Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Passiflora foetida
(red fruit passion flower)

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Datasheet

Passiflora foetida (red fruit passion flower)

Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Mature plant.
TitleMature plant
CaptionMature plant.
CopyrightJohn T. Swarbrick/Weed Science Consultancy
Mature plant.
Mature plantMature plant.John T. Swarbrick/Weed Science Consultancy
Passiflora foetida (red fruit passion flower, love in a mist); draping habit. Mokuauia, Oahu. February, 2005.
TitleHabit
CaptionPassiflora foetida (red fruit passion flower, love in a mist); draping habit. Mokuauia, Oahu. February, 2005.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Passiflora foetida (red fruit passion flower, love in a mist); draping habit. Mokuauia, Oahu. February, 2005.
HabitPassiflora foetida (red fruit passion flower, love in a mist); draping habit. Mokuauia, Oahu. February, 2005.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
a. androgynophore; b. berry; c. seed.
TitleLine artwork of P. foetida
Captiona. androgynophore; b. berry; c. seed.
CopyrightSEAMEO-BIOTROP
a. androgynophore; b. berry; c. seed.
Line artwork of P. foetidaa. androgynophore; b. berry; c. seed.SEAMEO-BIOTROP
Passiflora foetida (red fruit passion flower, love in a mist); habit (also note long tendrils). Mokolii, Oahu. April 19, 2005.
TitleHabit
CaptionPassiflora foetida (red fruit passion flower, love in a mist); habit (also note long tendrils). Mokolii, Oahu. April 19, 2005.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Passiflora foetida (red fruit passion flower, love in a mist); habit (also note long tendrils). Mokolii, Oahu. April 19, 2005.
HabitPassiflora foetida (red fruit passion flower, love in a mist); habit (also note long tendrils). Mokolii, Oahu. April 19, 2005.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Seedlings.
TitleSeedlings
CaptionSeedlings.
CopyrightJohn T. Swarbrick/Weed Science Consultancy
Seedlings.
SeedlingsSeedlings.John T. Swarbrick/Weed Science Consultancy
Passiflora foetida (red fruit passion flower, love in a mist); leaves. Kipahulu camp Haleakala National Park, Maui. February, 2009.
TitleLeaves
CaptionPassiflora foetida (red fruit passion flower, love in a mist); leaves. Kipahulu camp Haleakala National Park, Maui. February, 2009.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Passiflora foetida (red fruit passion flower, love in a mist); leaves. Kipahulu camp Haleakala National Park, Maui. February, 2009.
LeavesPassiflora foetida (red fruit passion flower, love in a mist); leaves. Kipahulu camp Haleakala National Park, Maui. February, 2009.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Passiflora foetida (red flower passion fruit, love in a mist); white flower with foliage and tendrils. Mokolea Pt., Kilauea Pt.,  NWR, Kauai. March, 2013.
TitleFlower
CaptionPassiflora foetida (red flower passion fruit, love in a mist); white flower with foliage and tendrils. Mokolea Pt., Kilauea Pt., NWR, Kauai. March, 2013.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Passiflora foetida (red flower passion fruit, love in a mist); white flower with foliage and tendrils. Mokolea Pt., Kilauea Pt.,  NWR, Kauai. March, 2013.
FlowerPassiflora foetida (red flower passion fruit, love in a mist); white flower with foliage and tendrils. Mokolea Pt., Kilauea Pt., NWR, Kauai. March, 2013.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Passiflora foetida (red fruit passion flower, love in a mist); white flower. Mokolea Pt., Kilauea Pt.,  NWR, Kauai. March, 2013.
TitleFlower
CaptionPassiflora foetida (red fruit passion flower, love in a mist); white flower. Mokolea Pt., Kilauea Pt., NWR, Kauai. March, 2013.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Passiflora foetida (red fruit passion flower, love in a mist); white flower. Mokolea Pt., Kilauea Pt.,  NWR, Kauai. March, 2013.
FlowerPassiflora foetida (red fruit passion flower, love in a mist); white flower. Mokolea Pt., Kilauea Pt., NWR, Kauai. March, 2013.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Passiflora foetida (red fruit passion flower, love in a mist); purple flowered variety. LaPerouse, Maui. April, 2004.
TitleFlower
CaptionPassiflora foetida (red fruit passion flower, love in a mist); purple flowered variety. LaPerouse, Maui. April, 2004.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Passiflora foetida (red fruit passion flower, love in a mist); purple flowered variety. LaPerouse, Maui. April, 2004.
FlowerPassiflora foetida (red fruit passion flower, love in a mist); purple flowered variety. LaPerouse, Maui. April, 2004.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Passiflora foetida (red fruit passion flower, love in a mist); mature fruit. LaPerouse, Maui. April, 2004.
TitleFruit
CaptionPassiflora foetida (red fruit passion flower, love in a mist); mature fruit. LaPerouse, Maui. April, 2004.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Passiflora foetida (red fruit passion flower, love in a mist); mature fruit. LaPerouse, Maui. April, 2004.
FruitPassiflora foetida (red fruit passion flower, love in a mist); mature fruit. LaPerouse, Maui. April, 2004.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Passiflora foetida (red fruit passion flower, love in a mist); leaves and ripe fruit. (also note tightly colied tendrils). Kanaio, Maui. July, 2003.
TitleFruit
CaptionPassiflora foetida (red fruit passion flower, love in a mist); leaves and ripe fruit. (also note tightly colied tendrils). Kanaio, Maui. July, 2003.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Passiflora foetida (red fruit passion flower, love in a mist); leaves and ripe fruit. (also note tightly colied tendrils). Kanaio, Maui. July, 2003.
FruitPassiflora foetida (red fruit passion flower, love in a mist); leaves and ripe fruit. (also note tightly colied tendrils). Kanaio, Maui. July, 2003.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Passiflora foetida L. (1753)

