, Parlatoria oleae Clovee (Homoptera: Diaspididae) and its parasitoids in Upper Egypt. Assiut Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 35(3):197-208.

Aleksidze G, 1995. Armored scale insects (Diaspididae), pests of fruit orchards and their control in the Republic of Georgia. Israel Journal of Entomology, 29:187-190; 9 ref.

Aleksidze G, Ascher KRS, Ben-Dov Y, 1995. Armored scale insects (Diaspididae), pests of fruit orchards and their control in the Republic of Georgia. Proceedings of VII International Symposium of Scale Insect Studies. Journal of Entomology, 29:187-190.

Andres Fde, 1979. Integrated control in the olive grove. Agricultura, Spain, 48(569):711-713, 716-717

Argyriou LC, Kourmadas AL, 1981. Contribution to the timing for the control of Diaspididae scales of olive trees. Annales de l'Institut Phytopathologique Benaki, 13(1):65-72

Barnes MM, Curtis RK, 1979. Present development of arthropod pest management in almond orchards of California. In: Boethel DJ, Eikenbary RD, ed. Pest management programs for deciduous tree fruits and nuts. Plenum Press. New York USA, 1-14

Boyce AM, 1952. Annual summary of progress report or year ending December 31, 1951. University of California, Department of Biological Control, Project 1066.

Butani DK, 1975. Insect pests of fruit crops and their control - 16: fig. Pesticides, 9(11):32-36

Colvee P, 1800. Ensayo sobre una neuva enfermedad del olivo, producida por una nueva especie del genero Aspidiotus. Spain. Min. Fomento, 14:21-41.

Costa Lima AM da, 1936. Terceiro Catalogo dos Insectos que Vivem nas Plantas do Brasil. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Directoria de Estatistica da Produccao.

Ehler LE, Endicott PC, 1984. Effect of malathion-bait sprays on biological control of insect pests of olive, citrus, and walnut. Hilgardia, 52(5):47 pp.

El-Hakim AM, Helmy EI, 1982. Survey of and population studies on olive leaf pests in Egypt. Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique d'Egypte, No. 64:213-220

El-Minshawy AM, El-Sawaf SK, Hammad SM, Donia A, 1974. Survey of the scale insects attacking fruit trees in Alexandria district. Part II. Fam. Diaspididae, subfam. Diaspidinae, tribe Diaspidini. Alexandria Journal of Agricultural Research, 22(2):265-273

Farahbakhch G, Moini M, 1975. Olive pests in Iran. Olive pests in Iran. Plant Pests and Diseases Research Institute, National Agricultural Research Organisation, Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources. Tehran Iran, Pe 1-73; en 1-14

FERRIS GF, 1937. Atlas of the Scale Insects of North America. Stanford Univ. Pr., Calif. ; London, H. Milford, 9 + [272] pp.

Fowjhan MA, Kozßr F, 1994. New data on the scale insect fauna (Homoptera: Coccoidea) of fruit plants in Afghanistan. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica, 29(3/4):343-347; 16 ref.

Garcia MF, 1973. Contribution to the biological study of Parlatoria oleae (Colvee) (Homoptera, Coccoidea, Diaspidinae). Revista de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, 5 (Patologia Vegetal), 10(1):1-53

Gerson U, 1977. The scale-insect Parlatoria pergandei Comstock and its natural enemies in Israel. Boletin del Servicio de Defensa contra Plagas e Inspeccion Fitopatologica, 3:21-53

Gill RJ, 1997. The scale insects of California. Part 3. The armoured scales (Homoptera: Diaspididae). Technical Series in Agricultural Biosystematics and Plant Pathology, No 3. Sacramento, USA: Department of Food and Agriculture.

Gokkes M, Eshel G, Tadmor U, 1989. Field trials for the control of chaff scale and Florida wax scale in citrus orchards with Tiger (pyriproxifen). Hassadeh, 69(11):2019

Gomaa EM, 1978. The violet oystershell scale. Rastitelna Zashchita, 26(11):30-32

Gomez-Menor Ortega J, 1956. Cochinillas que atacan a los frutales (Homoptera: Coccoidea: 1. Familia Diaspididae). Boletin de Patologia Vegetal y Entomologia Agricola, Madrid, 22:1-105.

Gomez-Menor Ortega J, 1968. Adiciones a los coccidos de Espana. EOS, Revista Espanola de Entomologia, Madrid, 43(3-4):541-563.

Habib A, Salama HS, Amin A, 1969. The biology of the plum scale, Parlatoria oleae (Colvee) (Coccoidea: Diaspididae). Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique d'Egypte, 53:283-297.

Hafat M, Salama HS, Amin A, 1969. The biology of the plum scale, Parlatoria oleae (Colvee) (Coccoidea: Diaspididae). Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique d'Egypte, 53:283-297.

