Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Papilio polytes
(common mormon)

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Datasheet

Papilio polytes (common mormon)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Papilio polytes
  • Preferred Common Name
  • common mormon
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Females 75-114 mm, polymorphic, occurring in two forms throughout most of the species range, with a third form in Sri Lanka.
TitleAdult female
CaptionFemales 75-114 mm, polymorphic, occurring in two forms throughout most of the species range, with a third form in Sri Lanka.
Copyright©A.R. Pittaway
Females 75-114 mm, polymorphic, occurring in two forms throughout most of the species range, with a third form in Sri Lanka.
Adult femaleFemales 75-114 mm, polymorphic, occurring in two forms throughout most of the species range, with a third form in Sri Lanka.©A.R. Pittaway
Male butterfly 65-100 mm, wings black dorsally with a series of pale yellow or white oval spots transversing the centre of the hindwing, with a sooty-black, red and blue eye spot at the tornal angle of each hindwing.
TitleAdult male
CaptionMale butterfly 65-100 mm, wings black dorsally with a series of pale yellow or white oval spots transversing the centre of the hindwing, with a sooty-black, red and blue eye spot at the tornal angle of each hindwing.
Copyright©A.R. Pittaway
Male butterfly 65-100 mm, wings black dorsally with a series of pale yellow or white oval spots transversing the centre of the hindwing, with a sooty-black, red and blue eye spot at the tornal angle of each hindwing.
Adult maleMale butterfly 65-100 mm, wings black dorsally with a series of pale yellow or white oval spots transversing the centre of the hindwing, with a sooty-black, red and blue eye spot at the tornal angle of each hindwing. ©A.R. Pittaway
Young larvae of this species resemble bird-droppings for protection.
TitleThird instar larva
CaptionYoung larvae of this species resemble bird-droppings for protection.
Copyright©A.R. Pittaway
Young larvae of this species resemble bird-droppings for protection.
Third instar larvaYoung larvae of this species resemble bird-droppings for protection.©A.R. Pittaway
Mature larva 40 mm, dorsal surface a smooth, rich velvet yellow-green, ventral surface greyish-white; these two areas separated by a milky-white lower lateral band, which is less brilliant than in P. demoleus.
TitleFull grown larva
CaptionMature larva 40 mm, dorsal surface a smooth, rich velvet yellow-green, ventral surface greyish-white; these two areas separated by a milky-white lower lateral band, which is less brilliant than in P. demoleus.
Copyright©A.R. Pittaway
Mature larva 40 mm, dorsal surface a smooth, rich velvet yellow-green, ventral surface greyish-white; these two areas separated by a milky-white lower lateral band, which is less brilliant than in P. demoleus.
Full grown larvaMature larva 40 mm, dorsal surface a smooth, rich velvet yellow-green, ventral surface greyish-white; these two areas separated by a milky-white lower lateral band, which is less brilliant than in P. demoleus.©A.R. Pittaway
Pupa strongly concave dorsally, with a pair of lateral anterior projections and a short dorsal thoracic projection. May be either brown or green depending on colour of substrate.
TitlePupa (brown form)
CaptionPupa strongly concave dorsally, with a pair of lateral anterior projections and a short dorsal thoracic projection. May be either brown or green depending on colour of substrate.
Copyright©A.R. Pittaway
Pupa strongly concave dorsally, with a pair of lateral anterior projections and a short dorsal thoracic projection. May be either brown or green depending on colour of substrate.
Pupa (brown form)Pupa strongly concave dorsally, with a pair of lateral anterior projections and a short dorsal thoracic projection. May be either brown or green depending on colour of substrate.©A.R. Pittaway

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Papilio polytes Linnaeus, 1758

Preferred Common Name

  • common mormon

Other Scientific Names

  • Laertias romulus (Cramer)
  • Laertias sakontala (Hewitson)
  • Menelaides polytes (Linnaeus)
  • Papilio ceylanicus C & R Felder
  • Papilio cyrus Fabricius
  • Papilio pammon Linnaeus
  • Papilio romulus Cramer
  • Papilio sakontala Hewitson
  • Papilio walkeri Janson
  • Princeps polytes (Linnaeus)

International Common Names

  • Chinese: yuedai fengde

EPPO code

  • PAPIPO (Papilio polytes)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Papilionidae
  •                             Genus: Papilio
  •                                 Species: Papilio polytes

