Passiflora foetida (red fruit passion flower)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Plant Type
- Distribution Table
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Biology and Ecology
- Air Temperature
- Rainfall Regime
- Soil Tolerances
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Plant Trade
- Wood Packaging
- Impact Summary
- Threatened Species
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Uses List
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Links to Websites
- Distribution Maps
Don't need the entire report?
Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.Generate report
PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Passiflora foetida L. (1753)
Preferred Common Name
- red fruit passion flower
International Common Names
- English: love-in-a-mist; stinking passion flower; wild water lemon
- Spanish: caguajasa (Cuba); clavellin blanco (Honduras); granadilla colorada; granadilla silvestre; norbo cimarrón (Bolivia); tumbillo
- French: marie goujeat; passiflore fétide
Local Common Names
- Argentina: ataco; corona de Cristo; granadilla; mburucuyá; mburucuyá aceitosa; mburucuyá menor; mburucuyá miní; mburucuyá rastrero; pasionaria; pasionaria hedionda; pocoto
- Australia: mossy passion flower
- Bolivia: pedón
- Brazil: maracajusinho (San Luis Island); maracujá catinga; maracujá de cheiro; maracujá de cobra; maracujá de estalo; maracujá de lagartinho; maracujá fedorento; maracuja-da-petra
- Cambodia: sav mao prey
- Colombia: bejuco canastilla; chulupa de loma; cinco Ilagas; cocorilla; curubo; flor de la pasión; gulupo
- Dominican Republic: caguazo; mariballa
- Ecuador: love in a mist
- El Salvador: granadilla colorado; granadilla montes; sandia de culebra
- Fiji: wild passion fruit
- Germany: Passionsblume, Rotfrüchtige
- Guadeloupe: magouja; mariegougeat
- Guam: kinahulo atadeo
- Haiti: toque molle
- Honduras: granadilla
- India: banchathail; mukkopeera
- Indonesia: buah tikus; ceplukan blunsun; katceprek; katjeprek; lemanas; permot; permot rajutan; rambaton blunsun
- Jamaica: granadilla; love in a mist; sweet cup
- Japan: kusa-tokeiso
- Madagascar: tsipopoka
- Malaysia: pokok lang bulu; timun dendang
- Malaysia/Sarawak: letup
- Mauritius: poc-poc sauvage
- Mexico: clavellín blanco; granadilla; jujito peludo; jujo
- Micronesia, Federated states of: pwompwomw (Pohnpei)
- Netherlands: Marie-goujeat
- Nicaragua: catapanza
- Paraguay: hóntayek; mburucuyá
- Peru: bolsa mullaca; granadilla; granadilla cimarrona; puru-puru
- Philippines: kurunggut; lupok-lupok; masaflora; melon meleonan; pasionariang-mabaho; prutas taungan
- Puerto Rico: flor de pasion sylvestre; silvestre; tagua tagua
- Réunion: petite grenadille; poc poc
- Samoa: pasio vao
- Singapore: timun dendang; timun hutan; timun padang
- Solomon Islands: kakalifaka; kwalo kakali
- South Africa: running pop
- Sri Lanka: dalbattu; kodimathulai; madahalu; udahalu
- Thailand: ka-thok-rok
- Tonga: vaine 'a e kuma
- USA/Hawaii: scarlet fruited passion flower
- Venezuela: cojón de gato; parchita de culebra; parchita de montana
- Vietnam: chum bao
- PAQFO (Passiflora foetida)
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
The following summary is from Witt and Luke (2017):
Evergreen climber with tendrils (slender, usually twisting structures on the stems or leaves that aid in ‘climbing’); stems sometimes angular (to 15 m high); tendril at the base of each leaf stalk together with a stipule (thread-like appendage) covered with sticky glands; stems have an unpleasant odour.
Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Surinam, Uruguay, USA and Venezuela.
Reason for Introduction
Medicine, ground cover and ornament.
Roadsides, disturbed areas, crops, plantations, forest edges/gaps, savannahs and riparian zones.
In parts of Malaysia, it is a serious weed of maize and rubber. It also impacts negatively on coconut production in the Pacific; on maize, sugarcane and cotton in Thailand; on oil palm in Indonesia; on taro in Samoa; and on various other crops in Sarawak. It is an alternate host for the vectors of a number of diseases affecting cultivated passion fruit. P. foetida leaves contain cyanide, which if consumed by goats, mainly during the dry season, result in poisoning with symptoms such as apathy, tachycardia, tachypnea, jugular venous pulse, incoordination, bellowing, mydriasis, and sternal recumbence followed by lateral recumbence.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Dicotyledonae
- Order: Violales
- Family: Passifloraceae
- Genus: Passiflora
- Species: Passiflora foetida
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
The generic name Passiflora refers to the supposed relativity of the separate parts of the flower to the death and passion of Christ; the specific name relates to the odorous resin present in the sticky glandular hairs on many parts of the plant. The name Passiflora foetida is universally accepted for this common and widespread weedy vine among the 500 or so other species in the genus (Hansen et al., 1999). A number of subspecies or varieties exist including foetida ssp. gossypifolia, ssp. hispida and ssp. riparia. Satterthwait (1982) reports chromosome number, n = 10.
