Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Oxalis pes-caprae
(Bermuda buttercup)

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Datasheet

Oxalis pes-caprae (Bermuda buttercup)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Oxalis pes-caprae
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Bermuda buttercup
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Apis mellifera capensis (Cape honey bee); Worker feeding on Oxalis pes-caprae. Stellenbosch, Western Cape, South Africa. August 2011.
TitleWorker
CaptionApis mellifera capensis (Cape honey bee); Worker feeding on Oxalis pes-caprae. Stellenbosch, Western Cape, South Africa. August 2011.
Copyright©Julie Anne Workman/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Apis mellifera capensis (Cape honey bee); Worker feeding on Oxalis pes-caprae. Stellenbosch, Western Cape, South Africa. August 2011.
WorkerApis mellifera capensis (Cape honey bee); Worker feeding on Oxalis pes-caprae. Stellenbosch, Western Cape, South Africa. August 2011.©Julie Anne Workman/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Oxalis pes-caprae (Bermuda buttercup); typical habit with leaves and flowers.
TitleHabit
CaptionOxalis pes-caprae (Bermuda buttercup); typical habit with leaves and flowers.
Copyright©Sheldon Navie
Oxalis pes-caprae (Bermuda buttercup); typical habit with leaves and flowers.
HabitOxalis pes-caprae (Bermuda buttercup); typical habit with leaves and flowers.©Sheldon Navie
Oxalis pes-caprae (Bermuda buttercup); habit in a small clump with flowers.
TitleHabit
CaptionOxalis pes-caprae (Bermuda buttercup); habit in a small clump with flowers.
Copyright©Sheldon Navie
Oxalis pes-caprae (Bermuda buttercup); habit in a small clump with flowers.
HabitOxalis pes-caprae (Bermuda buttercup); habit in a small clump with flowers.©Sheldon Navie
Oxalis pes-caprae (Bermuda buttercup); flowers on a small plant.
TitleFlowers
CaptionOxalis pes-caprae (Bermuda buttercup); flowers on a small plant.
Copyright©Sheldon Navie
Oxalis pes-caprae (Bermuda buttercup); flowers on a small plant.
FlowersOxalis pes-caprae (Bermuda buttercup); flowers on a small plant.©Sheldon Navie
Oxalis pes-caprae (Bermuda buttercup); flowers.
TitleFlowers
CaptionOxalis pes-caprae (Bermuda buttercup); flowers.
Copyright©Sheldon Navie
Oxalis pes-caprae (Bermuda buttercup); flowers.
FlowersOxalis pes-caprae (Bermuda buttercup); flowers.©Sheldon Navie
Oxalis pes-caprae (Bermuda buttercup); young plant.
TitleSeedling
CaptionOxalis pes-caprae (Bermuda buttercup); young plant.
Copyright©Sheldon Navie
Oxalis pes-caprae (Bermuda buttercup); young plant.
SeedlingOxalis pes-caprae (Bermuda buttercup); young plant.©Sheldon Navie
Oxalis pes-caprae (Bermuda buttercup); tuberous underground stem and bulbil (arrowed).
TitleStem
CaptionOxalis pes-caprae (Bermuda buttercup); tuberous underground stem and bulbil (arrowed).
Copyright©Sheldon Navie
Oxalis pes-caprae (Bermuda buttercup); tuberous underground stem and bulbil (arrowed).
StemOxalis pes-caprae (Bermuda buttercup); tuberous underground stem and bulbil (arrowed).©Sheldon Navie
Oxalis pes-caprae (Bermuda buttercup); flowers.
TitleFlowers
CaptionOxalis pes-caprae (Bermuda buttercup); flowers.
Copyright©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
Oxalis pes-caprae (Bermuda buttercup); flowers.
FlowersOxalis pes-caprae (Bermuda buttercup); flowers.©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
Oxalis pes-caprae (Bermuda buttercup); habit, infesting a daffodil crop
TitleInvasive habit
CaptionOxalis pes-caprae (Bermuda buttercup); habit, infesting a daffodil crop
Copyright©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
Oxalis pes-caprae (Bermuda buttercup); habit, infesting a daffodil crop
Invasive habitOxalis pes-caprae (Bermuda buttercup); habit, infesting a daffodil crop©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Oxalis pes-caprae L. (1753)

Preferred Common Name

  • Bermuda buttercup

Other Scientific Names

  • Oxalis cernua Thunb. (1781)

International Common Names

  • Spanish: agrios
  • French: oxalis de bermudes
  • Portuguese: erva-pata

Local Common Names

  • Australia: soursob
  • Brazil: erva-canaria
  • Germany: Bermuda-sauerklee; Nickender-sauerklee
  • Spain: flor del sueno

EPPO code

  • OXAPC (Oxalis pes-caprae)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Geraniales
  •                         Family: Oxalidaceae
  •                             Genus: Oxalis
  •                                 Species: Oxalis pes-caprae

Description

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O. pes-caprae is a yellow-flowered, bulbous perennial with trifoliate leaves. Useful descriptions are given by Peirce (1997), and Parsons and Cuthbertson (1992).

Distribution

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O. pes-caprae is a native of South Africa, now more widely distributed in other regions with Mediterranean climates in Europe, North Africa, USA, Australia and New Zealand.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 12 May 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresent
EgyptPresentIntroduced1987
MoroccoPresent
NamibiaPresent
South AfricaPresent, Widespread
TunisiaPresent

Asia

GeorgiaPresent
IndiaPresent
IsraelPresentIntroduced1906
JapanPresentIntroducedFirst reported: 1885 - 1900

Europe

AlbaniaPresentIntroduced1983
CroatiaPresent
CyprusPresentIntroduced1880
CzechiaPresentIntroduced1961
FrancePresentIntroduced1833
-CorsicaPresentIntroduced1833
GreecePresent
-CretePresent
ItalyPresent
-SardiniaPresent
-SicilyPresent, Widespread
MaltaPresentIntroduced1811
NorwayPresentIntroduced2006
PortugalPresent
-AzoresPresentIntroduced1934
SpainPresentIntroduced1850
-Balearic IslandsPresent
United KingdomPresentIntroduced1901

North America

United StatesPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, Widespread
-New South WalesPresent
-Northern TerritoryPresent
-QueenslandPresent
-South AustraliaPresent
-TasmaniaPresent
-VictoriaPresent
-Western AustraliaPresent
New ZealandPresent

South America

ChilePresentIntroduced1916

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
CitrusRutaceaeOther
Malus domestica (apple)RosaceaeMain
Olea europaea subsp. europaea (European olive)OleaceaeMain
Triticum aestivum (wheat)PoaceaeMain
Vitis vinifera (grapevine)VitaceaeMain

Biology and Ecology

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Useful references to the biology of O. pes-caprae include Peirce (1997), Prasons and Cuthbertson (1992), and Marshall (1987).

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Klugeana philoxalis Herbivore
Klugeana swartlandensis Herbivore
Tetranychina harti Herbivore

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Speyeria callippe callippe (callippe silverspot butterfly)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2009)

Uses List

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Human food and beverage

  • Honey/honey flora

Materials

  • Poisonous to mammals

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Control methods are reviewed by Marshall (1987), Peirce (1997) and Parsons and Cuthbertson (1992).

References

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EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Holm LG, Pancho JV, Herberger JP, Plucknett DL, 1991. A Geographic Atlas of World Weeds. Malabar, Florida, USA: Krieger Publishing Company.

Marshall G, 1987. A review of the biology and control of selected weed species in the genus Oxalis: O. stricta L., O. latifolia H.B.K. and O. pes-caprp L. Crop Protection, 6(6):355-364.

Parsons WT, Cuthbertson EG, 1992. Noxious Weeds of Australia. Melbourne, Australia: Inkata Press, 692 pp.

Peirce JR, 1997. The biology of Australian weeds 31. Oxalis pes-caprae L. Plant Protection Quarterly, 12(3):110-119; 3 pp. of ref.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. In: Callippe Silverspot Butterfly (Speyeria callippe callippe). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 29 pp.

Valentine DH, 1968. LXXXII. Oxalidaceae. In: Tutin TG, Heywood VH, Burges NA, Moore DM, Valentine DH, Walters SM, Webb DA, eds. Flora Europaea, Volume 2. Rosaceae to Umbelliferae. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 192-193.

Wells MJ, Balsinhas AA, Joffe H, Engelbrecht VM, Harding G, Stirton CH, 1986. A catalogue of problem plants in South Africa. Memoirs of the botanical survey of South Africa No 53. Pretoria, South Africa: Botanical Research Institute.

Distribution References

EPPO, 2022. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. 1 pp. https://gd.eppo.int/

Holm L G, Pancho J V, Herberger J P, Plucknett D L, 1991. A geographic atlas of world weeds. Malabar, Florida, USA: Krieger Publishing Co. 391 pp.

Parsons W T, Cuthbertson E G, 1992. Noxious weeds of Australia. Melbourne, Australia: Inkarta Press. 692 pp.

Seebens H, Blackburn T M, Dyer E E, Genovesi P, Hulme P E, Jeschke J M, Pagad S, Pyšek P, Winter M, Arianoutsou M, Bacher S, Blasius B, Brundu G, Capinha C, Celesti-Grapow L, Dawson W, Dullinger S, Fuentes N, Jäger H, Kartesz J, Kenis M, Kreft H, Kühn I, Lenzner B, Liebhold A, Mosena A (et al), 2017. No saturation in the accumulation of alien species worldwide. Nature Communications. 8 (2), 14435. http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms14435

Valentine DH, 1968. (LXXXII. Oxalidaceae). In: Flora Europaea. Rosaceae to Umbelliferae, 2 [ed. by Tutin TG, Heywood VH, Burges NA, Moore DM, Valentine DH, Walters SM, Webb DA]. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 192-193.

Vuković N, Miletić M, Milović M, Jelaska S D, 2014. Grime's CSR strategies of the invasive plants in Croatia. Periodicum Biologorum. 116 (3), 323-329. http://hrcak.srce.hr/index.php?show=clanak&id_clanak_jezik=199334

Distribution Maps

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