Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Oscinella frit
(frit fly)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Oscinella frit (frit fly)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Oscinella frit
  • Preferred Common Name
  • frit fly
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Dead heart in cereals caused by O. frit.
TitleDead heart
CaptionDead heart in cereals caused by O. frit.
CopyrightTrevor Lewis
Dead heart in cereals caused by O. frit.
Dead heartDead heart in cereals caused by O. frit.Trevor Lewis

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Oscinella frit Linnaeus, 1758

Preferred Common Name

  • frit fly

Other Scientific Names

  • Chlorops frit
  • Musca frit
  • Oscinella avenae (BJERKANDER)
  • Oscinella granarius (CURTIS)
  • Oscinis frit Linnaeus
  • Oscinosoma frit

International Common Names

  • Spanish: mosca oscini; mosquita de la cebada y de la avena
  • French: l'oscinie; mouche de frit; oscine; oscinie

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: alm fritflue
  • Finland: kahukaerpaenen
  • Germany: fritfliege
  • Italy: mosca frit
  • Netherlands: fritvlieg
  • Norway: vanlid fritflue
  • Sweden: vanlig fritfluga
  • Turkey: arpa bas ak sinegi

EPPO code

  • OSCIFR (Oscinella frit)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Diptera
  •                         Family: Chloropidae
  •                             Genus: Oscinella
  •                                 Species: Oscinella frit

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 17 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

TunisiaPresent

Asia

AfghanistanPresent
IndiaPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresent
-PunjabPresent
-SikkimPresent
KazakhstanPresent
MalaysiaPresent
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent
MongoliaPresent
NepalPresent, Widespread
North KoreaPresent
PakistanPresent
South KoreaPresent
TurkeyPresent

Europe

AustriaPresent
BelarusPresent
BelgiumPresent
BulgariaPresent
CyprusPresent
CzechiaPresent
CzechoslovakiaPresent
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresent
DenmarkPresent, Widespread
FinlandPresent
FrancePresent
GermanyPresent
GreecePresent
HungaryPresent
IcelandPresent
IrelandPresent
ItalyPresent
LatviaPresent
MoldovaPresent
NetherlandsPresent
North MacedoniaPresent
NorwayPresent
PolandPresent
PortugalPresent
RomaniaPresent
RussiaPresent
-Central RussiaPresent
-Eastern SiberiaPresent
-Northern RussiaPresent
-Russia (Europe)Present
-Russian Far EastPresent
-SiberiaPresent
-Southern RussiaPresent
-Western SiberiaPresent
Serbia and MontenegroPresent
SlovakiaPresent
SloveniaPresent
SpainPresent
SwedenPresent, Widespread
SwitzerlandPresent, Widespread
UkrainePresent
United KingdomPresent, Widespread

North America

CanadaPresent
-AlbertaPresent
-British ColumbiaPresent
-ManitobaPresent
-OntarioPresent
-QuebecPresent
-SaskatchewanPresent
-YukonPresent
Costa RicaPresent
MexicoPresent
United StatesPresent
-AlabamaPresent
-ArizonaPresent
-ArkansasPresent
-CaliforniaPresent
-ColoradoPresent
-District of ColumbiaPresent
-GeorgiaPresent
-HawaiiPresent
-IndianaPresent
-IowaPresent
-KansasPresent
-KentuckyPresent
-LouisianaPresent
-MarylandPresent
-MichiganPresent
-MinnesotaPresent
-MississippiPresent
-MissouriPresent
-MontanaPresent
-North CarolinaPresent
-OhioPresent
-PennsylvaniaPresent
-South CarolinaPresent
-South DakotaPresent
-TennesseePresent
-TexasPresent
-VirginiaPresent
-West VirginiaPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresent
-New South WalesPresent

Growth Stages

Top of page
Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Growing point / dead heart
Seeds / internal feeding
Seeds / internal feeding
Stems / dead heart
Stems / internal feeding