DescriptionTop of page
P. foetida is a branched annual or perennial herbaceous vine 1-5 m tall with an annual or perennial woody tap root. Most parts of the above ground plant carry distinctive glandular hairs, the tips of which secrete a distinctively odorous substance. The plant scrambles or climbs by means of tendrils, and spreads only by seed.
Stems 1-5 m long, branched, herbaceous, round, green and finely hairy.
Leaves single, alternate, stipules to 1 cm long and divided into hair-like segments, petiole 2-10 cm long without nectary glands, blades 5-15 cm long, 3 or 5 lobed, the base cordate, the edges generally fringed with glandular hairs, the veins prominent, pale green and often finely hairy.
Tendrils leaf-opposed, unbranched, coiling and grasping.
Flowers solitary in upper leaf axils, peduncle 3-5 cm long, bracts 2-4 cm long and deeply divided into hair-like segments that surround the flower and fruit, sepals 5, greenish petals 5, blunt, white to pale purple or pinkish, 3-5 cm across surrounding a 2-rowed corona of purplish filaments, 5 stamens spreading at the top of a column, styles 3.
Fruits oval, 2-3 cm long, smooth, enclosed in hairy bracts. At first fleshy and green, maturing dry and yellow or orange to red, sometimes spotted, even pale green (Amela Garcia, unpublished data).
Ripe seeds blackish, flattened, wedge-shaped, 3-4 mm long, irregularly ridged, surrounded by a transparent aril.
Seedlings with epigeal germination. Hypocotyl 8-12 mm long, hairless, light green. Cotyledons shortly stalked, oblong, light green, 8-12 mm long, hairless, strongly veined. Juvenile leaves single, ovate, irregularly lobed, 12-14 mm long, with glandular hairs on margins and stalks. Seedlings foetid when crushed.
Plant TypeTop of page
Vine / climber
DistributionTop of page
P. foetida is native to Central America, South America and the West Indies (Killip, 1938), but is now widely naturalized throughout the tropics and subtropics.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 10 Feb 2022
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Cameroon||Present||Original citation: Hutchinson et al., 1954|
|Congo, Republic of the||Present|
|Equatorial Guinea||Present||Original citation: Hutchinson et al., 1954|
|Gambia||Present||Original citation: Hutchinson et al., 1954|
|Guinea||Present||Original citation: Hutchinson et al., 1954|
|Cocos Islands||Present||Original citation: Du and Puy Telford (1993)|
|-Maharashtra||Present||Original citation: Mallikarjunaiah & Rao, 1972|
|-Java||Present||Original citation: Soerjani et al. (1987)|
|Sri Lanka||Present, Widespread|
|British Virgin Islands||Present||Native|
|Saint Kitts and Nevis||Present||Native|
|Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||Present||Native|
|Trinidad and Tobago||Present||Native|
|-New South Wales||Present|
|-Northern Territory||Present, Widespread|
|Christmas Island||Present||Original citation: Du and Puy Telford (1993)|
|Federated States of Micronesia||Present|
|French Polynesia||Present, Widespread|
|New Caledonia||Present, Widespread|
|Papua New Guinea||Present, Widespread|
|Wallis and Futuna||Present, Widespread|
|Brazil||Present, Few occurrences||Native|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
The most probable means of spread of P. foetida is deliberate introduction due to its ornamental interest; possible ways include mail orders as, for example, it is sold and bought in Europe.
HabitatTop of page
P. foetida is especially common along roadsides, around houses and sheds, along fences and in waste areas throughout the tropics and subtropics. It requires warm, moist soil and air conditions for at least half of the year, moderate to high soil fertility, support for the vines, and freedom from cultivation for several months. In permanently moist soils it may exhibit an annual or a perennial life cycle, whilst in areas with a strong dry season it is more likely to exist as an annual vine.
The plant grows on a wide range of soils from peats through loams to sands, as well as on soils derived from corals and volcanic debris.
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial||Managed||Cultivated / agricultural land||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Protected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production)||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Disturbed areas||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Natural forests||Present, no further details|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Natural grasslands||Present, no further details|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Deserts||Present, no further details|
