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Datasheet

Agrotis segetum (turnip moth)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 11 October 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Agrotis segetum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • turnip moth
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Pictures

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Agrotis segetum Denis & Schiffermüller

Preferred Common Name

  • turnip moth

Other Scientific Names

  • Agrotis fucosa Butler
  • Agrotis segetis Hübner
  • Euxoa segetis
  • Euxoa segetum Denis & Schiffermüller
  • Euxoa segetum form albiptera Turati
  • Feltia segetum Denis & Schiffermüller
  • Noctua segetum Denis & Schiffermüller
  • Scotia segetum Denis & Schiffermüller

International Common Names

  • English: black cutworm; common cutworm; cutworm; dark moth; dart moth; tobacco cutworm; turnip dart moth
  • Spanish: gusano cortador; noctua común; rosquilla
  • French: noctuelle des moissons

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: agerugle; knoporm
  • Finland: orasyoekkoenen
  • Germany: erdraupe; saateule; winter saateule
  • Israel: agrotis hazrya
  • Italy: agrotide dei seminati; nottua dei seminati; nottua delle messi; nottuella delle messi
  • Netherlands: gewone aardrups; winterzaaduil aardrups; zwarte aardrups
  • Sweden: jordfly; jordflylarv
  • Turkey: yumru delen tirpan kurou

EPPO code

  • AGROSE (Agrotis segetum)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Noctuidae
  •                             Genus: Agrotis
  •                                 Species: Agrotis segetum

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
AzerbaijanPresentRagimov and Rustamova, 1977; EPPO, 2014
BangladeshPresentAPPPC, 1987; CIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
BhutanPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
ChinaPresentEPPO, 2014
-FujianPresentWoo, 1935
-HebeiPresentAnon., 1977; EPPO, 2014
-HeilongjiangPresentWatanabe, 1935
-Hong KongPresentAPPPC, 1987; CIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
-HunanPresentLi et al., 1993
-JiangsuPresentHu, 1982; CIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
-Nei MengguPresentEPPO, 2014
-ShandongPresentZhao et al., 2004
-ShanxiPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
-XinjiangPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
Georgia (Republic of)WidespreadTulashvili, 1930
IndiaPresentEPPO, 2014
-Andhra PradeshWidespread
-AssamPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
-BiharWidespreadMisra et al., 1986
-GujaratWidespreadPatel et al., 1991
-HaryanaPresentKalra, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-Himachal PradeshPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
-Indian PunjabPresentAtwal et al., 1969; EPPO, 2014
-Jammu and KashmirPresentMathur and Srivastava, 1962; EPPO, 2014
-KarnatakaPresentKannan, 1925; EPPO, 2014; Manjula et al., 2015
-KeralaPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
-Madhya PradeshPresentRamesh Chandra, 2004
-RajasthanPresentKhan and Sharma, 1971; EPPO, 2014
-SikkimPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
-Tamil NaduPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
-Uttar PradeshPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
-UttarakhandPresentBisht et al., 2005
-West BengalPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
IndonesiaPresentEPPO, 2014
-JavaPresentCIE, 1987; Waterhouse, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-SumatraPresentWaterhouse, 1993
IranPresentNemann et al., 1965; EPPO, 2014
IraqPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
IsraelWidespreadRivnay, 1963; EPPO, 2014
JapanPresentEPPO, 2014
-HokkaidoPresentKuwayama et al., 1925; EPPO, 2014
-HonshuPresentEndo and Wakamura, 1982; EPPO, 2014
-KyushuPresentEPPO, 2014
JordanPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
KazakhstanPresentEremenko and Sem'yanov, 1981; EPPO, 2014
Korea, DPRPresentEguchi, 1926; APPPC, 1987; EPPO, 2014
Korea, Republic ofPresentEguchi, 1926; APPPC, 1987; EPPO, 2014
KyrgyzstanPresentEPPO, 2014
LebanonPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
MalaysiaPresentEPPO, 2014
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentCIE, 1987; Waterhouse, 1993; EPPO, 2014
MongoliaPresent
MyanmarPresentCIE, 1987; Waterhouse, 1993; EPPO, 2014
NepalPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
PakistanPresentZethner et al., 1987; EPPO, 2014
PhilippinesPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
Saudi ArabiaPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
Sri LankaPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
SyriaPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
TaiwanPresentEPPO, 2014
TajikistanPresentEPPO, 2014
TurkeyPresentEPPO, 2014
TurkmenistanPresentEPPO, 2014
UzbekistanPresentEPPO, 2014
VietnamPresentWaterhouse, 1993
YemenPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014