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aprostocetus Parasite
Basalys tritoma Parasite Arthropods|Pupae
Bembidion lampros Predator Eggs
Callitula bicolor Parasite Arthropods|Pupae
Callitula pyrrhogaster Parasite Arthropods|Pupae
Carabidae Predator Eggs; Arthropods|Larvae
Chasmodon apterus Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Dictyna arundinacea Predator Adults
Halticoptera aenea Parasite Arthropods|Pupae
Halticoptera circulus Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Hexacola hexatoma Parasite Arthropods|Pupae
Homoporus destructor Parasite
Horismenus texanus Parasite Arthropods|Pupae
Howardula oscinellae Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Neochrysocharis aratus Parasite
Pachyneuron muscarum Parasite Arthropods|Pupae
Panagrolaimus rigidus Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Rhoptromeris eucera Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Rhoptromeris heptoma Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Spalangia drosophilae Parasite Arthropods|Pupae
Spalangia fuscipes Parasite Arthropods|Pupae
Thinodytes cephalon Parasite Arthropods|Pupae
Trechus quadristriatus Predator Eggs
Trichomalus cristatus Parasite
Trichomalus nanus Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Trichomalus statutus Parasite Arthropods|Pupae

Plant Trade

Top of page
Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants eggs; larvae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches larvae; pupae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Leaves
Roots
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

References

Top of page

Aldrich JM, 1920. European frit fly in North America. Journal of Agricultural Research, 18:451-474

Allen WA, 1978. The geographic distribution of the frit fly, Oscinella frit (L.) (Diptera: Chloropidae) in Virginia. Cooperative Plant Pest Report, 3(6):52-54

Allen WA, Pienkowski RL, 1973. Parasites reared from puparia of the frit fly, Oscinella frit, in Virginia. Environmental Entomology, 4:615-617

Balachowsky A, Mesnil L, 1935. Les Inséctes Nuisables aux plantes cultivées. Vol. 1. Paris, France: Ministry of Agriculture

Bentley BR, Clements RO, 1990. Studies on the horizontal migration of dipterous stem borers (Oscinella spp.) in direct drilled Italian ryegrass. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 57(3):223-235

Byers RA, Jung GA, 1979. Insect populations on forage grasses: effect of nitrogen fertilizer and insecticides. Environmental Entomology, 8(1):11-18

CABI/EPPO, 2005. Oscinella frit. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No. 668. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Canzoneri S, Gorodkov K, Krivosheina NP, Munari L, Nartshuk EP, Papp L, Suss L, 1995. Diptera Opomyzoidea, Carnoidea, Sphaeroceroidea. In: Minelli A, Ruffo S, La Posta S, eds. Checklist delle specie della fauna Italiana, 75. Bologna: Calderini, 15-20

Chaeva TF, 1977. Results of an evaluation of spring cereal crops for resistance to frit fly. Selektsiya i Semenovodstvo, 4:28

Collin JE, 1946. The British genera and species of Oscinellinae. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London, 97:117-148

Colyer CN, Hammond CO, 1968. Flies of the British Isles. 2nd edn. London, UK: F. Warne

Darvas B, Draskovits AD, Papp L, Hegedus I, Lesznyak M, Szeoke K, 1981. Dipterous pests of winter wheat. I. Damage assessment, swarming dynamics. Novenyvedelem, 17(3):97-108

DCA - Nationalt Center for Fødevarer og Jordbrug, Denmark, 2018. Update of pest status in Denmark for specific harmful organisms in relation to export of seeds - part 1. (Opdatering af skadegørerstatus i Danmark for specifikke skadegørere i relation til eksport af frø - del 1). Tjele, Denmark: DCA - Nationalt Center for Fødevarer og Jordbrug, Aarhus University.51 pp. https://pure.au.dk/portal/files/141699745/Levering_af_skadeg_rerestatus_del_1_ver5.pdf