|Littoral||Coastal areas||Present, no further details|
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
P. foetida occurs in a very wide range of crops, pastures and plantations.
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
|Ananas comosus (pineapple)||Bromeliaceae||Other|
|Camellia sinensis (tea)||Theaceae||Other|
|Cocos nucifera (coconut)||Arecaceae||Main|
|Colocasia esculenta (taro)||Araceae||Main|
|Cucumis melo (melon)||Cucurbitaceae||Other|
|Elaeis guineensis (African oil palm)||Arecaceae||Main|
|Hevea brasiliensis (rubber)||Euphorbiaceae||Main|
|Musa textilis (manila hemp)||Musaceae||Other|
|Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)||Solanaceae||Other|
|Oryza sativa (rice)||Poaceae||Other|
|Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane)||Poaceae||Main|
|Theobroma cacao (cocoa)||Malvaceae||Other|
|Vitis vinifera (grapevine)||Vitaceae||Other|
|Zea mays (maize)||Poaceae||Main|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
P. foetida is generally a fairly weakly growing climbing herb. It reproduces solely by seed which is probably spread by small mammals (MacDougal, 1994), because of its fruit features (Amela Garcia, unpublished data), and in contaminated trash and soil after the fruits have been allowed to mature. Dormant, but viable seeds are able to survive in the soil for many years. Germination most commonly occurs in cropland after cultivation where the soil has been disturbed and is moist and warm. It is also commonly seen in uncultivated and neglected areas such as along roadsides and fencelines, riverbanks, and other occasionally disturbed sites. The plant grows best where there is support (such as taller plants), in the absence of which it may form mats over the ground and other low-growing plants.
De Melo et al. (2001) observed regular pairing and regular chromosome segregation during meiosis.
Physiology and phenology
Germination percentage and germination speed, with or without arile, are low and slow, respectively, but the initial time of emergency is minor with arile (Amela Garcia et al., 2001).
P. foetida produces flowers and fruits between October and February in Brazil (Da Costa Sacco, 1980) and throughtout the year, mainly from September to May in Argentina (Deginani, 1998).
Seeds obtained by spontaneous self-pollination, induced self-pollination, geitonogamous pollination and natural pollination were viable and the major germination percetage ocurred 2 months after sowing (Amela Garcia et al., 2000).
Shoot regeneration from mature endosperm of P. foetida was obtained by Mohamed et al. (1996). The regenerated plants flowered, although fruit set was not observed.
Breeding system and pollination
P. foetida is self-compatible, pollinated mainly by Ptiloglossa tarsata and rarely by Pseudaugochloropsis sp. in Chaco, Argentina (Amela Garcia and Hoc, 1998). Janzen (1968) cited several species of Ptiloglossa as pollinators in Central America and Frankie et al. (1983) noted the constancy of this visitor. However, Gottsberger et al. (1988) observed species of Centris and Xylocopa pollinating in Brazil. Amela Garcia and Hoc (2001) compared the pollinators of six species of Passiflora and concluded that P. foetida is served by pollinators of medium size, in contrast to species with bigger and stronger flowers. Besides, the early and short anthesis of P. foetida is correlated with the mainly matinal activity of its most important pollinator, Ptiloglossa tarsata.
Fruit production by free pollination is high (Amela Garcia and Hoc, 1998).
The minimum rainfall required for P. foetida is 900 mm (Luna Ercilla, 1992). The preferred temperature range is 19-29°C for seedlings and 13-38°C for adult plants (Vanderplank, 1997). It is a heliophytic and selectively hygrophytic species (Da Costa Sacco, 1980). P. foetida var. vitacea has been encountered up to 1100 m in Paraguay, Uruguay and northern Argentina (Killip, 1938).
Air TemperatureTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit|
|Mean annual temperature (ºC)||15||27|
|Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC)||34|
|Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC)||9|
RainfallTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit||Description|
|Mean annual rainfall||15||150||mm; lower/upper limits|
Rainfall RegimeTop of page
Soil TolerancesTop of page
Natural enemiesTop of page
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
Waterhouse (1994) noted that in excess of 200 insects have been recorded attacking Passifloraceae in South and Central America. Many of these, however, are polyphagous and little is known about natural enemies specific to P. foetida. The chrysomelid beetle Diabrotica speciosa eats the flowers of P. foetida (Amela García and Hoc, 1998). Other Chrysomelidae eat the leaves (Cordo et al., 2004). The most noteworthy group are the heliconiine butterflies, of which Agraulis vanillae, Dione juno, Dryas julia, Eueides aliphera and E. isabella are recorded as pests of Passiflora edulis, although the larvae of other species are occasionally found on Passiflora spp.. Heliconius hecale attacks P. foetida in Central and South America and has some potential as a biological control agent (Waage et al., 1981). In Argentina, Agraulis vanillae maculosa leaves the eggs on the tendrils of P. foetida and on adjacent plants; the larvae eat the flower buds and juvenile leaves (Cordo et al., 2004). In Costa Rica, Euptoieta hegesia and also Agraulis vanillae feed on it (Janzen, 1991). In Hawaii, USA, the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. passiflorae attacks P. foetida, P. tripartita and P. ligularis but not P. suberosa or the cultivated species, P. edulis f. flavicarpa (Gardner, 1989). P. foetida is also attacked by the passion fruit woodiness virus in New Guinea and adjacent regions of northern Australia (Davis et al., 2002), Soybean mosaic virus, with symptoms in the leaves in Colombia (Castillo et al., 2001) and Xylella fastidiosa (Hernández Garboza and Ochoa Corona, 1994). Dassanayake and Hicks (1992) used purified virus preparations from P. foetida to study the serological relationship among passiflora viruses.