Preferred Common Name

  • red fruit passion flower

International Common Names

  • English: love-in-a-mist; stinking passion flower; wild water lemon
  • Spanish: caguajasa (Cuba); clavellin blanco (Honduras); granadilla colorada; granadilla silvestre; norbo cimarrón (Bolivia); tumbillo
  • French: marie goujeat; passiflore fétide

Local Common Names

  • Argentina: ataco; corona de Cristo; granadilla; mburucuyá; mburucuyá aceitosa; mburucuyá menor; mburucuyá miní; mburucuyá rastrero; pasionaria; pasionaria hedionda; pocoto
  • Australia: mossy passion flower
  • Bolivia: pedón
  • Brazil: maracajusinho (San Luis Island); maracujá catinga; maracujá de cheiro; maracujá de cobra; maracujá de estalo; maracujá de lagartinho; maracujá fedorento; maracuja-da-petra
  • Cambodia: sav mao prey
  • Colombia: bejuco canastilla; chulupa de loma; cinco Ilagas; cocorilla; curubo; flor de la pasión; gulupo
  • Dominican Republic: caguazo; mariballa
  • Ecuador: love in a mist
  • El Salvador: granadilla colorado; granadilla montes; sandia de culebra
  • Fiji: wild passion fruit
  • Germany: Passionsblume, Rotfrüchtige
  • Guadeloupe: magouja; mariegougeat
  • Guam: kinahulo atadeo
  • Haiti: toque molle
  • Honduras: granadilla
  • India: banchathail; mukkopeera
  • Indonesia: buah tikus; ceplukan blunsun; katceprek; katjeprek; lemanas; permot; permot rajutan; rambaton blunsun
  • Jamaica: granadilla; love in a mist; sweet cup
  • Japan: kusa-tokeiso
  • Madagascar: tsipopoka
  • Malaysia: pokok lang bulu; timun dendang
  • Malaysia/Sarawak: letup
  • Mauritius: poc-poc sauvage
  • Mexico: clavellín blanco; granadilla; jujito peludo; jujo
  • Micronesia, Federated states of: pwompwomw (Pohnpei)
  • Netherlands: Marie-goujeat
  • Nicaragua: catapanza
  • Paraguay: hóntayek; mburucuyá
  • Peru: bolsa mullaca; granadilla; granadilla cimarrona; puru-puru
  • Philippines: kurunggut; lupok-lupok; masaflora; melon meleonan; pasionariang-mabaho; prutas taungan
  • Puerto Rico: flor de pasion sylvestre; silvestre; tagua tagua
  • Réunion: petite grenadille; poc poc
  • Samoa: pasio vao
  • Singapore: timun dendang; timun hutan; timun padang
  • Solomon Islands: kakalifaka; kwalo kakali
  • South Africa: running pop
  • Sri Lanka: dalbattu; kodimathulai; madahalu; udahalu
  • Thailand: ka-thok-rok
  • Tonga: vaine 'a e kuma
  • USA/Hawaii: scarlet fruited passion flower
  • Venezuela: cojón de gato; parchita de culebra; parchita de montana
  • Vietnam: chum bao