Hafez M, Salama HS, Amin AH, 1967. Population dynamics of the plum scale, Parlatoria oleae (Colvee), in Egypt. Bulletin Society Entomology Egypte, 51:347-357.

Hart WG, 1980. Some biological control successes in the southern United States. Proceedings of the International Society of Citriculture, 1978. [publisher??], 154-156.

Hayat M, 1979. Notes on some Indian species of Azotus Howard and Coccophagoides Girault, with records of Mesidia Foerster and Prococcophagus Silvestri (Hym.: Aphelinidae). Journal of Natural History, 13(2):185-193

Huffaker CB, Kenneth CE, Tassan RL, 1986. Comparisons of parasitism and densities of Parlatoria oleae (1952-1982) in relation to ecological theory. American Naturalist, 128(3):379-393.

Huffaker CB, Kennett CE, Finney GL, 1962. Biological control of olive scale, Parlatoria oleae (Colvee), in California by imported Aphytis maculicornis (Masi) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Hilgardia, 32(13):541-636.

Huffaker CB, Kennett CE, Tassan RL, 1994. The biological control of olive scale, Parlatoria oleae (Colvee) by two aphelinid parasites. Advances in the study of Aphytis (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) [edited by Rosen, D.] Andover, UK; Intercept Limited, 95-104

Imamkuliyev AG, 1969. The olive scale, Parlatoria oleae Colvee (Homoptera: coccoidea), in the Lenkoran district (Azerbaydzhan). Entomologie Obozrenie, 48(3):297-300.

Izhevskii SS, 1988. Results of the introduction into the USSR of natural enemies of harmful phytophagous insects. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie, 67(3):449-456

Jansen MGM, 1995. Scale insects (Homoptera: Coccinea) from import interceptions and greenhouses in the Netherlands. Israel Journal of Entomology, 29:131-146; 32 ref.

Kaussari M, 1970. Monograph of the Coccoidea of Iran. Tehran, Iran: Ministry of Agriculture.

Konstantinova GM, 1976. Coccids - pests of apple. Zashchita Rastenii, 12:49-50.

Kosztarab M, 1996. Scale Insects of North Eastern North America: identification, biology, and distribution. Martinsville, USA: Virginia Museum of Natural History, 650 pp.

Kosztarab M, Kozar F, 1988. Scale insects of Central Europe. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 455 pp.

Kozar F, Fowjhan MA, Zarrabi M, 1996. Check-list of Coccoidea and Aleyrodoidea (Homoptera) of Afghanistan and Iran, with additional data to the scale insects of fruit trees in Iran. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica, 31(1-2):61-74.

Kozár F, Konstantinova GM, 1981. The scale insects (Homoptera: Coccoidea) of deciduous fruit orchards in some European countries. (Survey of scale insect (Homoptera: Coccoidea) infestations in European orchards No. III.). Acta Phytopathologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 16(1/2):211-222.

Kozár F, Konstantinova GM, Akman K, Altay M, Kiroglu H, 1979. Distribution and density of scale insects (Homoptera: Coccoidea) on fruit plants in Turkey in 1976 (Survey of scale insect (Homoptera: Coccoidea) infestations in European orchards No. 11). Acta Phytopathologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 14(3/4):535-542

Kozßr F, Jasnosh VA, Konstantinova GM, 1982. Comparative evaluation of the distribution of scale-insects (Hom. Coccoidea) and their parasites in Georgia (USSR) and in Turkey. Survey of scale insect (Homoptera Coccoidea) infestations in European orchards, No. VI. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie, 93(4):333-338

Laccone G, 1981. Parlatoria oleae Colv. (Hom. Coccidae-Diaspini) on olive in Apulia. Notes on biology and control tests. Informatore Fitopatologico, 31(1/2):73-76

Longo S, Marotta S, Pellizzari G, Russo A, Tranfaglia A, 1995. An annotated list of the scale insects (Homoptera: Coccidea) of Italy. Israel Journal of Entomology, 29:113-130.

Mallea AR, Macola GS, Garcia S JG, Bahamondes LA, Suarez JH, 1972. Etho-ecology of two important scale insects in Mendoza Argentina, Parlatoria oleae (Colv.) and Aspidiotus hederae (Vall.) (Homoptera-Diaspididae). Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, 18(1):101-108

Mansour R, Mkaouar R, Lebdi KG, Suma P, Russo A, 2011. A survey of scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) occurring on olives in Tunisia. Journal of Entomological and Acarological Research, 43(3):315-322. http://users.unimi.it/~agra/entomo/Bulletin.htm

McKenzie HL, 1945. A revision of Parlatoria and closely allied genera (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Diaspididae). Microentomology, 10:47-121.