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Leaves||arthropods/eggs; nematodes/eggs||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches||arthropods/eggs; nematodes/eggs||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
Wood PackagingTop of page
|Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Loose wood packing material|
|Processed or treated wood|
|Solid wood packing material with bark|
|Solid wood packing material without bark|
Impact SummaryTop of page
|Fisheries / aquaculture||None|
ImpactTop of page
Holm et al. (1997) note that P. foetida is a weed of 20 crops in 49 countries. It is the most serious weed in maize in some parts of Malaysia and is a serious weed of rubber there, and in Indonesia. It is also especially serious in coconut in the Pacific, in maize and sugarcane in Thailand, in cotton in Thailand and Peru, in oilpalm in Indonesia, in taro in Samoa, and in various crops in Sarawak.
P. foetida generally grows in areas where competition for nutrients and water are unlikely to be serious, however it may be a strong competitor for light. It also becomes entangled in crops making management difficult.
It is an alternate host for a number of diseases which affect cultivated passionfruit, including Passiflora ringspot virus (Dassanayake and Hicks, 1990), Passion fruit Sri Lankan mottle virus (Dassanayake and Hicks, 1992), Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. passiflorae (Gardner, 1989), Cucumber mosaic virus (Yonaha et al. 1979), a lepidopterous Pterophoridae (Bigot and Vuattoux, 1979), Passionfruit woodiness virus (Queensland Department of Primary Industries, 1976), Agraulis vanillae vanillae (United States Department of Agriculture, 1977) and Colletotrichum gleosporoides [Glomerella cingulata] (Mallikarjunaiah and Rao, 1972).
Although the leaves and unripe fruits contain toxic cyanogenic glucosides and alkaloids the incidence of stock poisoning due to P. foetida appears to be minimal. Passifloricin A, a polyketide alpha-pyrone isolated from from P. foetida var. hispida resin, exhibited an LC50 of 0.014 µg/ml in a brine shrimp assay performed by Echeverri et al. (2001). Starving horses reject this plant (Janzen, 1991).
P. foetida invades natural vegetation in a number of countries (Bean, 1994), though probably never to a serious extent.
Threatened SpeciesTop of page
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Highly adaptable to different environments
- Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
- Has high reproductive potential
- Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
- Competition (unspecified)
- Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
- Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
- Difficult to identify/detect in the field
UsesTop of page
P. foetida has been used as ground cover for smothering weeds in Malaysia and East Africa (Purseglove, 1979) and to promote organic matter production; however, it is seldom used today as it is difficult to control and rapidly forms a soil seed bank.
It has also been planted as an ornamental vine (probably the reason for its widespread distribution). The seeds are sold for this purpose, specially in Europe (Salvat, 1994; Wettges, 1999), where there are many Passiflora fans that cultivate Passiflora species (http://www.threewa.co.uk/passion/; http://www.media-public.de/passiflora).
P. foetida is an edible plant: the aril is eaten in Colombia (Castañeda, 1991), the fruits are used to make refreshments in Venezuela (Ragonese and Martínez Crovetto, 1947), the row fruits (both seeds and arils) and the young cooked leaves are eaten in Thailand (Phengklai and Khamsai, 1985). Voon and Kueh (1999) studied the nutritional value of the leaves: the protein content is high (6-7 %). The production of fruits per ha reaches 2500 kg (Luna Ercilla, 1992).
P. foetida is also a medicinal plant: it is used to treat diseases affecting women in Costa Rica (Stanley, 1937), the leaves are employed in baths for skin affections (Alzugaray and Alzugaray, 1984), the roots have antispasmodic properties and the flowers have beneficial effects for breast illnesses (Hyeronymus, 1882).
Veterinary practices: common diseases in chickens (Newcastle disease and pediculosis) are treated with different preparations of the fruits, leaves, stem and seeds, given orally or topically, in Ogun State, Nigeria (Eruvbetine and Abegunde, 1998).
Uses ListTop of page
- Erosion control or dune stabilization
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
Several other species of Passiflora are minor weeds throughout the tropics, especially of wasteland and at the edges of native vegetation. They are similar to P. foetida in general form but lack the distinctive glandular hairs which usually cover the shoots and always occur on the bracts surrounding the flowers and fruits. The unique very similar species is P. chrysophylla, the only difference between them being that P. foetida has pedicellate glands on petioles and leaves margins and P. chrysophylla, has sessile glands on the sepals (Deginani, 2001). Cultivated species of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) may sometimes escape and become naturalized in disturbed native vegetation.
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
P. foetida may best be controlled by uprooting, either directly, or during interrow cultivation and interplant hoeing. It cannot be smothered out, since it tolerates low light intensities and also tends to climb over taller plants. Good field hygiene is important in minimizing the spread and proliferation of the weed; plants should be controlled by whatever means available before they flower and set seed. Composting material should be free of dormant weed seeds.
Grazing is unlikely to be effective due to the objectionable smell (and no doubt taste) of bruised foliage.