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshWidespreadTalbot, 1939; APPPC, 1987
BhutanPresentNHM, 1894; NHM, 1933
Brunei DarussalamPresentWaterhouse, 1993
CambodiaWidespreadHANSON, 1963
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FujianPresentGao et al., 1985; Io and, 1990
-GansuPresentIo and, 1990
-GuangdongWidespreadIo and, 1990
-GuangxiWidespreadIo and, 1990
-HainanWidespreadIo and, 1990
-HebeiPresentIo and, 1990
-HenanPresentIo and, 1990
-Hong KongWidespreadMarsh, 1960
-HubeiPresentZhong, 1985
-HunanPresentIo and, 1990
-JiangsuPresentIo and, 1990
-JiangxiPresentIo and, 1990
-QinghaiRestricted distributionIo and, 1990
-ShaanxiRestricted distributionIo and, 1990
-ShandongRestricted distributionIo and, 1990
-ShanxiPresentIo and, 1990
-SichuanPresentIo and, 1990
-TibetPresentIo and, 1990
-YunnanPresentIo and, 1990
-ZhejiangPresentTong, 1993
IndiaWidespreadTalbot, 1939
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentBingham, 1907
-Indian PunjabPresentJatinder et al., 2009
-MaharashtraPresentGaikwad and Bhawane, 2008
-Tamil NaduPresentKrishnakumar et al., 2008
-West BengalPresentSudip et al., 2004
IndonesiaPresentWaterhouse, 1993
-JavaWidespreadCorbet and Pendlebury, 1992
-KalimantanWidespreadCorbet and Pendlebury, 1992
-MoluccasPresentCorbet and Pendlebury, 1992
-SulawesiPresentKalshoven and Laan, 1981
-SumatraPresentKalshoven and Laan, 1981
JapanPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Ryukyu ArchipelagoRestricted distributionUesugi, 1991
LaosWidespreadDean, 1978; Waterhouse, 1993
MalaysiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Peninsular MalaysiaWidespreadCorbet and Pendlebury, 1992; Waterhouse, 1993
-SarawakWidespreadWan, 1970
MyanmarWidespreadBingham, 1907; HANSON, 1963
NepalWidespreadWatanabe, 1979; Smith, 1989
PakistanPresentTalbot, 1939
PhilippinesRestricted distributionCamus, 1935; Waterhouse, 1993
SingaporePresentWaterhouse, 1993
Sri LankaWidespreadCorbet and Pendlebury, 1992
TaiwanWidespreadIo and, 1990
ThailandWidespreadPinratana, 1977; APPPC, 1987; Waterhouse, 1993
VietnamWidespreadNHM, 1919; NHM, 1923; HANSON, 1963; Waterhouse, 1993

Oceania

GuamPresentPola and García-París, 2005

Growth Stages

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List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / external feeding

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Bacillus thuringiensis Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki Pathogen Larvae
Brachymeria jambolana Parasite Pupae
Brachymeria lasus Parasite Pupae
Distatrix papilionis Parasite Larvae Guam Citrus
Holcojoppa coelopyga Parasite Larvae
Ooencyrtus papilionis Parasite Eggs
Pimpla luctuosus Parasite Larvae
Pteromalus luzonensis Parasite Guam Citrus
Pteromalus puparum Parasite Pupae
Telenomus talaus Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma chilonis Parasite Eggs India; Karnataka Citrus
Trichogramma evanescens Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma minutum Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma sericini Parasite Eggs

References

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APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Batra RC, 1990. Citriculture in North-Western India. Proceedings of a Citrus Show-cum-Seminar on Prospects and Problems of Kinnow Cultivation, Ludhiana, India, 6-7 January, 1989 [edited by Gill, K.S.; Kanwar, J.S.; Raghbir Singh] Ludhiana, India; Punjab Agricultural University, 189-195

Bingham CT, 1907. Butterflies Vol 2. In: Bingham CT, ed. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. London, UK: Taylor & Francis.

Camus JS, 1935. Annual Report of the Director of Plant Industry for the fiscal Year ending December 31, 1934. Manila, Philippines: Philippines Department of Agriculture Committee.

Common IFB; Waterhouse FD, 1981. Butterflies of Australia, Revised Edition. Melbourne, Australia: Angus & Robertson.

Corbet AS; Pendlebury HM, 1992. The Butterflies of the Malay Peninsula. 4th edn. (revised by JN Eliot). Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: United Selangor Press.

Dean GJ, 1978. Insects found on economic plants other than rice in Laos. PANS, 24(2):129-142

FerriFre C, 1931. New chalcidoid egg-parasites from South Asia. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 22(2):279-295.

Gaikwad SM; Bhawane GP, 2008. Observations on emergence of butterfly, Papilio polytes polytes (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Bionotes, 10(3):100.

Gao RX; Lin GX; Guan X; Luo YF, 1985. Studies on the new strain of Bacillus thuringensis var. kurstaki 8010. Journal of Fujian Agricultural College (Fujian Nongxueyuan Xuebao), 15(1):1-10; 10 ref.

HANSON HC, 1963. Diseases and pests of economic plants of Burma. 68 pp.