McKenzie HL, 1952. Distribution and biological notes on the olive Parlatoria scale, Parlatoria oleae (Colvee), in California (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Diaspididae). The Bulletin of the Department of Agriculture, State of California, 3:127-138.

Milek TM, ?imala M, 2008. Results of four-year investigation (2005-2008) of scale insects genus Diaspididae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) on olive trees. (Rezultati cetverogodi?njeg faunistickog istrazivanja (2005.-2008.) ?titastih u?i porodice diaspididae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) na maslini.) Glasilo Biljne Za?tite, 8(6):379-386.

Milek, T. M., Šimala, M., Bjeliš, M., Pintar, M., Markotic, V., 2017. Updated check list of scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) on olive trees in Croatia with special regard on Black araucaria scale - Lindingaspis rossi (Maskell 1891)., IOBC/WPRS Bulletin, 121:91-97 https://www.iobc-wprs.org/members/shop_en.cfm?mod_Shop_detail_produkte=173

Miller DR, 1996. Checklist of the scale insects (Coccoidea: Homoptera) of Mexico. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 98(1):68-86; 33 ref.

Moursi KS, Mesbah HA, 1985. Olive pests of irrigated-farm systems in the Egyptian western desert with special references to armoured scale insects. Annals of Agricultural Science, Moshtohor, 23(2):901-911

Myartseva SN, 1972. The role of parasites and predators in keeping down the numbers of certain species of Coccidae and Aleyrodidae in Turkmenia. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Turkmenskoi SSR. Biologicheskikh Nauk, 6:77-80.

Myartseva SN, 1984. Natural enemies of the family Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea) in Turkmenistan and scientific bases for their use in plant protection. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Turkmenskoi SSR, Biologicheskikh Nauk, No. 2:23-30

Nachev P, Grenchev G, 1987. Acarofauna hosted by some Coccidae occurring in Bulgaria. Pochvoznanie Agrokhimiya i Rastitelna Zashtita, 22(6):81-86.

Nakahara S, 1982. Checklist of the Armored Scales (Homoptera: Diapididae) of the Conterminous United States. Washington, USA: USDA, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine, 110 pp.

Nestel D, Cohen H, Saphir N, Klein M, Mendel Z, 1995. Spatial distribution of scale insects: comparative study using Taylor's power law. Environmental Entomology, 24(3):506-512

Oppenheim D, Lindman N, 1993. A preliminary study on the ecology and chemical control of the pear psylla, Cacopsylla bidens (Sulc), in the Upper Galilee, Israel. Alon Hanotea, 47(7):335, 337-343

Paloukis SS, 1979. The most important scale insects of fruit trees in northern Greece. Plant Protection Institute. Thessaloniki Greece, 148 pp.

Pinhassi N, Nestel D, Rosen D, 1996. Oviposition and emergence of olive scale (Homoptera: Diaspididae) crawlers: regional degree-day forecasting model. Environmental Entomology, 25(1):1-6; 23 ref.

Ramaseshiah G, 1985. Fruit pests and their natural enemies in Afghanistan. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 33(1):19-25

Rosen D, 1978. The importance of cryptic species and specific identifications as related to biological control. Beltsville symposia in agricultural research. (2). Biosystematics in agriculture. Invited papers presented at a symposium held May 8-11, 1977 at the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center (BARC), Beltsville, Maryland 20705. Allanheld, Osmun & Co. Inc. New York USA, 23-35

Rosen D, 1986. Methodologies and strategies of pest control in citriculture. In: Integrated pest control in citrus-groves. Balkema, Rotterdam, 521-530.

Saboori A, Çobanoglu S, 2010. A new species of larval Erythraeus and a new record of larval Grandjeanella (Acari: Erythraeidae) from Turkey. International Journal of Acarology, 36(3):249-253. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01647951003636405

Scortichini M, 1987. The mastic tree. Rivista di Frutticoltura e di Ortofloricoltura, 49(1):35-40

Selim AA, Swailem SM, Amin AH, 1981. Within-tree distribution and seasonal abundance of the olive psyllid, Euphyllura olivina (Costa) in the Mosul region of northern Iraq. Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 16(1):129-136

Sisman S, Ülgentürk S, 2010. Scale insects species (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. Turkish Journal of Zoology, 34(2):219-224. http://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/zoology/

Squire FA, 1972. General insect pests. Entomological problems in Bolivia. PANS, 18:251-252.

Stafford, 1948. Olive scale. California Agriculture, 2(4):8.

Stathas GJ, Bouras SL, Eliopoulos PA, Emmanouel NG, 2005. Control of diaspidid scales on olive trees by releasing coccinellid predators. Bulletin OILB/SROP [Proceedings of the European meeting of the IOBC/WPRS Working Group "Integrated Protection of Olive Crops", Chania, Greece, 29-31 May 2003.], 28(9):157-166.