Chemical control is only worthwhile in graminaceous crops such as sugarcane or improved pastures, or where the herbicide can be directed away from crop foliage, since foliar application to broad-leaved crops would damage them. Henty and Pritchard (1975) and Kostermans et al. (1987) report that picloram, asulam and ametryne may give shoot kill only in sugarcane in Queensland, Australia, and that amitrole can be used as a directed spray in rubber. Webb and Feez (1987) report that fluroxypyr gives excellent selective control of P. foetida in both sugarcane and sorghum.
The following herbicides are registered for use against Passiflora foetida in Queensland, Australia: diuron + fluroxypyr, atrazine, atrazine + dicamba, fluroxypyr, and 2,4-D + ioxynil (Hamilton 1997).
No attempts have been made at biological control of P. foetida in the field. Some work has been conducted, however, to establish the potential for biological control of the Pasifloraceae. Gardner (1989) showed that a number of weedy Passiflora spp. were susceptible to vascular wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. passiflorae while the cultivated species P. edulis f. flavicarpa was not. Waage et al. (1981) examined the host ranges of a number of heliconius butterflies with a view to their potential for biological control. Chavez et al. (1999) successfully transmited viral pathogens of Passiflora edulis to P. foetida by grafting, mechanical inoculation, and the aphid Aphis gossypii and the chrysomelid beetles Diabrotica sp., Cerotoma sp. and Colaspis sp. However, aphid resistance in the field seems high due the the sticky hairs (Dassanayake and Hicks, 1994), as well as against other insects less than 2 mm (Janzen, 1968).
ReferencesTop of page
Alzugaray D, Alzugaray C, eds, 1984. Enciclopedia de las plantas que curan. Sao Paulo, Brasil: TRES
Amela Garcia MT, Almasia N, Gallo L, 2000. Éxito reproductivo de Pasiflora foetida (Passifloraceae) en cultivo. Gayana Bot., 57:94
Amela Garcia MT, Hoc PS, 1998. Biología floral de Pasiflora foetida (Passifloraceae). Rev. Biol. Trop., 46:191-202
Amela Garcia MT, Hoc PS, 2001. Pollination of Pasiflora: do different pollinators serve species belonging to different subgenera? Acta Horticulturae, 561:71-74
Amela Garcia MT, Pascuzzo D, Caporalini D, Hoc PS, 2001. Efectos de la transferencia polínica a los antecesores y del pretratamiento de las semillas de Pasiflora foetida en la germinación. In: ASAE, eds. I Reunion Binacional de Ecología, libro de resúmenes, Bariloche, Argentina: ASAE, 45
Andersen L, Andersen A, Jaroszewski, 1998. Cyanogenesis of Passiflora foetida. Phytochemistry, 47:1049-1050
Anon., 1998a. AC PP033. Singapore. World Wide Web page at http:// www.vhp.nus.sg/PID/plants/pphp/PP0/PP033.
Anon., 1998b. Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council's 1997 List of Florida's Most Invasive Species. World Wide Web page at http://www.fleppc.org/97list.
Castañeda RR, ed, 1991. Frutas silvestres de Colombia. 2nd edn. Bogotá, Colombia: Instituto Colombiano de Cultura Hispánica
Castillo G, Var=n de Agudelo F, Chßvez B, Morales F, Castano M, Arroyave J, 2001. Distribution of soybean mosaic potyvirus ('soybean mosaic') in crops of passion fruit Passiflora ligularis Juss. Fitopatologi^acute~a Colombiana, 25(1/2):93-97; 10 ref
Chßvez LB, Var=n de AF, Morales F, Castano M, Arroyave J, Galvez G, 1999. Recognition, transmission and hosts of viral pathogens of passionfruit (Passiflora edulis Sims) in Colombia. Fitopatologi^acute~a Colombiana, 23(1/2):24-31; 15 ref
Cordo H, Logarzo G, Braun K, Di Iorio O, 2004. Catálogo de insectos fitófagos de la Argentina y sus plantas asociadas. 1st edn. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Sociedad Entomologica Argentina
Da Costa Sacco J, 1980. Passifloráceas. I parte. In: Reitz R, ed. Flora ilustrada catarinense. I parte. Santa Catarina, Brasil: CNPq, IBDF, HBR, 1-132
Davis RI, Thomas JE, McMichael LA, Dietzgen RG, Callaghan B, James AP, Gunua TG, Rahamma S, 2002. Plant virus surveys on the island of New Guinea and adjacent regions of northern Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology, 31(4):385-390; 34 ref
De Melo NF, Cervi AC, Guerra M, 2001. Karyology and cytotaxonomy of the genus Pasiflora L. (Passifloraceae). Plant Syst. Evol., 226: 69-84
Deginani NB, 2001. Las especies argentines del género Pasiflora (Passifloraceae). Darwiniana, 39: 43-129
Deginani NB, 2003. Las especies paraguayas del género Pasiflora (Passifloraceae). Bol. Soc. Argent. Bot., 38: 83
Deginani, NB, 1998. Revisión de las especies argentinas del género Passiflora (Passifloraceae). PhD thesis. Argentina: La Plata National University
Du Puy DJ, Telford IRH, 1993. Passifloraceae. In: Flora of Australia, Vol. 50, Oceanic Islands 2. Canberra, Australia: Australian Government Publishing Service, 162
Echeverri F, Arango V, Quinones W, Torres F, Escobar G, Rosero Y, Archbold R, 2001. Passifloricins, polyketides alpha-pyrones from Passiflora foetida resin. Phytochemistry, 56:881-885
Englberger K, 2009. Invasive weeds of Pohnpei: A guide for identification and public awareness. Kolonia, Federated States of Micronesia: Conservation Society of Pohnpei, 29 pp
Fernandez R, Fernandes A, 1978. 84. Passifloraceae. In: Launert E, ed. Flora Zambesiaca Volume 4. London, UK: Flora Zambesiaca Management Committee, 368-411
Frank A, 1999. A passion for Passiflora: treasures of Bolivia. Passiflora, 9:11-16
Frankie GW, Haber WA, Opler PA, Bawa KS, Jones CE (ed. ), Little RJ, 1983. Characterstics and organization of the large bee pollination system in the Costa Rican dry forest. Handbook of experimental pollination biology, 411-447; B
Garcia JGL, Macbryde B, Molina AR, Macbryde OH, 1975. Prevalent Weeds of Central America. San Salvador, El Salvador: International Plant Protection Center, 116
Gottsberger G, Camargo JMF, Silberbauer-Gottsberger I, 1988. A bee-pollinated tropical community: the beach dune vegetation of Ilha de Sao Luis, Maranhao, Brazil. Bot. Jahrb. Syst., 109:469-500
Hamilton K, 1997. PESKEM - USES - PESTS: The Australian Directory of Registered Pesticides and their Uses. 15th edition. Gatton, Queensland, Australia: University of Queensland
Hancock IR, Henderson CP, 1988. Flora of the Solomon Islands. Research Bulletin No. 7. Honiara, Solomon Islands: Dodo Creek Research Station
Hansen AK, Cervi AC, Gilbert LE, Jansen RK, 1999. Origin and evolutionary relationships in Passiflora. In: XVI International Botanical Congress (Abstracts), St. Louis, USA: 173
Hnatiuk RJ, 1990. Census of Australian Vascular Plants. Australian Flora and Fauna Series Number 11. Canberra, Australia: Australian Government Publishing Service
Holm LG, Doll J, Holm E, Pancho JV, Herberger JP, 1997. World Weeds: Natural Histories and Distribution. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons Inc
Hyeronymus J, ed, 1882. Plantas diafóricas. Flora argentina. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Atlántida
Janzen DH, 1968. Reproductive behaviour in the Passifloraceae and some of its pollinators in Central America. Behaviour, 32: 33-48
Janzen DH, 1991. Historia natural de Costa Rica. Costa Rica: Universidad de Costa Rica 822 pp
Killip EP, 1938. The American species of Passifloraceae. Field Museum of Natural History, Botanical Series, 19, Publication 407
Kostermans AJGH, Wirjahardja S, Dekker RJ, 1987. The weeds: description, ecology and control. Weeds of rice in Indonesia [edited by Soerjani, M.; Kostermans, A.J.G.H.; Tjitrosoepomo, G.] Jakarta, Indonesia; Balai Pustaka, 24-565
Luna Ercilla CA, 1992. Importancia frutal de las pasionarias. Informe frutihortícola, 1
MacDougal JM, 1994. Revision of Passiflora subgenus Decaloba Section Pseudodysosmia (Passifloraceae). The American Society of Plant Taxonomists. Systematic Botany Monographs, 41
MacKee HS, 1985. Les Plantes Introduites et Cultivees en Nouvelle-Caledonie. Volume hors series, Flore de la Nouvelle-Caledonie et Dependances. Paris, France: Museum Nationelle d'Histoire Naturelle
Mallikarjunaiah RR, Rao VG, 1972. A new leaf spot disease of passion flower from Maharashtra. Current Science, 41:18
Mohamed Mem, Hicks RGT, Blakesley D, 1996. Shoot regeneration from mature endosperm of Passiflora foetida. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 46:161-164
Padhye MD, Deshpande BG, 1960. The male and female gametophytes of Passiflora foetida. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. B, 52:124-130
Pancho JV, Vega MR, Plucknett DL, 1969. Some Common Weeds of the Philippines. Laguna, Philippines: Weed Science Society of the Philippines, University of the Philippines at Los Ba±os
Parham JW, 1958. The Weeds of Fiji. Bulletin Fiji Department of Agriculture, 35. Suava, Fiji: Government Press
Phengklai E, Khamsai S, 1985. Some non-timber species of Thailand. Thai. For. Bull. (Botany), 15:108-148
Purseglove JW, ed, 1979. Tropical crops. Dicotyledons. London, UK: Longman
Ragonese AE, Martínez Crovetto R, 1947. Plantas indígenas de la Argentina con frutos o semillas comestibles. Rev. Inv. Agric., 1: 147-216
Salvat eds, 1994. Plantas bonitas para casa y jardín. Flora, 52-53
Satterthwait DR, 1982. Passifloraceae. In: Flora of Australia, Vol. 8, Lecithydales to Batales. Canberra, Australia: Australian Government Publishing Service
Sauerborn E, Sauerborn J, 1984. Plants of Cropland in Western Samoa with Special Reference to Taro. PLITS 2(4). Universitat Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany: Institut fur Pflanzenproduktion in den Tropen und Subtropen
Sßnchez MV, Agnero R, Rivera C, 2001. Host plants of Aphis gossypii (Aphididae), a virus vector for the cantoloupe Cucumis melo (Cucurbitaceae) in Costa Rica. Revista de Biologi^acute~a Tropical, 49(1):305-311; 19 ref
Stanley PC, ed, 1937. Flora of Costa Rica. Part I and II. Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Bot. Ser. 18: 727
United States Department of Agriculture, 1977. Hawaii Pest report; Detection. Cooperative Plant Pest Report 1977:1-4
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Panicum fauriei var. carteri (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Panicum fauriei var. carteri (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.17 pp.
Vanderplank J, 1997. Fruiting passionflowers. The garden: 816-821
Voon BH, Kueh HS, 1999. The nutritional value of indigenous fruits and vegetables in Sarawak. Asia Pacific J. Clin. Nutr., 8: 24-31
Waage JK, Smiley JT, Gilbert LE, 1981. The Passiflora problem in Hawaii: prospects and problems of controlling the forest weed P. mollissima (Passifloraceae) with heliconiine butterflies. Entomophaga, 26(3):275-284
Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp
Waterhouse DF, 1994. Biological Control of Weeds: Southeast Asian Prospects. Canberra, Australia: ACIAR Monograph No 26
Waterhouse DF, 1997. The major invertebrate pests and weeds of agriculture and plantation forestry in the southern and western Pacific. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research. 93 pp. [ACIAR Monograph No. 44]
Webb KR, Feez AM, 1987. Control of broadleaf weeds with fluroxypyr in sugarcane and grain sorghum in Northern New South Wales and Queensland, Australia. In: Proceedings of the 11th Asian Pacific Weed Science Society Conference Taipei, Taiwan: Asian Pacific Weed Science Society, 1:211-217
Wells MJ, Balsinhas AA, Joffe H, Engelbrecht VM, Harding G, Stirton CH, 1986. A catalogue of problem plants in South Africa. Memoirs of the botanical survey of South Africa No 53. Pretoria, South Africa: Botanical Research Institute
Wettges M, 1999. Passiflora- Samenbörse. Passiflorunde, 3: 27
Wijs JJ de, 1974. A virus causing ringspots in Passiflora edulis in the Ivory Coast. Annals of Applied Biology, 77:33-40
Witt, A., Luke, Q., 2017. Guide to the naturalized and invasive plants of Eastern Africa, [ed. by Witt, A., Luke, Q.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI.vi + 601 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158959 doi:10.1079/9781786392145.0000
Yonaha T, Tamori M, Yamanoha S, Nakasone T, 1979. Studies on passion fruit virus diseases in Okinawa 1. Cucumber mosaic virus isolated from diseased Passiflora edulis and Passiflora foetida plants. Science Bulletin of the College of Agriculture, University of the Ryukyus, No. 26:29-38
Anon, 1998. AC PP033. Singapore., http:// www.vhp.nus.sg/PID/plants/pphp/PP0/PP033
Anon, 1998a. Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council's 1997 List of Florida's Most Invasive Species., http://www.fleppc.org/97list
Bigot L, Vuattoux R, 1979. Some biological and ecological data on Lepidoptera Pterophoridae of the Lamto region (Ivory Coast). (Quelques donnees biologiques et ecologiques sur les Lepidopteres Pterophoridae de la region de Lamto (Cote d'Ivoire).). Bulletin de l'Institut Fondamental d'Afrique Noire. 41 (4), 837-843.
Braby M F, Thistleton B M, Neal M J, 2014. Host plants, biology and distribution of Acraea terpsicore (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae): a new butterfly for northern Australia with potential invasive status. Austral Entomology. 53 (3), 288-297. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)2052-1758
CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Davis R I, Thomas J E, McMichael L A, Dietzgen R G, Callaghan B, James A P, Gunua T G, Rahamma S, 2002. Plant virus surveys on the island of New Guinea and adjacent regions of northern Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology. 31 (4), 385-390. DOI:10.1071/AP02047
Dendinagi N, 2001. (Las especies argentinas del genero Passiflora (Pssifloraceae)). In: Darwiniana, 39 43-129.
Fernandez R, Fernandes A, 1978. 84. Passifloraceae. In: Flora Zambesiaca, 4 [ed. by Launert E]. London, UK: Flora Zambesiaca Management Committee. 368-411.