HANSON HC, 1963. Diseases and pests of economic plants of Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. A study based on field survey data and on pertinent records, material, and reports. 1 +] v + 155 pp.

Io C; ed, 1990. Monographia Rhopalocerorum Sinensium Vol. 1. Henan, China: Henan Scientific and Technical Publishing House.

Ishii M, 1987. Diapause potential in tropical papilionids (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology, 22(1):114-115

Jatinder Sehgal; Rose HS; Sidhu AK, 2009. Observations on the life history and behaviour of three butterfly species: lime blue, Chilades lajus lajus (Cramer), the lime butterfly, Papilio (Princeps) demoleus Linnaeus and the common Mormon, Papilio polytes Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea) infesting Citrus species in Punjab. Journal of Entomological Research, 33(3):261-268. http://www.indianjournals.com

Kalshoven LGE; Laan PA van der (Reviser and translator), 1981. Pests of crops in Indonesia (revised). Jakarta, Indonesia: Ichtiar Baru, 701 pp.

Krishnakumar N; Kumaraguru A; Thiyagesan K; Asokan S, 2008. Diversity of papilonid butterflies in the Indira Gandhi wildlife sanctuary, Western Ghats, Southern India. Tigerpaper, 35(1):1-8.

Krishnamoorthy A; Singh SP, 1986. Record of the egg parasite, Trichogramma chilonis on Papilio spp. in citrus. Current Science, India, 55(9):461

Krishnamoorthy A; Singh SP, 1988. Observational studies on the occurrence of parasitoids of Papilio spp. in citrus. Indian Journal of Plant Protection, 16(1):79-81

Marsh JCS, 1960. Hong Kong Butterflies. Hong Kong, China: Shell Company of Hong Kong Ltd.

Murphy DH, 1973. A preliminary list of insects attacking economic plants in Singapore. Technical Document, Food and Agriculture Organization, Plant Protection Committee for the Southeast Asia and Pacific Region, No. 87:17 pp.

Nafus D; Schreiner I, 1989. Biological Control in the Mariana Islands from 1911 to 1989. Micronesia, 22(1):65-106.

Nandihalli BS; Somsekhar; Hugar P; Patil BV, 1991. Efficacy of different insecticides against citrus butterfly, Papilio demoleus L. Madras Agricultural Journal, 78(1-4):96-97

Pinratana BA, 1977. Butterflies in Thailand Vol. 1. Papilionidae and Danaidae. Bangkok, Thailand: Viratham Press.

Pola M; García-París M, 2005. Marine puddling in Papilio polytes (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Florida Entomologist, 88(2):211-213. http://www.fcla.edu/FlaEnt/

Radke SG; Kandalkar HG, 1986. Chemical control of lemon butterfly, Papilio demoleus Linnpus in Vidarbha. PKV Research Journal, 10(2):157-159

Singh R; Kumar V, 1986. Efficacy of some insecticides in controlling citrus butterfly (Papilio demoleus). Research and Development Reporter, 3(2):85-86

Singh SP, 1991. Natural enemies of Papilio spp. Indian Journal of Horticulture, 48(3):237-242

Singh SP, 1993. Species composition and diapause in citrus butterflies. Journal of Insect Science, 6(1):48-52

Smith C, 1989. Butterflies of Nepal (central Himalaya). Bangkok, Thailand: Craftsman Press.

Solunke BR; Deshpande SV, 1991. Studies on use of plant products for the control of lemon butterfly larvae. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities, 16(2):302-303

Sudip Mondal; Rupendu Ray; Narayan Ghorai, 2004. Note on bionomics of a butterfly, Papilio polytes, on Aristolochia indica from West Bengal. Bionotes, 6(1):23.

Talbot G, 1939. Butterflies Vol. 1. In: Sewell RBS, ed. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. London, UK: Taylor & Francis.

Tong X, 1993. Butterfly fauna of Zhejiang. Hangzhou, China: Zhejiang Science and Technology Publishers.

Uesugi K, 1991. Temporal change in records of the mimetic butterfly Papilio polytes with establishment of its model Pachliopta aristolochiae in the Ryukyu Islands. Japanese Journal of Entomology, 59(1):183-198

Wan MTK, 1970. A list of insects and other animals of economic importance of Sarawak, East Malaysia 1961-1970. Kuching, Malaysia: Department of Agriculture, Entomology Division.

Watanabe M, 1979. Population sizes and resident ratios of the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio polytes L., at a secondary bush community in Dharan, Nepal. Kontyu, 47(3):291-297

Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp.

Yamauchi A, 1993. A population dynamic model of Batesian mimicry. Researches on Population Ecology, 35(2):295-315

Zhong ST, 1985. Parasitoids of Papilio polytus in Yichang, Hubei. Chinese Journal of Biological Control, 1(4):42

Distribution Maps

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