Africa

AlgeriaPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
AngolaPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
BeninPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
BotswanaPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
Cape VerdePresentSchmutterer et al., 1978; EPPO, 2014
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentFoscolo and Lefevre, 1939; EPPO, 2014
Côte d'IvoirePresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
EgyptPresentEPPO, 2014
EthiopiaPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
KenyaPresentKhaemba, 1979; EPPO, 2014
LibyaPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
MalawiPresentBALLARD, 1914, Feb; EPPO, 2014
MaliPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
MoroccoPresentMege, 1923; EPPO, 2014
MozambiquePresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
NamibiaPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
Saint HelenaPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
-AscensionPresentCIE, 1987
SenegalPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
South AfricaPresentSkaife, 1921; EPPO, 2014
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
SudanPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
TanzaniaPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
TogoPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
TunisiaPresentHannothiaux, 1965; EPPO, 2014
UgandaPresentHancock, 1927; EPPO, 2014
ZambiaPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
ZimbabwePresentJack, 1913; EPPO, 2014

Europe

AustriaPresentFulmek, 1918; EPPO, 2014
BelarusPresentEPPO, 2014
BelgiumPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
BulgariaPresentDryenski, 1930; EPPO, 2014
CroatiaPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
CyprusWidespreadCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
Czech RepublicPresentMu?ka and Jakl, 2009; EPPO, 2014
Czechoslovakia (former)PresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
DenmarkPresentAnon, 1905-1977; Bovien and Stapel, 1935; Thygesen, 1971; EPPO, 2014
EstoniaPresentZolk, 1930; EPPO, 2014
FinlandRestricted distributionVappula, 1932; EPPO, 2014
FrancePresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
GermanyPresentHerold, 1919; EPPO, 2014
GreecePresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
HungaryPresentKadocsa, 1935; EPPO, 2014
IrelandPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
ItalyPresentAnon., 1919; EPPO, 2014
-SardiniaPresentEPPO, 2014
-SicilyPresentEPPO, 2014
LatviaPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
LithuaniaPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
MacedoniaWidespreadVasilev, 1987
MaltaPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
MoldovaPresentEPPO, 2014
NetherlandsPresentEPPO, 2014
NorwayPresentSchoyen, 1934; EPPO, 2014
PolandPresentChrzanowski, 1931; EPPO, 2014
PortugalWidespreadCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
-AzoresPresentEPPO, 2014
-MadeiraPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
RomaniaPresentIonescu, 1986; EPPO, 2014
Russian FederationPresentEPPO, 2014
-Central RussiaWidespreadSacharov, 1913
-Eastern SiberiaPresentEPPO, 2014
-Russia (Europe)PresentEPPO, 2014
-Russian Far EastPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
-Western SiberiaPresentEPPO, 2014
SerbiaPresentEPPO, 2014
SlovakiaWidespreadBirova, 1973
SloveniaWidespreadWeismann and Podmanicka, 1971
SpainPresentAnon., 1921; EPPO, 2014
-Balearic IslandsPresentEPPO, 2014
SwedenPresentNotini, 1942; EPPO, 2014
SwitzerlandPresentEPPO, 2014
UKPresentEPPO, 2014
-England and WalesPresentEPPO, 2014
UkrainePresentPospielov, 1913; EPPO, 2014
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)PresentCamprag et al., 1978

