Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Papaver rhoeas
(common poppy)

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Datasheet

Papaver rhoeas (common poppy)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Papaver rhoeas
  • Preferred Common Name
  • common poppy
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Seedlings of P. rhoeas.
TitleSeedlings
CaptionSeedlings of P. rhoeas.
Copyright©AgrEvo
Seedlings of P. rhoeas.
SeedlingsSeedlings of P. rhoeas.©AgrEvo
Mature flowering plants in wheat.
TitleFlowering plants
CaptionMature flowering plants in wheat.
Copyright©AgrEvo
Mature flowering plants in wheat.
Flowering plantsMature flowering plants in wheat.©AgrEvo

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Papaver rhoeas L. (1753)

Preferred Common Name

  • common poppy

Other Scientific Names

  • Papaver commutatum Fisch. & C. A. May
  • Papaver insignitum Jord.
  • Papaver intermedium Beck
  • Papaver ramosissimum Fedde 1905
  • Papaver roubiaei Vig.
  • Papaver strigosum (Boenn.) Schur 1877
  • Papaver tenuissimum Fedde
  • Papaver trilobum Wallr.
  • Papaver tumidulum Klokov 1953

International Common Names

  • English: corn poppy; field poppy; Flanders poppy; Shirley poppy
  • Spanish: amapola
  • French: coquelicot; pavot coquelicot
  • Chinese: li chun hua
  • Portuguese: papoila-das-searas; papoula ordinaria

Local Common Names

  • Argentina: amapola silvestre
  • Belgium: klaproes; kollebloem
  • Chile: amapola roja
  • Denmark: korn valmue
  • Egypt: deydahaan; zaghleel
  • Finland: silkkiunikko
  • Germany: Feldmohn; Feuermohn; Klapperrose; Klatsch-mohn; Klatschrose; Wider Monhn
  • Italy: papavero salvatico; rosolaccio
  • Lebanon: shaka'ik-un-naman
  • Netherlands: klaproos
  • Norway: kornvalmue
  • Sweden: kornvallmo
  • Turkey: gelincik
  • Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro): bulka

EPPO code

  • PAPRH (Papaver rhoeas)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Papaverales
  •                         Family: Papaveraceae
  •                             Genus: Papaver
  •                                 Species: Papaver rhoeas

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentFenni (1993)
EgyptPresentHolm et al. (1991)
LibyaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: USDA, et al. (1998)
MoroccoPresentHolm et al. (1991)
South AfricaPresentWells et al. (1986)
TunisiaPresent, WidespreadHolm et al. (1991)

Asia

AfghanistanPresentHolm et al. (1991)
ArmeniaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: USDA, et al. (1998)
AzerbaijanPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: USDA, et al. (1998)
ChinaPresentHolm et al. (1991)
GeorgiaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: USDA, et al. (1998)
IranPresent, WidespreadHolm et al. (1991)
IraqPresentHolm et al. (1991)
IsraelPresentHolm et al. (1991)
JapanPresentHolm et al. (1991)
JordanPresentHolm et al. (1991)
LebanonPresentHolm et al. (1991)
PakistanPresentBasit and Ghani (1978)
SyriaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: USDA, et al. (1998)
TurkeyPresentHolm et al. (1991)

Europe

AlbaniaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: USDA, et al. (1998)
AustriaPresentRuss (1985)
BelarusPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: USDA, et al. (1998)
BelgiumPresentHolm et al. (1991)
BulgariaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: USDA, et al. (1998)
CzechoslovakiaPresentHolm et al. (1991)
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresentHolm et al. (1991)
DenmarkPresentHolm et al. (1991)
FrancePresentHolm et al. (1991)
-CorsicaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: USDA, et al. (1998)
GermanyPresent, WidespreadHolm et al. (1991)
GreecePresent, WidespreadHolm et al. (1991)
HungaryPresent, WidespreadHolm et al. (1991)
IcelandPresentHolm et al. (1991)
IrelandPresent, WidespreadHolm et al. (1991)
ItalyPresent, WidespreadHolm et al. (1991)
LatviaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: USDA, et al. (1998)
LithuaniaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: USDA, et al. (1998)
NetherlandsPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: USDA, et al. (1998)
NorwayPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: USDA, et al. (1998)
PolandPresent, WidespreadHolm et al. (1991)
PortugalPresent, WidespreadHolm et al. (1991)
-AzoresPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: USDA, et al. (1998)
-MadeiraPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: USDA, et al. (1998)
RomaniaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: USDA, et al. (1998)
RussiaPresentHolm et al. (1991)
SpainPresent, WidespreadHolm et al. (1991)
-Balearic IslandsPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: USDA, et al. (1998)
-Canary IslandsPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: USDA, et al. (1998)
SwedenPresent, WidespreadHolm et al. (1991)
SwitzerlandPresentJäggli (1992)
UkrainePresentSolomakha (1986)
United KingdomPresentHolm et al. (1991)