EPPO code

  • PAQFO (Passiflora foetida)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Violales
  •                         Family: Passifloraceae
  •                             Genus: Passiflora
  •                                 Species: Passiflora foetida

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The generic name Passiflora refers to the supposed relativity of the separate parts of the flower to the death and passion of Christ; the specific name relates to the odorous resin present in the sticky glandular hairs on many parts of the plant. The name Passiflora foetida is universally accepted for this common and widespread weedy vine among the 500 or so other species in the genus (Hansen et al., 1999). A number of subspecies or varieties exist including foetida ssp. gossypifolia, ssp. hispida and ssp. riparia. Satterthwait (1982) reports chromosome number, n = 10.

Description

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P. foetida is a branched annual or perennial herbaceous vine 1-5 m tall with an annual or perennial woody tap root. Most parts of the above ground plant carry distinctive glandular hairs, the tips of which secrete a distinctively odorous substance. The plant scrambles or climbs by means of tendrils, and spreads only by seed.

Stems 1-5 m long, branched, herbaceous, round, green and finely hairy.

Leaves single, alternate, stipules to 1 cm long and divided into hair-like segments, petiole 2-10 cm long without nectary glands, blades 5-15 cm long, 3 or 5 lobed, the base cordate, the edges generally fringed with glandular hairs, the veins prominent, pale green and often finely hairy.

Tendrils leaf-opposed, unbranched, coiling and grasping.

Flowers solitary in upper leaf axils, peduncle 3-5 cm long, bracts 2-4 cm long and deeply divided into hair-like segments that surround the flower and fruit, sepals 5, greenish petals 5, blunt, white to pale purple or pinkish, 3-5 cm across surrounding a 2-rowed corona of purplish filaments, 5 stamens spreading at the top of a column, styles 3.

Fruits oval, 2-3 cm long, smooth, enclosed in hairy bracts. At first fleshy and green, maturing dry and yellow or orange to red, sometimes spotted, even pale green (Amela Garcia, unpublished data).

Ripe seeds blackish, flattened, wedge-shaped, 3-4 mm long, irregularly ridged, surrounded by a transparent aril.

Seedlings with epigeal germination. Hypocotyl 8-12 mm long, hairless, light green. Cotyledons shortly stalked, oblong, light green, 8-12 mm long, hairless, strongly veined. Juvenile leaves single, ovate, irregularly lobed, 12-14 mm long, with glandular hairs on margins and stalks. Seedlings foetid when crushed.

Plant Type

Top of page Biennial
Herbaceous
Seed propagated
Vine / climber

Distribution

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P. foetida is native to Central America, South America and the West Indies (Killip, 1938), but is now widely naturalized throughout the tropics and subtropics.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

Brunei DarussalamPresentWaterhouse, 1993
CambodiaPresentHolm et al., 1997
ChinaWidespreadHolm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997
-Hong KongPresentHolm et al., 1991
Christmas Island (Indian Ocean)PresentDu and Puy Telford, 1993
Cocos IslandsPresentDu and Puy Telford, 1993
IndiaWidespreadNative Not invasive Padhye and Deshpande, 1960; Holm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997
-MaharashtraPresentMallikarjunaiah & Rao, 1972
IndonesiaWidespreadKostermans et al., 1987; Holm et al., 1991; Waterhouse, 1993; Holm et al., 1997
-JavaPresentSoerjani et al., 1987
JapanPresentHolm et al., 1997
-Ryukyu ArchipelagoPresentYonaha et al., 1979
LaosPresentWaterhouse, 1993
LebanonPresentHolm et al., 1997
MalaysiaWidespreadHoml et al., 1997; Holm et al., 1991; Abu, 1992; Waterhouse, 1993
-SarawakPresentNativeVoon and Kueh, 1999
MyanmarPresentWaterhouse, 1993
PhilippinesWidespreadPancho et al., 1969; Holm et al., 1991; Waterhouse, 1993; Holm et al., 1997
SingaporePresentAnon, 1998a; Waterhouse, 1993; Yeoh and Wee, 1994
Sri LankaWidespreadHolm et al., 1991; Dassanayake and Hicks, 1994; Holm et al., 1997
ThailandPresentHolm et al., 1991; Waterhouse, 1993
VietnamPresentHolm et al., 1991; Waterhouse, 1993; Holm et al., 1997

Africa

CameroonPresentHutchinson et al., 1954
CongoPresentHolm et al., 1991; Szafranski et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997
Côte d'IvoirePresentWijs, 1974; Bigot and Vuattoux, 1979
Equatorial GuineaPresentHutchinson et al., 1954
GambiaPresentHutchinson et al., 1954
GhanaPresentHolm et al., 1991
GuineaPresentHutchinson et al., 1954
KenyaPresentHolm et al., 1997
MadagascarPresentHolm et al., 1997
MauritiusPresentHolm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997
MozambiquePresentFernandez and Fernandes, 1978
NigeriaPresentHolm et al., 1991
RéunionPresentHolm et al., 1991
SenegalPresentHolm et al., 1991
Sierra LeonePresentHolm et al., 1991
South AfricaPresentWells et al., 1986

North America

MexicoPresentNative Not invasive Killip, 1938; Holm et al., 1997
USAPresentHolm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997
-ArizonaPresentNative Not invasive Killip, 1938
-FloridaPresentAnon, 1998b; Killip, 1938
-HawaiiPresentGardner, 1989; Holm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997

Central America and Caribbean

BahamasPresentNative Not invasive Killip, 1938
BarbadosPresentNative Not invasive Killip, 1938
BelizePresentNative Not invasive Killip, 1938
British Virgin IslandsPresentNative Not invasive Killip, 1938
Costa RicaPresentNative Not invasive Killip, 1938
CubaPresentNative Not invasive Killip, 1938; Holm et al., 1997
CuraçaoPresentNative Not invasive Killip, 1938
DominicaPresentNative Not invasive Killip, 1938
Dominican RepublicPresentNative Not invasive Killip, 1938; Holm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997
El SalvadorPresentNative Not invasive Killip, 1938; Garcia et al., 1975; Holm et al., 1991
GuadeloupePresentNative Not invasive Killip, 1938
GuatemalaPresentNative Not invasive Killip, 1938
HaitiPresentNative Not invasive Killip, 1938
HondurasPresentNative Not invasive Killip, 1938; Holm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997
JamaicaPresentNative Not invasive Killip, 1938; Holm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997
MartiniquePresentNative Not invasive Killip, 1938
MontserratPresentNative Not invasive Killip, 1938
NicaraguaPresentNative Not invasive Killip, 1938; Holm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997
PanamaPresentNative Not invasive Killip, 1938
Puerto RicoPresentNative Not invasive Killip, 1938; Holm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentNative Not invasive Killip, 1938
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentNative Not invasive Killip, 1938
Trinidad and TobagoPresentNative Not invasive Killip, 1938; Holm et al., 1991

South America

ArgentinaRestricted distributionNative Not invasive Killip, 1938; Deginani, 2001
BoliviaPresentNative Not invasive Killip, 1938; Frank, 1999
BrazilPresent, few occurrencesNative Not invasive Killip, 1938; Da Costa Sacco, 1980; Holm et al., 1997
ChilePresentNative Not invasive Killip, 1938; Deginani, 2001
ColombiaPresentNative Not invasive Killip, 1938; Holm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997
EcuadorPresentNative Not invasive Killip, 1938
-Galapagos IslandsPresentNative Not invasive Killip, 1938; Andersen et al., 1998
French GuianaPresentNative Not invasive Killip, 1938
GuyanaPresentNative Not invasive Killip, 1938
ParaguayPresentNative Not invasive Killip, 1938
PeruPresentNative Not invasive Killip, 1938; Holm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997
SurinamePresentKillip, 1938; Holm et al., 1991
UruguayPresentNative Not invasive Deginani, 2001
VenezuelaPresentNative Not invasive Killip, 1938; Hernandez-Garboza and Ochoa-Corona, 1994; Holm et al., 1997