Falk JH, 1982. Response of two turf insects, Endria inimica and Oscinella frit to mowing. Environmental Entomology, 11(1):29-31

Fischer L, Chambon JP, 1987. Faunistical inventory of cereal arthropods after flowering and incidence of insecticide treatments with deltamethrin, dimethoate and phosalone on the epigeal fauna. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Rijksuniversiteit Gent, 52(2a):201-211

Gratwick M, 1992. Crop pests in the UK: collected edition of MAFF leaflets. Crop pests in the UK: collected edition of MAFF leaflets., x + 490 pp.; [Co-published with Van Nostrand Reinhold, Inc., New York, USA]

Habjoerg A, 1979. Floral differentiation and development of selected ecotypes of Poa pratensis L. cultivated at six localities in Norway. Meldinger fra Norges Landbrukshoegskole, 58:19

Howell J, 1982. Parasitism and host-plant relationships in the dipterous stem borer complex of ryegrass. Pesticide Science, 13(4):367-372

Hulec P, 1975. Damage caused by the frit fly (Oscinella frit L.) to oats in the mountain and submontane regions. Vedecka Prace Vyskumneho Ustavu Luk a Pasienkov v Banskej Bystrici, 10:157-166

Johnson CG, Taylor LR, Southwood TRE, 1962. High altitude migration of Oscinella frit L. (Diptera: Chloropidae). Journal of Animal Ecology, 31:373-383

Jonasson T, 1975. Studies on the biology of resistance to frit fly (Oscinella frit L.) in oats. I. A literature survey. Sveriges Utsadesforenings Tidskrift, 85:37-57

Kanmiya K, Slovßk M, 1991. A list of North Korean Chloropidae (Diptera). Japanese Journal of Entomology, 59(3):623-625; 3 ref

Lauva RE, Shutele IR, 1976. Frit flies in Latvia. Zashchita Rastenii, No. 6:11

Lisowich F, 1979. The frit fly (Oscinella frit L.) as a pest of maize. In: Wegorek W, Lipa JJ, ed. Proceedings of the XIX Conference of the Scientific Institute of Plant Protection.: Materialy XIX Sesji Naukowej Instytutu Ochrony Roslin. Panstwowe Wydawnictwo Rolnicze i Lesne Oddzial w Poznaniu. Poznan Poland, 315-333

Michailova PV, Beschovski VL, 1985. Karyotaxonomical studies on genus Oscinella (Diptera, Chloropidae). Acta Zoologica Bulgarica, No. 29:25-35

Moore D, Hunt DJ, 1984. Nematodes associated with dipterous stem-boring larvae (Chloropidae and Opomyzidae) in ryegrass. Annals of Applied Biology, 104(2):291-296

Mustea D, Perju T, Bilaus I, Timpeanu I, 1982. Aspects of infestation by phytophagous Diptera of winter wheat and integrated control measures. In: Muresan I, ed. Contributii ale cercetarii stiintifice la dezvoltarea agriculturii. Volum omagial dedicat aniversarii a 25 de ani de activitate 1957-1982 Redactia de Propaganda Tehnica Agricola Bucharest Romania, 223-242

Narchuk EP, 1986. Cereal flies (Diptera, Chloropoidea) of the northern Amur region. Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta, Akademiya Nauk SSSR, 146:58-74

Nartshuk EP, 1976. Chloropidae (Diptera) from the Mongolian People's Republic. Fragmenta Faunistica, 20(22):407-413

Nartshuk EP, 1984. Family Chloropidae. In: Soós A & Papp L, eds. Catalogue of Palaearctic Diptera. Vol. 10. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 222-298

Nartshuk EP, Smirnov ES, Fedoseeva LI, 1988. Family Chloropidae. In: Bei-Bienko, ed. Keys to the insects of the European part of the USSR. Vol. V. New Dehli, India: Amerind