North America

CanadaPresentHolm et al. (1991)
United StatesPresentHolm et al. (1991)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentHolm et al. (1991)
-New South WalesPresentLazarides et al. (1997)
-Northern TerritoryPresentLazarides et al. (1997)
-QueenslandPresentLazarides et al. (1997)
-South AustraliaPresentLazarides et al. (1997)
-TasmaniaPresentBishop and Pemberton (1996)
-VictoriaPresentLazarides et al. (1997)
-Western AustraliaPresentLazarides et al. (1997)
New ZealandPresentHolm et al. (1991)

South America

ArgentinaPresentValladares (1981)
ChilePresentHolm et al. (1991)
ColombiaPresentHolm et al. (1991)

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Alternaria compacta Pathogen Fruits/pods/Growing point/Inflorescence/Leaves/Stems
Ceutorhynchus albovittatus Herbivore Fruits/pods
Ceutorhynchus denticulatus Herbivore Roots
Corynis similis Herbivore Fruits/pods/Inflorescence
Dendryphion papaveris Pathogen Leaves
Golovinomyces cichoracearum Pathogen Leaves
Pachycephus smyrnensis Herbivore Roots/Stems
Pleospora papaveracea Pathogen Leaves

References

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Allen HG, 1956. Variations in the common poppy (Papaver rhoeas). Journal of the Northamptonshire Natural History Society, 33:82-84.

Amrein J; Rufener J, 1988. Triasulfuron + isoproturon in cereals: influence of application timing and weed population characteristics on performance and crop yield. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Rijksuniversiteit Gent, 53(3b):1311-1320.

Andersen R, 1968. Germination and Establishment of Weeds for Experimental Purposes. Illinois, USA: Weed Science Society of America.

Basit AA; Ghani MA, 1978. Diseases of Cannabis sativa L. and Papaver somniferum L. in Pakistan (for the USA). Trinidad, Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control: Report of work carried out during 1976, 64-65.

Baylis JM; Watkinson AR; Lintell-Smith G; Firbank L, 1992. Reduced nitrogen inputs in wheat: the effects on weed-crop competition and weed population dynamics. Proceedings of the 1st International Weed Control Congress Melbourne, Australia; Weed Science Society of Victoria, Vol. 2:76-80.

Bishop AC; Pemberton BM, 1996. Germination and emergence characteristics of wild poppies (Papaver spp.) as weeds of oil poppy (Papaver somniferum) in Tasmania, Australia. In: Brown H, Cussans GW, Devine MD, Duke SO, Fernandez-Quintanilla C, Helweg A, Labrada RE, Landes M, Kudsk P, Streibig JC, eds. Proceedings of the Second International Weed Control Congress, Copenhagen, Denmark, 25-28 June 1996. Slagelse, Denmark: Department of Weed Control and Pesticide Ecology, 73-78.

Blackman G; Templeman W, 1938. The nature of the competition between cereal crops and annual weeds. Journal of Agricultural Science, 28:247-274.

Borowiec S; Kuszelewski L; Kutyna I, 1986. Effect of increasing rates of mineral fertilization (NPK) with and without manure on the weedy state of cultivated plants. Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Rolniczej w Szczecinie, Rolnictwo, 40(124):17-37; 9 ref.

Bowerman P, 1990. Weed control in winter oilseed rape - review of ADAS trials 1985-87. Aspects of Applied Biology, No. 23:219-226.

Camele I; Nuzzaci M; Rana GL; Kyriakopoulou PE, 1991. Papaver rhoeas L. - a host of two pathogenic viruses of cultivated plants. Petria, 1(2):111-115.

Cesari A; Catizone P, 1975. Weeds infesting wheat crops. Informatore Fitopatologico, 25(2):7-12.

Chancellor RJ, 1986. Decline of arable weed seeds during 20 years in soil under grass and the periodicity of seedling emergence after cultivation. Journal of Applied Ecology, 23(2):631-637.

Cmoluch Z; Letowski J; Smardzewska Z, 1978. A contribution to the knowledge of the weevils (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) of Poland. II. Annales Universitatis Marip Curie-Sklodowska, C (Biologia), 33:405-409.