Oceania

American SamoaPresentWaterhouse, 1997
AustraliaWidespreadHolm et al., 1991
-Australian Northern TerritoryWidespreadSatterthwait, 1982; Hnatiuk, 1990; Holm et al., 1997
-New South WalesPresentSatterthwait, 1982; Hnatiuk, 1990; Holm et al., 1997
-QueenslandWidespreadIntroducedSatterthwait, 1982; Hnatiuk, 1990; Bean, 1994; Holm et al., 1997
-South AustraliaPresentHolm et al., 1997
-Western AustraliaPresentHolm et al., 1997
Cook IslandsPresentWaterhouse, 1997
FijiWidespreadParham, 1958; Holm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997
French PolynesiaWidespreadWaterhouse, 1997
GuamPresentLee, 1985; Holm et al., 1991
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentWaterhouse, 1997
New CaledoniaWidespreadMacKee, 1985; Holm et al., 1997
NiuePresentWaterhouse, 1997
Papua New GuineaWidespreadHenty and Pritchard, 1975; Holm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997
SamoaWidespreadSauerborn and Sauerborn, 1984; Waterhouse, 1997
Solomon IslandsPresentHancock and Henderson, 1988
TongaPresentWhistler, 1983
VanuatuPresentWaterhouse, 1997
Wallis and Futuna IslandsWidespreadWaterhouse, 1997

Risk of Introduction

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The most probable means of spread of P. foetida is deliberate introduction due to its ornamental interest; possible ways include mail orders as, for example, it is sold and bought in Europe.

Habitat

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P. foetida is especially common along roadsides, around houses and sheds, along fences and in waste areas throughout the tropics and subtropics. It requires warm, moist soil and air conditions for at least half of the year, moderate to high soil fertility, support for the vines, and freedom from cultivation for several months. In permanently moist soils it may exhibit an annual or a perennial life cycle, whilst in areas with a strong dry season it is more likely to exist as an annual vine.

The plant grows on a wide range of soils from peats through loams to sands, as well as on soils derived from corals and volcanic debris.

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details
Terrestrial-managed
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Protected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Deserts Present, no further details
Natural forests Present, no further details
Natural grasslands Present, no further details

Hosts/Species Affected

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P. foetida occurs in a very wide range of crops, pastures and plantations.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Biology and Ecology

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P. foetida is generally a fairly weakly growing climbing herb. It reproduces solely by seed which is probably spread by small mammals (MacDougal, 1994), because of its fruit features (Amela Garcia, unpublished data), and in contaminated trash and soil after the fruits have been allowed to mature. Dormant, but viable seeds are able to survive in the soil for many years. Germination most commonly occurs in cropland after cultivation where the soil has been disturbed and is moist and warm. It is also commonly seen in uncultivated and neglected areas such as along roadsides and fencelines, riverbanks, and other occasionally disturbed sites. The plant grows best where there is support (such as taller plants), in the absence of which it may form mats over the ground and other low-growing plants.

Genetics

De Melo et al. (2001) observed regular pairing and regular chromosome segregation during meiosis.

Physiology and phenology

Germination

Germination percentage and germination speed, with or without arile, are low and slow, respectively, but the initial time of emergency is minor with arile (Amela Garcia et al., 2001).

Phenological variation

P. foetida produces flowers and fruits between October and February in Brazil (Da Costa Sacco, 1980) and throughtout the year, mainly from September to May in Argentina (Deginani, 1998).

Reproductive biology

Propagation

Seeds obtained by spontaneous self-pollination, induced self-pollination, geitonogamous pollination and natural pollination were viable and the major germination percetage ocurred 2 months after sowing (Amela Garcia et al., 2000).

Shoot regeneration from mature endosperm of P. foetida was obtained by Mohamed et al. (1996). The regenerated plants flowered, although fruit set was not observed.

Breeding system and pollination

P. foetida is self-compatible, pollinated mainly by Ptiloglossa tarsata and rarely by Pseudaugochloropsis sp. in Chaco, Argentina (Amela Garcia and Hoc, 1998). Janzen (1968) cited several species of Ptiloglossa as pollinators in Central America and Frankie et al. (1983) noted the constancy of this visitor. However, Gottsberger et al. (1988) observed species of Centris and Xylocopa pollinating in Brazil. Amela Garcia and Hoc (2001) compared the pollinators of six species of Passiflora and concluded that P. foetida is served by pollinators of medium size, in contrast to species with bigger and stronger flowers. Besides, the early and short anthesis of P. foetida is correlated with the mainly matinal activity of its most important pollinator, Ptiloglossa tarsata.

Fruit production

Fruit production by free pollination is high (Amela Garcia and Hoc, 1998).

Environmental requirements

The minimum rainfall required for P. foetida is 900 mm (Luna Ercilla, 1992). The preferred temperature range is 19-29°C for seedlings and 13-38°C for adult plants (Vanderplank, 1997). It is a heliophytic and selectively hygrophytic species (Da Costa Sacco, 1980). P. foetida var. vitacea has been encountered up to 1100 m in Paraguay, Uruguay and northern Argentina (Killip, 1938).

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 15 27
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 34
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 9

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall15150mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Summer

Soil Tolerances

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Soil texture

  • light

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. passiflorae Pathogen
Heliconius hecale Herbivore

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Waterhouse (1994) noted that in excess of 200 insects have been recorded attacking Passifloraceae in South and Central America. Many of these, however, are polyphagous and little is known about natural enemies specific to P. foetida. The chrysomelid beetle Diabrotica speciosa eats the flowers of P. foetida (Amela García and Hoc, 1998). Other Chrysomelidae eat the leaves (Cordo et al., 2004). The most noteworthy group are the heliconiine butterflies, of which Agraulis vanillae, Dione juno, Dryas julia, Eueides aliphera and E. isabella are recorded as pests of Passiflora edulis, although the larvae of other species are occasionally found on Passiflora spp.. Heliconius hecale attacks P. foetida in Central and South America and has some potential as a biological control agent (Waage et al., 1981). In Argentina, Agraulis vanillae maculosa leaves the eggs on the tendrils of P. foetida and on adjacent plants; the larvae eat the flower buds and juvenile leaves (Cordo et al., 2004). In Costa Rica, Euptoieta hegesia and also Agraulis vanillae feed on it (Janzen, 1991). In Hawaii, USA, the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. passiflorae attacks P. foetida, P. tripartita and P. ligularis but not P. suberosa or the cultivated species, P. edulis f. flavicarpa (Gardner, 1989). P. foetida is also attacked by the passion fruit woodiness virus in New Guinea and adjacent regions of northern Australia (Davis et al., 2002), Soybean mosaic virus, with symptoms in the leaves in Colombia (Castillo et al., 2001) and Xylella fastidiosa (Hernández Garboza and Ochoa Corona, 1994). Dassanayake and Hicks (1992) used purified virus preparations from P. foetida to study the serological relationship among passiflora viruses.

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Leaves eggs; eggs Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches eggs; eggs Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye

Wood Packaging

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Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Loose wood packing material
Non-wood
Processed or treated wood
Solid wood packing material with bark
Solid wood packing material without bark

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collections None
Animal/plant products None
Biodiversity (generally) None
Crop production None
Environment (generally) None
Fisheries / aquaculture None
Forestry production None
Human health None
Livestock production None
Native fauna None
Native flora None
Rare/protected species None
Tourism None
Trade/international relations None
Transport/travel None

Impact

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Holm et al. (1997) note that P. foetida is a weed of 20 crops in 49 countries. It is the most serious weed in maize in some parts of Malaysia and is a serious weed of rubber there, and in Indonesia. It is also especially serious in coconut in the Pacific, in maize and sugarcane in Thailand, in cotton in Thailand and Peru, in oilpalm in Indonesia, in taro in Samoa, and in various crops in Sarawak.

P. foetida generally grows in areas where competition for nutrients and water are unlikely to be serious, however it may be a strong competitor for light. It also becomes entangled in crops making management difficult.

It is an alternate host for a number of diseases which affect cultivated passionfruit, including Passiflora ringspot virus (Dassanayake and Hicks, 1990), Passion fruit Sri Lankan mottle virus (Dassanayake and Hicks, 1992), Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. passiflorae (Gardner, 1989), Cucumber mosaic virus (Yonaha et al. 1979), a lepidopterous Pterophoridae (Bigot and Vuattoux, 1979), Passionfruit woodiness virus (Queensland Department of Primary Industries, 1976), Agraulis vanillae vanillae (United States Department of Agriculture, 1977) and Colletotrichum gleosporoides [Glomerella cingulata] (Mallikarjunaiah and Rao, 1972).

Although the leaves and unripe fruits contain toxic cyanogenic glucosides and alkaloids the incidence of stock poisoning due to P. foetida appears to be minimal. Passifloricin A, a polyketide alpha-pyrone isolated from from P. foetida var. hispida resin, exhibited an LC50 of 0.014 µg/ml in a brine shrimp assay performed by Echeverri et al. (2001). Starving horses reject this plant (Janzen, 1991).

P. foetida invades natural vegetation in a number of countries (Bean, 1994), though probably never to a serious extent.

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Panicum fauriei (Carter's panicgrass)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition (unspecified)US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field

Uses

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P. foetida has been used as ground cover for smothering weeds in Malaysia and East Africa (Purseglove, 1979) and to promote organic matter production; however, it is seldom used today as it is difficult to control and rapidly forms a soil seed bank.

It has also been planted as an ornamental vine (probably the reason for its widespread distribution). The seeds are sold for this purpose, specially in Europe (Salvat, 1994; Wettges, 1999), where there are many Passiflora fans that cultivate Passiflora species (http://www.threewa.co.uk/passion/; http://www.media-public.de/passiflora).

P. foetida is an edible plant: the aril is eaten in Colombia (Castañeda, 1991), the fruits are used to make refreshments in Venezuela (Ragonese and Martínez Crovetto, 1947), the row fruits (both seeds and arils) and the young cooked leaves are eaten in Thailand (Phengklai and Khamsai, 1985). Voon and Kueh (1999) studied the nutritional value of the leaves: the protein content is high (6-7 %). The production of fruits per ha reaches 2500 kg (Luna Ercilla, 1992).

P. foetida is also a medicinal plant: it is used to treat diseases affecting women in Costa Rica (Stanley, 1937), the leaves are employed in baths for skin affections (Alzugaray and Alzugaray, 1984), the roots have antispasmodic properties and the flowers have beneficial effects for breast illnesses (Hyeronymus, 1882).

Veterinary practices: common diseases in chickens (Newcastle disease and pediculosis) are treated with different preparations of the fruits, leaves, stem and seeds, given orally or topically, in Ogun State, Nigeria (Eruvbetine and Abegunde, 1998).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Erosion control or dune stabilization

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Several other species of Passiflora are minor weeds throughout the tropics, especially of wasteland and at the edges of native vegetation. They are similar to P. foetida in general form but lack the distinctive glandular hairs which usually cover the shoots and always occur on the bracts surrounding the flowers and fruits. The unique very similar species is P. chrysophylla, the only difference between them being that P. foetida has pedicellate glands on petioles and leaves margins and P. chrysophylla, has sessile glands on the sepals (Deginani, 2001). Cultivated species of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) may sometimes escape and become naturalized in disturbed native vegetation.

Prevention and Control

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Cultural Control

P. foetida may best be controlled by uprooting, either directly, or during interrow cultivation and interplant hoeing. It cannot be smothered out, since it tolerates low light intensities and also tends to climb over taller plants. Good field hygiene is important in minimizing the spread and proliferation of the weed; plants should be controlled by whatever means available before they flower and set seed. Composting material should be free of dormant weed seeds.

Grazing is unlikely to be effective due to the objectionable smell (and no doubt taste) of bruised foliage.

Chemical Control

Chemical control is only worthwhile in graminaceous crops such as sugarcane or improved pastures, or where the herbicide can be directed away from crop foliage, since foliar application to broad-leaved crops would damage them. Henty and Pritchard (1975) and Kostermans et al. (1987) report that picloram, asulam and ametryne may give shoot kill only in sugarcane in Queensland, Australia, and that amitrole can be used as a directed spray in rubber. Webb and Feez (1987) report that fluroxypyr gives excellent selective control of P. foetida in both sugarcane and sorghum.

The following herbicides are registered for use against Passiflora foetida in Queensland, Australia: diuron + fluroxypyr, atrazine, atrazine + dicamba, fluroxypyr, and 2,4-D + ioxynil (Hamilton 1997).

Biological Control

No attempts have been made at biological control of P. foetida in the field. Some work has been conducted, however, to establish the potential for biological control of the Pasifloraceae. Gardner (1989) showed that a number of weedy Passiflora spp. were susceptible to vascular wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. passiflorae while the cultivated species P. edulis f. flavicarpa was not. Waage et al. (1981) examined the host ranges of a number of heliconius butterflies with a view to their potential for biological control. Chavez et al. (1999) successfully transmited viral pathogens of Passiflora edulis to P. foetida by grafting, mechanical inoculation, and the aphid Aphis gossypii and the chrysomelid beetles Diabrotica sp., Cerotoma sp. and Colaspis sp. However, aphid resistance in the field seems high due the the sticky hairs (Dassanayake and Hicks, 1994), as well as against other insects less than 2 mm (Janzen, 1968).

References

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

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