Nielsen LB, 2014. Distribution of Oscinellinae (Diptera: Chloropidae) in the Danish landscape. Entomologiske Meddelelser, 82(1):39-62. http://entomologiskforening.dk/tidsskrift/

Nordlander G, 1978. Parasitoids of the frit fly, Oscinella frit (L.) on oats. Norwegian Journal of Entomology, 25:89-90

Nordlander G, 1978. Population ecology of the frit fly, Oscinella frit (L.). Vaxtskyddsrapporter Jordbruk, 41-51

Nye IWB, 1958. The external morphology of some of the dipterous larvae living in the Gramineae of Britain. Transactions Royal Entomological Society London, 110:411-487

Oschmann M, 1974. On the biology, ecology and ethology of the frit fly (Oscinella frit L., Dipt., Chloropidae). Archiv fur Phytopathologie und Pflanzenschutz, 10(2):103-116

Ozer M, 1976. Wheat production in Turkey. Report, CENTO Scientific Programme, 3-4

Pereverzev DS, 1989. Oscinella harmfulness to maize. Zashchita Rastenii (Moskva), No. 5:14

Rosen D, Kfir R, 1983. A hyperparasite of coccids develops as a primary parasite of fly puparia. Entomophaga, 28(1):83-87

Ryabchenko NA, Lokhonya RN, Romeiko LI, 1986. Economic threshold of harmfulness of the frit fly. Zashchita Rastenii, No. 5:17

Ryzhkova YV, 1962. Phytopathogenic symbionts of Oscinella frit L. and O. pusilla Mg. (Diptera, Chloropidae) and their practical use. Éntomologicheskoe Obozrenie, 41:788-795

Sabrosky CW, 1935. The Chloropidae of Kansas (Diptera). Transactions American Entomological Society, 61:207-268

Sabrosky CW, 1965. Family Chloropidae. In: Stone et al. eds. A Catalog of the Diptera of America north of Mexico. Washington, USA: United States Department of Agriculture, 773-793

Sabrosky CW, 1977. Chloropidae. In: Delfinado MD, ed. Catalog of the Diptera of the Oriental Region. Vol. 3 Honolulu, Hawaii: University Press of Hawaii

Sabrosky CW, 1989. Chloropidae. In: Evenhuis NL, ed. Catalog of the Diptera of the Australian and Oceanian Regions. Honolulu, Hawaii and Leiden, Netherlands: Bishop Museum Press and EJ Brill

Skorda EA, 1975. Frit fly susceptibility, grain yields and other agronomic characters of barley varieties as affected by date of seeding. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen Rijksuniversiteit Gent, 40:379-395

Stamenkovic S, 1976. Forms of damage by wheat bugs. Zastita Bilja, 27(3/4):335-348

Tolley MP, Niemczyk HD, 1988. Seasonal abundance, oviposition activity, and degree-day prediction of adult frit fly (Diptera: Chloropidae) occurrence on turfgrass in Ohio. Environmental Entomology, 17(5):855-862

Tolley MP, Niemczyk HD, 1988. Upper and lower threshold temperatures and degree-day estimates for development of the frit fly (Diptera: Chloropidae) at eight constant temperatures. Journal of Economic Entomology, 81(5):1346-1351

Umoru PA, Bale JS, Shorrocks B, 1990. Predicting the time of emergence of frit fly (Oscinella frit L.) (Dipt., Chloropidae) in northern England. Journal of Applied Entomology, 109(4):377-384

van Emden HF, Jepson WF, 1961. The occurrence of a partial fourth generation of Oscinella frit L. in southern England. Entomologica Experimentalis et Applicata, 4:220-225

Volkmar C, Stark A, Wetzel T, 1990. The frit fly (Oscinella frit L.), an insect pest affecting barley ears - occurrence, monitoring and control threshold. Nachrichtenblatt Pflanzenschutz, 44(10):230-235

Distribution References

Afonina V M, Tshernyshev W B, Soboleva-Dokuchaeva I I, Timokhov A V, Timokhova O V, Seifulina R R, 2001. Arthropod complex of winter wheat crops and its seasonal dynamics. Bulletin OILB/SROP. 24 (6), 153-163.