Streito JC, Rossignol R, Matile-Ferrero D, Germain JF, 2014. Aleuroclava aucubae (Aleyrodidae) new for France, and Parlatoria oleae (Diaspididae) new for Corsica (Hemiptera). (Aleuroclava aucubae (Aleyrodidae) nouveau pour la France, et Parlatoria oleae (Diaspididae) nouveau pour la Corse (Hemiptera).) Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France, 119(1):53-55.

Tang FT, 1984. Observation on the scale insects injurious to forestry of North China. I. Shanxi Agricultural University Press, Taigu, Shanxi, China, 2:122-133.

Therios I, 2008. Pests and diseases. In: Olives [ed. by Therios, I.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI, 335-352. http://www.cabi.org/CABeBooks/default.aspx?site=107&page=45&LoadModule=PDFHier&BookID=440

Vacante V, Gerson U, 1987. Three species of Eryngiopus (Acari: Stigmpidae) from Italy, with key to species and summary of habitats. Redia, 70:385-401

Velimirovic V, 1990. Scales-olive pests in southern part of Montenegro. Acta Horticulturae, No. 286:395-397

Verma SP, Dinabandhoo CL, 2005. Armoured scales (Homoptera: Diaspididae) associated with temperate and subtropical fruit trees in Himachal Pradesh. Acta Horticulturae, 696:423-426. http://www.actahort.org

Viggiani G, 1978. Current state of biological control of olive scales. Bollettino del Laboratorio di Entomologia Agraria 'Filippo Silvestri', Portici, 35:30-38

Viggiani G, 1989. Integrated protection of olive: present state and prospects. Informatore Fitopatologico, 39(2):23-32

Westcott C, 1973. The gardener's bug book. 4th ed. Garden City, USA: Doubleday.

Yasnosh VA, Mindiashvili EN, 1972. On acclimatization of olive scale Parlatoria oleae Colvee parasites in Georgia. Proceedings Plant Protection Institute. Georgian Soviet Republic, Tbilisi, 24:136-140.

Zaher MA, Soliman ZR, 1971. Life history of the predatory mite, Cheletogenes ornatus (Canestrini and Fanzano) (Acarina: Cheyletidae). Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique d'Egypte, 55:85-89.

Zaher MA, Yousef pTA, Kandil MM, 1982. Effect of food on the biology of Cheletogenes ornatus (C. & F.) (Acari: Prostigmata: Cheyletidae). Acarologia, 22(4):361-366

Distribution References

Aleksidze G, Ascher KRS, Ben-Dov Y, 1995. Armored scale insects (Diaspididae), pests of fruit orchards and their control in the Republic of Georgia. In: Journal of Entomology [Proceedings of VII International Symposium of Scale Insect Studies], 29 187-190.

Andres F de, 1979. Integrated control in the olive grove. (Lucha integrada en el olivar.). Agricultura, Spain. 48 (569), 711-713, 716-717.

Argyriou L C, Kourmadas A L, 1981. Contribution to the timing for the control of Diaspididae scales of olive trees. Annales de l'Institut Phytopathologique Benaki. 13 (1), 65-72.

Butani D K, 1975. Insect pests of fruit crops and their control - 16: fig. Pesticides. 9 (11), 32-36.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Costa Lima A M da, 1936. Terceiro Catalogo dos Insectos que Vivem nas Plantas do Brasil. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Directoria de Estatistica da Produccao.

Ehler L E, Endicott P C, 1984. Effect of malathion-bait sprays on biological control of insect pests of olive, citrus, and walnut. In: Hilgardia, 52 (5) 47 pp.

Fowjhan M A, Kozár F, 1994. New data on the scale insect fauna (Homoptera: Coccoidea) of fruit plants in Afghanistan. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica. 29 (3/4), 343-347.

Garcia M F, 1973. Contribution to the biological study of Parlatoria oleae (Colvee) (Homoptera, Coccoidea, Diaspidinae). (Contribucion al estudio biologico de Parlatoria oleae (Colvee) (Homoptera, Coccoidea, Diaspidinae).). Revista de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, 5 (Patologia Vegetal). 10 (1), 1-53.

Gerson U, 1977. The scale-insect Parlatoria pergandei Comstock and its natural enemies in Israel. (La caspilla Parlatoria pergandei Comstock y sus enemigos naturales en Israel.). Boletin del Servicio de Defensa contra Plagas e Inspeccion Fitopatologica. 21-53.

Gomaa E M, 1978. The violet oystershell scale. Rastitelna Zashchita. 26 (11), 30-32.

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