Growth Stages

Top of page Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / external feeding
Roots / external feeding
Roots / internal feeding
Stems / external feeding
Stems / internal feeding

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aleiodes dimidiatus Parasite Larvae
Anthicus crinitus
Bacillus thuringiensis
Bacillus thuringiensis galleriae Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis kenyae Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. dendrolimus Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis Pathogen Larvae
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen Larvae
Blondelia nigripes Parasite Larvae
Broscus punctatus Predator Larvae
Campoletis annulatus Parasite
Campoletis cognatus
Carabidae Predator Larvae
Cataglyphis bicolor Predator
Corvus frugilegus Predator
Cotesia congregata Parasite Larvae
Cotesia telengai Parasite Larvae
Ctenichneumon panzeri Parasite Larvae
Enicospilus merdarius Parasite
Erynia gammae Pathogen
Erynia radicans Pathogen
Exorista civilis Parasite Larvae
Exorista larvarum Parasite Larvae
Exorista xanthaspis Parasite Larvae
Gonia bimaculata Parasite Larvae
Gonia capitata Parasite Larvae
Granulosis virus Pathogen Larvae
Ichneumon sarcitorius Parasite Larvae
Lecanicillium lecanii Pathogen
Linnaemya comta Parasite Larvae
Lydella thompsoni Parasite Larvae
Macrocentrus collaris Parasite Larvae
Mermis gigantea Parasite
Metarhizium anisopliae Pathogen Larvae
Meteorus rubens Parasite Larvae
Microgaster spectabilis Parasite Larvae
Microlestes discoidalis Predator Larvae
Microplitis mediator
Netelia fuscicornis Parasite
Nilea hortulana Parasite Larvae
Nucleopolyhedrosis virus Pathogen Larvae
Paecilomyces farinosus Pathogen
Paecilomyces fumosoroseus Pathogen
Peleteria rubescens Parasite Larvae
Periscepsia carbonaria Parasite Larvae
Phryxe magnicornis Parasite Larvae
Phryxe vulgaris Parasite Larvae
Pimpla contemplator Parasite
Plecotus auritus Predator
Pseudogonia rufifrons Parasite Larvae
Rhinolophus ferrumequinum Predator
Rhinolophus hipposideros Predator
Rogas pellucens Parasite Larvae
Siphona collini Parasite Larvae
Siphona cristata Parasite Larvae
Spallanzania hebes Parasite Larvae
Steinernema carpocapsae Parasite
Steinernema feltiae Parasite
Steinernema websteri Parasite Gökçe et al., 2015
Tachina rohdendorfi Parasite Larvae
Trichoderma spermum Pathogen
Trichogramma evanescens Parasite Eggs USSR
Trichogramma maidis Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma pintoi Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma principium Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma rhenana Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma silvestre Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma telengai Parasite
Trichogramma turkeiensis Parasite
Tritaxys braueri Parasite Larvae
Turanogonia chinensis Parasite Larvae
Xenorhabdus nematophilus Pathogen

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Growing medium accompanying plants eggs Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Leaves larvae Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Roots larvae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches larvae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

References

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1977. Studies on the biology and control of cutworms in Peking suburbs. Acta Entomologica Sinica, 20(3):294-302

Adashkevich BP; Adylov ZK; Rasulev FK, 1981. The biomethod in action. Zashchita Rastenii, No. 9:9-10

Aldhous JR, 1959. Control of cutworms in forest nurseries. Forestry, 32(2)155-165.

Alekseev YUI, 1972. The biology of two closely related species of Braconids, Rogas pellucens Tel. and Rogas testaceus Spin (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) in Turkmenia. Izvestiya Akademi i Nauk Turkmenskoi SSR. Biologicheskikn Nauk, 4:58-61.

Allaway GP; Payne CC, 1984. Host range and virulence of five baculoviruses from lepidopterous hosts. Annals of Applied Biology, 105(1):29-37

Anderson TJ, 1915. Report on the Entomological Laboratory for the Year ending 31st March 1914. Annual Report of the Department of Agriculture British East Africa, 1913-1914, 52-83.

Anon, 1905-1977. Monthly Review(s) of Plant Diseases. Statens Plantepatologiske Forsoeg. Nos. 1-500.

Anon., 1919. R. Osservatorio di Fitopatologia. Turin, Monthly Leaflets, Nos. 1-12.

Anon., 1921. Reports on the state of crops in each province of Spain. Bol. Agric. Tec. Econ. Madrid. xiii , 156:1031-1045.

Anon., 1927. Destructive insects in wattles and gumtrees. Farming in S. Africa, 1:17.

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Arn H; Esbjerg P; Bues R; Toth M; Szocs G; Guerin P; Rauscher S, 1983. Field attraction of Agrotis segetum males in four European countries to mixtures containing three homologous acetates. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 9(2):267-276

Atwal AS; Chaudhary JP; Ramzan M, 1969. Studies on the seasonal abundance of insects in light trap in Ludhiana. Journal of Research of the Punjab Agriculture University, 6(1):186-196.

Balachowsky AS, ed. , 1972. Entomology applied to agriculture. Tome II. Lepidoptera. Second volume. Zygaenoidea-Pyraloidea-Noctuoidea. Entomologie appliquee a l'agriculture. Tome II. Lepidopteres. Deuxieme volume. Zygaenoidea-Pyraloidea-Noctuoidea. Paris, France: Masson et Cie, pp 1059-1634.

BALLARD E; 1914, Feb. A list of the more important insect pests of crops in the Nyasaland Protectorate. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 4(4):347-351.

Barbulescu A, 1973. Some aspects of the biology, ecology and attack of cutworms in the conditions of Rasht, Iran. Probleme de Protectia Plantelor, 1(2):101-110

Barrareiro-Garcia JM; Ortiz-Garcia R, 1989. Phenology of Heliothis armigera, Agrotis segetum and Agrotis ipsilon in the Badajoz area (Spain), 1987 and 1988. IOBC/WPRS Bulletin, 13(3):1-11.

Basappa H; Vijay Singh, 1990. Record of insect pests on niger (Guizotia abyssinnica). Journal of Oilseeds Research, 7(2):86-87

Bayram S; Klncer N, 1987. Some changes in the blood cells of larvae of Agrotis segetum (Den.-Schiff.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) parasitized by Periscepsia carbonaria (Panz.) (Diptera: Tachinidae). Turkiye I. Entomoloji Kongresi Bildirileri, 13-16 Ekim 1987, Ege Universitesi, Bornova, Izmir Bornova/Izmir, Turkey; Ege Universitesi Ataturk Kultur Merkezi, 437-446

Beck H, 1960. Die Larvalsystematik der Eulen ( Noctuidae). In: Sachtleben H, Stammer HJ, eds. Abhandlungen zur Larvalsystematik der Insekten. Berlin, Germany: Akademie - Verl., 406 pp.

Belski BI, 1924. List of pests of medicinal plants for observations made in the Environs of Kiev during 1919-1922. Transactions of the 4th All- Russian Entomology-Phytopathology Meeting, Moscow, 8-14th December 158-170.

Bernard L, 1914. Technique des traitements contre les insects de la Vigne. Paris, J.B. Bailliere et fils, 364.

Birova H, 1973. On knowledge of the natural enemies (Hymenoptera and Diptera) of some injurious Noctuids. Biologicke Prace, 19(7):79 [+ 2]pp.

Bisht RS; Tripathi DM; Mishra PN, 2005. Seasonal abundance of cutworms (Agrotis spp: Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) caught at light trap in Garhwal Himalaya. Indian Journal of Entomology, 67(3):247-251.

Blair BW, 1976. Comparison of the development of Agrotis ipsilon Hufn. and A. segetum (Denis & Schiff.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) at constant temperatures. Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa, 39(2):271-277

Bogarada AP, 1975. Brief notes on the pests and diseases of Solanum laciniatum. Zakhist Roslin, 21:77-80.

Bogdanov- Kat'kov NN; Dunin MS, 1935. Diseases and pests of chufa Cyperus esculentus L. Trans. Inst. Grain Legum. Crops Res., 6(2):144.

Bolet B, 1983. Produktion af Insektvirus til Biologisk Bek`mpelse. Udvikling af Methode til Produktion af Ageruglens Kapselvirus (ASGV). Planteavl, Kobenhavn, 87:417-424.

Boursin C, 1957. Notes diverses, synonymiques et critiques. VI (Lep. Phal.) Bull. mens, Soc. lineenne de Lyon, 26:208-213.

Bovien P; Stapel C, 1935. Knopormeangrebet i 1934. Tridskr. f. Pl. avl, 40:599-615.

Brouwer WMT; J de, 1973. Observations on cutworms, in particular Agrotis segetum. Publikatievan het Proefstation voor de Groenten- en Fruitteelt onder Glas, 176:10.

Bues R; Poitout S; Toubon JF, 1989. Geographic variability of Agrotis segetum and selection of development time. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 50(2):101-111

Caballero P; Fleishacker C; Vargas-Osuna E; Santiago-Alvarez C, 1988. An autochthonous baculovirus (granulosis virus; GV) of Agrotis segetum (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its possibilities for use in the fight against cutworms. Boletin de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 14(1):171-174

Camprag D; Durkic J; Sekulic R, 1978. The macroentomofauna in the soil of wheat fields in north-eastern Yugoslavia. In: Wetzel T, ed. Wissenschaftliche Beitrage, Martin-Luther-Universitat Halle-Wittenberg, 14:137-144

Casperson G; Otto D; Edlich C-D; Nitschmann J; Schmidt HB, 1983. Rasterelektronemikroskopische Untersuchungen an Ei dere Wintersaateule. Entomologische Nachrichten und Berichte, 27:4.

Chown SL; Language K, 1994. Recently established Diptera and Lepidoptera on sub-Antarctic Marion Island. African Entomology, 2(1):57-60

Chrzanowski A, 1931. Contribution to the knowledge of the injuries caused to cultivated plants by wireworms. Choroby Roslin, 1(3-4):52-53.

Chukhrij MG, 1978. Ultramicroscopic and ultrahistochemical study of the nucleat polyhedrosis virus of Agrotis segetum. Sel'skokhozyajstvennaya Biologiya (USSR), 13:784-787.

Chumak VA, 1975. Pests of Salvia sclarea. Zashchita Rastenii, No.12:35-36

CIE, 1987. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No. 490. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Cruger G, 1978. Observations in connection with an outbreak of cutworms (Agrotis spp.) in the year 1976. Nachrichtenblatt des Deutschen Pflanzenschutzdienstes, 30(2):17-19

Cuthbertson A, 1934. Biological notes on some Diptera in Southern Rhodesia. Proceedings of the Rhodesian Science Association, 33:32-50.

Cuthbertson A, 1937. Biological notes on some Diptera in Southern Rhodesia. Proceedings of the Rhodesian Science Association, 1:16-34.

Daiber KC, 1994. Injurious insects in asparagus in southern Africa. Zeitschr. f. Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 101(2):215-222.

Dekhtyarev NS, 1926. On the Parasites of Euxoa segetum, Schiff. in 1925. Prot. Plants in Ukraine, ii: 50-53.

Dobrovol'skii BV, 1935. Preliminary data on the Caoutchoue plant injuries in North Caucasus. Plant Prot., 111-116.

Druzhelyubova TS, 1973. Reactions of geographical populations of Agrotis segetum Schiff. to temperature and light. Trudy Vsesoyuznogo Nauchno-issledovatel'skogo Instituta Zashchity Rastenii, No.39:159 - 174

Dryenski P, 1930. Diseases and pests of gramminaceous plants in Bulgaria. 54 pp.

Durnovo ZP, 1933. Results on work on the Iaize moth and other pests of newly cultivated annual fibre plants. Diseases and Pests of Newly Cultivated Fibre Plants, 85-106. Izd. Novlubinst. VASKhNIL.

Durnovo ZP; Pogodina LN, 1933. Results of work on pests of perennial plants - Apocynum sibiricum, ramie and others during 1931 and 1932. Diseases and Pests of Newly Cultivated Fibre Plants, 73-84. Izd. Novlubinst. VASKhNIL.

Eguchi M, 1926. Noctuidae infesting Sugar-beet. Korea Agriculture Experimental Station Bulletin, 3:257-263.

El Kady EA; Salem YS; Loutfy MS; Abd-El-Salam NM, 1980. Biological studies on cutworms, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.) and Agrotis segetum (Schiff.). Plant Protection Research Institute Cairo (Egypt), 57-78.

Emmett BJ, 1984. Cutworms. Leaflet, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, UK, No. 225:6 pp.

Endo T; Wakamura S, 1982. Comparison of seasonal prevalences of Agrotis segetum Denis et Schiff. based on captures in synthetic sex pheromone trap and light- trap in Chiba city Japan. Proceedings of the Kanto-Tosan Plant Protection Society (Japan), 29:152-153.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Eremenko TS, 1981. Biocoenotic relations of parasites of the winter moth in the cotton agrocoenosis. In: Sem'yanov VP, ed. Noveishie dostizheniya sel'skokhozyaistvennoi entomologii (po materialam USh s"ezda VEO, Vil'nyus, 9-13 oktyabrya 1979 g.) Vilnius, Vsesoyuznoe Entomologicheskoe Obshchestvo USSR, 70-73

Erfurth P, 1973. The situation regarding attack by armyworms (Scotia (Agrotis) segetum Schiff.) and methods for the prevention of attack. Nachrichtenblatt fur den Pflanzenschutzdienst in der DDR, 27(3):65-68

Esbjerg P, 1985. Cutworms (Agrotis segetum) - Forecasting and Damages in 1983 and 1984. Second Danish Plant Protection Conference: 249-260.

Esbjerg P, 1987. The influence of diurnal time and weather on sex trap catches of the turnip moth (Agrotis segetum Schiff.) (Lep., Noctuidae). Journal of Applied Entomology, 103(2):177-184

Esbjerg P, 1988. Behaviour of 1st- and 2nd-instar cutworms (Agrotis segetum Schiff.) (Lep., Noctuidae): the influence of soil moisture. Journal of Applied Entomology, 105(3):295-302

Esbjerg P, 1988. Integrated Pest Management 1977-87. Ambitions and Realities. Proceedings of the 5th Danish Plant Protection Conference, 1988. Diseases and Pests: 287-306a.

Esbjerg P, 1989. Cutworm - a pest, which can be controlled. Gron Viden, Landbrug, No. 32:8 pp.

Esbjerg P, 1989. The influence of soil moisture on mortality and on the damaging effect of 2nd to 6th instar cutworms (Agrotis segetum Schiff., Lep.: Noctuidae). Acta Oecologica, Oecologia Applicata, 10(4):335-347

Esbjerg P, 1990. The significance of shelter for young cutworms (Agrotis segetum). Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 54(2):97-100

Esbjerg P, 1992. Temperature and soil moisture - two major factors affecting Agrotis segetum Schiff, Lep., Noctuidae) populations and their damage. IOBC/WPRS Bulletin. 1992, XV, 4:82-90.

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