ALDRICH J M, 1920. European Frit Fly in North America. Journal of Agricultural Research. 18 (9), 451-473 pp.

Allen W A, 1978. The geographic distribution of the frit fly, Oscinella frit (L.) (Diptera: Chloropidae) in Virginia. Cooperative Plant Pest Report. 3 (6), 52-54.

Balachowsky A, Mesnil L, 1935. Les insectes nuisables aux cultivees, Vol. 1. Paris, France: Ministere de l'Agriculture. 28-39.

Byers R A, Jung G A, 1979. Insect populations on forage grasses: effect of nitrogen fertilizer and insecticides. Environmental Entomology. 8 (1), 11-18. DOI:10.1093/ee/8.1.11

CABI, EPPO, 2005. Oscinella frit. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution maps of plant pests, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 668. DOI:10.1079/DMPP/20066600668

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Canzoneri S, Gorodkov K, Krivosheina NP, Munari L, Nartshuk EP, Papp L, Suss L, 1995. Diptera Opomyzoidea, Carnoidea, Sphaeroceroidea. In: Checklist delle specie della fauna Italiana, 75 [ed. by Minelli A, Ruffo S, La Posta S]. Bologna, Calderini. 15-20.

Chaeva T F, 1977. Results of an evaluation of spring cereal crops for resistance to frit fly. Selektsiya i Semenovodstvo. 28.

Collin J E, 1946. The British genera and species of Oscinellinae. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London. 117-148.

Darvas B, Draskovits A D, Papp L, Hegedus I, Lesznyak M, Szeoke K, 1981. Dipterous pests of winter wheat. I. Damage assessment, swarming dynamics. (Az oszi buza legykartevoi I. Kartetelfelmeres, rajzasdinamikai vizsgalatok.). Novenyvedelem. 17 (3), 97-108.

DCA - Nationalt Center for Fødevarer og Jordbrug, Denmark, 2019. Update of pest status in Denmark for specific harmful organisms in relation to export of seeds - part 1. (Opdatering af skadegørerstatus i Danmark for specifikke skadegørere i relation til eksport af frø - del 1.). In: Opdatering af skadegørerstatus i Danmark for specifikke skadegørere i relation til eksport af frø - del 1. [ed. by Nicolaisen M, Justesen A F, Nielsen B J, Enkegaard A, Lövei G, Ravnskov S, Melander B, Jørgensen L N, Hovmøller M S, Skovgǻrd H, Kristensen M]. Tjele, Denmark: DCA - Nationalt Center for Fødevarer og Jordbrug, Aarhus University. 51 pp. https://pure.au.dk/portal/da/publications/opdatering-af-skadegoererstatus-i-danmark-for-specifikke-skadegoerere-i-relation-til-eksport-af-froe--del-1(0270de38-236d-4a8c-a8a5-98f5774b6b0d).html

Falk J H, 1982. Response of two turf insects, Endria inimica and Oscinella frit to mowing. Environmental Entomology. 11 (1), 29-31. DOI:10.1093/ee/11.1.29

Habjoerg A, 1979. Floral differentiation and development of selected ecotypes of Poa pratensis L. cultivated at six localities in Norway. Meldinger fra Norges Landbrukshoegskole. 58 (4), 19pp.

Hulec P, 1975. Damage caused by the frit fly (Oscinella frit L.) to oats in the mountain and submontane regions. (Negativny vplyv bzucky jacmennej (Oscinella frit L.) na pestovanie ovsa v horskych a podhorskych oblastiach.). Vedecke Prace Vyskumneho Ustavu Luk a Pasienkov v Banskej Bystrici. 157-166.