Daniau P, 1996. Metosulam + fluroxypyr for early weed control in winter cereals. Seizie^grave~me confe^acute~rence du COLUMA. Journe^acute~es internationales sur la lutte contre les mauvaises herbes, Reims, France, 6-8 de^acute~cembre 1995. Tome 2., 585-592; 3 ref.

Drummond JM; Horsnail GB, 1987. FR1298 (isoproturon + diflufenican) - a new herbicide for use in winter cereals in northern Britain. Proceedings, Crop Protection in Northern Britain 1987. Invergowie, Dundee, UK; Association for Crop Protection in Northern Britain, 55-60

Efthimiadis P; Skorda EA, 1992. Field performance of tribenuron-methyl alone or in mixtures with graminicides. Agricoltura Mediterranea, 122(3):196-201.

Fenni M, 1993. Survey of the flora of cornfields in the high cereal plains of Setif (North-East Algeria). Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Universiteit Gent, 58(3A):1003-1011.

Flora Europaea, 1964-80. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Gorse D, 1957. The Flora of Wiltshire. Arbroath, UK.

Greathead DJ, 1978. The larvae and notes on the life history of Corynis similis (Mocsary) (Hymenoptera: Cimbicidae). Journal of Natural History, 12(1):107-111.

Haizel K, 1972. The productivity of mixtures of two and three species. Journal of Applied Ecology, 9:601-608.

Harper JL, 1960. Factors controlling plant numbers. In: Biology of Weeds - A symposium of the British Ecological Society. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 119-132.

Harper JL; McNaughton, 1960. The inheritance of dormancy in inter- and intraspecific hybrids of Papaver. Heredity, 15:315-320.

Holm LG; Doll J; Holm E; Pancho JV; Herberger JP, 1997. World Weeds: Natural Histories and Distribution. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons Inc.

Holm LG; Pancho JV; Herberger JP; Plucknett DL, 1991. A Geographic Atlas of World Weeds. Malabar, Florida, USA: Krieger Publishing Company.

Ialongo MT, 1982. A population of Erysiphe cichoracearum DC. specific to poppy. Annali dell' Istituto Sperimentale per la Patologia Vegetale Roma, 8:27-30

Jaggli B, 1992. Seed production of six ruderal weeds on different sites. Berichte des Geobotanischen Institutes der Eidgenossischen Technischen Hochschule, Stiftung Rubel, No. 58:86-100.

Kaczmarek U, 1985. Weeds as a source of potato viruses. Ziemniak Bonin, Poland: Instytut Ziemniaka, 69-91.

Kar AK; Ashok Das, 1988. New records of fungi from India. Indian Phytopathology, 41(3):505.

Kjaer A, 1948. Germination of buried and dry-stored seed II. Proceedings of the International Seed Testing Association, 14:19-26.

Kozicki KK, 1987. EF 730 - a novel formulation of fluroxypyr and bromoxynil for weed control in spring cereals. Proceedings, Crop Protection in Northern Britain 1987, Dundee University, 15-17 March 1987 Invergowie, Dundee, UK; Association for Crop Protection in Northern Britain, 43-48.

Lazarides M; Cowley K; Hohnen P, 1997. CSIRO handbook of Australian weeds. CSIRO handbook of Australian weeds., vii + 264 pp.

Lutman PJW; Bowerman P; Palmer GM; Whytock GP, 1995. A comparison of the competitive effects of eleven weed species on the growth and yield of winter oilseed rape. Brighton crop protection conference: weeds. Proceedings of an international conference, Brighton, UK, 20-23 November 1995., Vol. 3:877-882; 7 ref.

Madsen SB, 1962. Germination of buried and dry stored seeds III, 1934-1960. Proceedings of the International Seed Testing Association, 27:920-928.

McNaughton IH, 1960. Internal breeding barriers in Papaver. Report of the Scottish Society for Research in Plant Breeding.

McNaughton IH; Harper JL, 1964. Biological Flora of the British Isles, No. 99 Papaver rhoeas L. Journal of Ecology, 52:767-793.

Morvan Y; Panis PE; Strathmann S, 1991. Fluoroglycofen-ethyl + dichlorprop-P, a new herbicide for post-emergence broadleaved weed control in cereals. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Rijksuniversiteit Gent, 56(3a):711-717.

Mowat AB; Walters SM, 1964. 1. Papaver L. In: Tutin TG, Heywood VH, Burges NA, Moore DM, Valentine DH, Walters SM, Webb DA, 1981. Flora Europaea, Vol. 1. Psilotaceae to Platanaceae. First edition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Mowat AB; Walters SM; Kadereit JW, 1993. 1. Papaver L. In: Tutin TG, Burges NA, Chater AO, Edmonson JR, Heywood VH, Moore DM, Valentine DH, Walters SM, Webb DA, 1981. Flora Europaea, Vol. 1. Psilotaceae to Platanaceae. Second edition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

O'Keeffe MG; Klevorn TB; Chida T; Shida T, 1991. Flupoxam: a new pre- and post-emergence herbicide for broad-leaved weed control in winter cereals. Proceedings of the Brighton Crop Protection Conference, Weeds, Vol. 1:63-68.

Roberts HA; Boddrell JE, 1984. Seed survival and periodicity of seedling emergence in four weedy species of Papaver. Weed Research, UK, 24(3):195-200.

Roberts HA; Feast PM, 1972. Fate of seeds of some annual weeds in different depths of cultivated and undisturbed soil. Weed Research, 12(4):316-324.

Russ K, 1985. Official report from the Federal Institute for Plant Protection. Pflanzenschutz, No.8:3.

Salisbury E, 1964. Weeds and Aliens. 2nd Edition. London, UK: Collins.

Scheibelreiter GK, 1978. Investigations on the fauna of Papaver spp. and Cannabis sativa (for UN Division of Narcotic Drugs). Trinidad, Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control: Report of work carried out during 1976, 34-35.

Scheibelreiter GK, 1978. The poppy-cephid Pachycephus smyrnensis Stein (Hymenoptera: Cephidae). Zeitschrift für Angewandte Entomologie, 86(1):19-25.

Scheibelreiter GK, 1979. Contributions to the knowledge of the poppy-sawfly, Corynis similis (Mocsary) (Hym., Cimbicidae). Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie, 87(4):393-398

Schmelzer K; Gippert R; Weissenfels M; Beczner L, 1975. Spontaneous host plants of broad bean wilt virus I. Communication. Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene, 2, 130(8):696-703.

Serrone P del; Annesi T, 1990. Pathogenicity and host-specificity of Pleospora papaveracea, a candidate for biological control of poppy (Papaver rhoeas). Proceedings of the VIII International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds Rome, Italy: Istituto Sperimentale per la Patologia Vegetale, Ministero dell'Agricoltura e delle Foreste, 465-469.

Serrone P del; Annesi T; Quacquarelli A, 1986. Pathogenicity of Dendryphion papaveris to Papaver rhoeas, a weed of cereals. Annali dell'Istituto Sperimentale per la Patologia Vegetale, 11:147-153.

Solomakha VA, 1986. Agrotypology of segetal plants of the right-bank forest steppe. Ukraïns'kii Botanichnii Zhurnal, 43(6):47-52; 6 ref.

Stace C, 1997. New Flora of the British Isles. 2nd edition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Stavradis DG; Savopoulou-Soultani M, 1998. Larval performance on and oviposition preference for known and potential hosts by Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). European Journal of Entomology, 95(1):55-63.

Stevens M; Smith HG; Hallsworth PB, 1994. The host range of beet yellowing viruses among common arable weed species. Plant Pathology, 43(3):579-588.

Thiesson JP; Zambaux C; Bernard JL; Beraud JM, 1996. Cedra, a new broad-leaved herbicide product for weed control in cereals. Seizieme Conference du COLUMA. Journees Internationales sur la Lutte Contre les Mauvaises Herbes, Reims, France. Paris, France: Association Nationale pour la Protection des Plantes (ANPP), 617-614.

Ullasa BA; Rawal RD, 1984. Papaver rhoeas and Moringa oleifera, two new hosts of papaya powdery mildew. Current Science, India, 53(14):754-755.

USDA-ARS, 1999. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

Valladares G, 1981. Contribution to knowledge of the species of Calycomyza Hendel (Diptera, Agromyzidae), leaf-miners in the Argentine Republic. Revista de la Sociedad Entomologica Argentina, 40(1/4):221-229.

Vincent EM; Roberts EH, 1977. The interaction of light, nitrate and alternating temperature in promoting the germination of dormant seeds of common weed species. Seed Science and Technology, 5(2):659-670.

Vincent EM; Roberts EH, 1979. The influence of chilling, light and nitrate on the germination of dormant seeds of common weed species. Seed Science and Technology, 7(1):3-14.

Wells MJ; Balsinhas AA; Joffe H; Engelbrecht VM; Harding G; Stirton CH, 1986. A catalogue of problem plants in South Africa. Memoirs of the botanical survey of South Africa No 53. Pretoria, South Africa: Botanical Research Institute.

Welsh JP; Bulson HAJ; Stopes CE; Froud-Williams RJ; Murdoch AJ, 1996. Weed control in organic winter wheat using a spring-tine weeder. In: Brown H, Cussans GW, Devine MD, Duke SO, Fernandez-Quantanilla C, Helweg A, Labrada RE, Landes M, Kudsk P, Streibig JC, eds. Proceedings of the Second International Weed Control Congress, Copenhagen, Denmark. Slagelse, Denmark: Department of Weed Control and Pesticide Ecology, 1127-1132.

Wilson BJ; Peters NCB; Wright KJ; Atkins HA, 1988. The influence of crop competition on the seed production of Lamium purpureum, Viola arvensis and Papaver rhoeas in winter wheat. Aspects of Applied Biology, No. 18:71-80.

Wilson BJ; Wright JK, 1990. Predicting the growth and competitive effects of annual weeds in wheat. Weed Research (Oxford), 30(3):201-211.

Wilson BJ; Wright KJ; Brain P; Clements M; Stephens E, 1995. Predicting the competitive effects of weed and crop density on weed biomass, weed seed production and crop yield in wheat. Weed Research (Oxford), 35(4):265-278.

Distribution References

Basit A A, Ghani M A, 1978. Diseases of Cannabis sativa L. and Papaver somniferum L. in Pakistan (for the USA). In: Trinidad, Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control: Report of work carried out during 1976. 64-65.

Bishop A C, Pemberton B M, 1996. Germination and emergence characteristics of wild poppies (Papaver spp.) as weeds of oil poppy (Papaver somniferum) in Tasmania, Australia. In: Proceedings of the second international weed control congress, Copenhagen, Denmark, 25-28 June 1996: Volumes 1-4. [Proceedings of the second international weed control congress, Copenhagen, Denmark, 25-28 June 1996: Volumes 1-4.], [ed. by Brown H, Cussans G W, Devine M D, Duke S O, Fernandez-Quintanilla C, Helweg A, Labrada R E, Landes M, Kudsk P, Streibig J C]. Slagelse, Denmark: Department of Weed Control and Pesticide Ecology. 73-78.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Fenni M, 1993. Survey of the flora of cornfields in the high cereal plains of Setif (North-East Algeria). (Inventaire et étude de la flore messicole des hautes plaines cerealières setifiennes (nord-est Algerie).). In: Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Universiteit Gent, 58 (3A) 1003-1011.

Holm L G, Pancho J V, Herberger J P, Plucknett D L, 1991. A geographic atlas of world weeds. Malabar, Florida, USA: Krieger Publishing Co. 391 pp.

Jäggli B, 1992. Seed production of six ruderal weeds on different sites. (Samenproduktion sechs ausgewählter Unkrautarten auf verschiedenen Ackerstandorten.). Berichte des Geobotanischen Institutes der Eidgenossischen Technischen Hochschule, Stiftung Rubel. 86-100.

Lazarides M, Cowley K, Hohnen P, 1997. CSIRO handbook of Australian weeds. Collingwood, Vic. Australia: CSIRO Publishing. vii + 264 pp.

Russ K, 1985. Official report from the Federal Institute for Plant Protection. (Amtliche Mitteilung der Bundesanstalt für Pflanzenschutz.). Pflanzenschutz. 3.

Solomakha V A, 1986. Agrotypology of segetal plants of the right-bank forest steppe. Ukraïns'kiĭ Botani¯chniĭ Zhurnal. 43 (6), 47-52.

Valladares G, 1981. Contribution to knowledge of the species of Calycomyza Hendel (Diptera, Agromyzidae), leaf-miners in the Argentine Republic. (Contribucion al conocimiento de las especies de Calycomyza Hendel (Diptera, Agromyzidae), minadores de hojas en la Republica Argentina.). Revista de la Sociedad Entomologica Argentina. 40 (1/4), 221-229.

Wells M J, Balsinhas A A, Joffe H, Engelbrecht V M, Harding G, Stirton C H, 1986. A catalogue of problem plants in southern Africa incorporating the national weed list of South Africa. Memoirs, Botanical Survey of South Africa. v + 658pp.

Distribution Maps

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