Frank A, 1999. A passion for Passiflora: treasures of Bolivia. In: Passiflora, 9 11-16.
Garcia JGL, Macbryde B, Molina AR, Macbryde OH, 1975. Prevalent Weeds of Central America., San Salvador, El Salvador: International Plant Protection Center. 116.
Grice A C, Lawes R A, Abbott B N, Nicholas D M, Whiteman L V, 2004. How abundant and widespread are riparian weeds in the dry tropics of north-east Queensland? In: Weed management: balancing people, planet, profit. 14th Australian Weeds Conference, Wagga Wagga, New South Wales, Australia, 6-9 September 2004: papers and proceedings. [ed. by Sindel B M, Johnson S B]. Sydney, Australia: Weed Society of New South Wales. 173-175.
Hoe VoonBoon, Siong KuehHong, 1999. The nutritional value of indigenous fruits and vegetables in Sarawak. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 8 (1), 24-31. DOI:10.1046/j.1440-6047.1999.00046.x
James T K, Champion P D, Bullians M, Rahman A, 2011. Weed biosecurity breach through coco peat imports. In: 23rd Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society Conference. Volume 1: weed management in a changing world, Cairns, Queensland, Australia, 26-29 September 2011 [23rd Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society Conference. Volume 1: weed management in a changing world, Cairns, Queensland, Australia, 26-29 September 2011.], Cairns, Australia: Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society. 210-216.
MacKee HS, 1985. (Les Plantes Introduites et Cultivees en Nouvelle-Caledonie. Volume hors series, Flore de la Nouvelle-Caledonie et Dependances)., Paris, France: Museum Nationelle d'Histoire Naturelle.
Nayak S K, Satapathy K B, 2015. Diversity, uses and origin of invasive alien plants in Dhenkanal district of Odisha, India. International Research Journal of Biological Sciences. 4 (2), 21-27. http://www.isca.in/IJBS/Archive/v4/i2/4.ISCA-IRJBS-2014-223.pdf
Nunes E S, Brown J K, Moreira A G, Watson G, Lourenção A L, Piedade S M S, Rezende J A M, Vieira M L C, 2008. First report and differential colonization of Passiflora Species by the B biotype of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Brazil. Neotropical Entomology. 37 (6), 744-746. DOI:10.1590/S1519-566X2008000600021
Padhye MD, Deshpande BG, 1960. The male and female gametophytes of Passiflora foetida. In: Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. B, 52 124-130.
Pancho JV, Vega MR, Plucknett DL, 1969. Some Common Weeds of the Philippines., Laguna, Philippines: Weed Science Society of the Philippines, University of the Philippines at Los Baños.
Parham JW, 1958. The Weeds of Fiji. In: Bulletin Fiji Department of Agriculture, 35 Suava, Fiji: Government Press.
Satterthwait DR, 1982. Passifloraceae. In: Flora of Australia, Vol. 8, Lecithydales to Batales, 8 Canberra, Australia: Australian Government Publishing Service.
Seebens H, Blackburn T M, Dyer E E, Genovesi P, Hulme P E, Jeschke J M, Pagad S, Pyšek P, Winter M, Arianoutsou M, Bacher S, Blasius B, Brundu G, Capinha C, Celesti-Grapow L, Dawson W, Dullinger S, Fuentes N, Jäger H, Kartesz J, Kenis M, Kreft H, Kühn I, Lenzner B, Liebhold A, Mosena A (et al), 2017. No saturation in the accumulation of alien species worldwide. Nature Communications. 8 (2), 14435. http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms14435
Szafranski F, Bloszyk E, Drozdz B, 1991. Biological activity of some plant extracts from the Kisangani area, Zaire. (Activité biologique des extraits de quelques plantes des environs de Kisangani (Zaire).). Belgian Journal of Botany. 124 (1), 60-70.
Waterhouse D F, 1997. The major invertebrate pests and weeds of agriculture and plantation forestry in the southern and western Pacific. In: The major invertebrate pests and weeds of agriculture and plantation forestry in the southern and western Pacific. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR). vi + 93 pp.
Wells M J, Balsinhas A A, Joffe H, Engelbrecht V M, Harding G, Stirton C H, 1986. A catalogue of problem plants in southern Africa incorporating the national weed list of South Africa. Memoirs, Botanical Survey of South Africa. v + 658pp.
Witt A, Luke Q, 2017. Guide to the naturalized and invasive plants of Eastern Africa. [ed. by Witt A, Luke Q]. Wallingford, UK: CABI. vi + 601 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158959 DOI:10.1079/9781786392145.0000
Yonaha T, Tamori M, Yamanoha S, Nakasone T, 1979. Studies on passion fruit virus diseases in Okinawa 1. Cucumber mosaic virus isolated from diseased Passiflora edulis and Passiflora foetida plants. Science Bulletin of the College of Agriculture, University of the Ryukyus. 29-38.
Distribution MapsTop of page
Select a dataset
CABI Summary Records
Unsupported Web Browser:
One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using.
Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser.
More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/