Kanmiya K, Slovák M, 1991. A list of North Korean Chloropidae (Diptera). Japanese Journal of Entomology. 59 (3), 623-625.

Lauva R E, Shutele I R, 1976. Frit flies in Latvia. Zashchita Rastenii. 11.

Lisowich F, 1979. The frit fly (Oscinella frit L.) as a pest of maize. (Ploniarka zbozowka (Oscinella frit L.) jako szkodnik kukurydzy.). In: Proceedings of the XIX Conference of the Scientific Institute of Plant Protection.: Materialy XIX Sesji Naukowej Instytutu Ochrony Roslin. [Proceedings of the XIX Conference of the Scientific Institute of Plant Protection.: Materialy XIX Sesji Naukowej Instytutu Ochrony Roslin.], [ed. by Wegorek W, Lipa J J]. Poznan, Poland: Panstwowe Wydawnictwo Rolnicze i Lesne Oddzial w Poznaniu. 315-333.

Mustea D, Perju T, Bilaus I, Timpeanu I, 1982. Aspects of infestation by phytophagous Diptera of winter wheat and integrated control measures. (Aspecte ale atacului de diptere fitofage la griul de toamna si masurile de combatere integrata.). In: Contributii ale cercetarii stiintifice la dezvoltarea agriculturii. Volum omagial dedicat aniversarii a 25 de ani de activitate 1957-1982, [ed. by Muresan I]. Bucharest, Romania: Redactia de Propaganda Tehnica Agricola. 223-242.

Nartshuk E P, 1976. Chloropidae (Diptera) from the Mongolian People's Republic. Fragmenta Faunistica. 20 (22), 407-413.

Nartshuk EP, 1984. Family Chloropidae. In: Catalogue of Palaearctic Diptera, 10 [ed. by Soós A, Papp L]. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier. 222-298.

Nartshuk EP, Smirnov ES, Fedoseeva LI, 1988. Family Chloropidae. In: Keys to the insects of the European part of the USSR, V [ed. by Bei-Bienko]. New Delhi, India: Amerind.

Nielsen L B, 2014. Distribution of Oscinellinae (Diptera: Chloropidae) in the Danish landscape. Entomologiske Meddelelser. 82 (1), 39-62. http://entomologiskforening.dk/tidsskrift/

Ozer M, 1976. Wheat production in Turkey. Report, CENTO Scientific Programme. 3-4.

Pereverzev D S, 1989. Oscinella harmfulness to maize. Zashchita Rasteniĭ (Moskva). 14.

Ryabchenko N A, Lokhonya R N, Romeĭko L I, 1986. Economic threshold of harmfulness of the frit fly. Zashchita Rasteniĭ. 17.

Sabrosky C W, 1935. The Chloropidae of Kansas (Diptera). Transactions American Entomological Society. 207-268.

Sabrosky CW, 1965. Family Chloropidae. In: A Catalog of the Diptera of America north of Mexico, [ed. by Stone et al]. Washington, USA: United States Department of Agriculture. 773-793.

Sabrosky CW, 1977. (Chloropidae). In: Catalog of the Diptera of the Oriental Region, 3 [ed. by Delfinado MD]. Honolulu, Hawaii, University Press of Hawaii.

Sabrosky CW, 1989. Chloropidae. In: Catalog of the Diptera of the Australian and Oceanian Regions, [ed. by Evenhuis NL]. Honolulu, Hawaii; Leiden, Netherlands: Bishop Museum Press and EJ Brill.

Skorda E A, 1975. Frit fly susceptibility, grain yields and other agronomic characters of barley varieties as affected by date of seeding. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen Rijksuniversiteit Gent. 379-395.

Stamenkovic S, 1976. Forms of damage by wheat bugs. (Vidovi ostecenja od zitnih stenica.). Zastita Bilja. 27 (3/4), 335-348.

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map
Select a dataset
Map Legends
  • CABI Summary Records
Map Filters
Extent
Invasive
Origin
Third party data sources: