Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Agrotis segetum
(turnip moth)



Agrotis segetum (turnip moth)


  • Last modified
  • 11 October 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Agrotis segetum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • turnip moth
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report


Top of page
Agrotis segetum (turnip moth); freshly laid eggs are pale and whitish, but later develop a reddish pattern on a paler background leading to a pinkish-brown appearance. The eggs are stuck on plant residues and soil particles by a putty-like substance secreted by the female moth.
CaptionAgrotis segetum (turnip moth); freshly laid eggs are pale and whitish, but later develop a reddish pattern on a paler background leading to a pinkish-brown appearance. The eggs are stuck on plant residues and soil particles by a putty-like substance secreted by the female moth.
Copyright©Crown Copyright
Agrotis segetum (turnip moth); freshly laid eggs are pale and whitish, but later develop a reddish pattern on a paler background leading to a pinkish-brown appearance. The eggs are stuck on plant residues and soil particles by a putty-like substance secreted by the female moth.
EggsAgrotis segetum (turnip moth); freshly laid eggs are pale and whitish, but later develop a reddish pattern on a paler background leading to a pinkish-brown appearance. The eggs are stuck on plant residues and soil particles by a putty-like substance secreted by the female moth. ©Crown Copyright
Agrotis segetum (turnip moth); mature larva.
CaptionAgrotis segetum (turnip moth); mature larva.
Copyright©J. Porter
Agrotis segetum (turnip moth); mature larva.
LarvaAgrotis segetum (turnip moth); mature larva.©J. Porter
Agrotis segetum (turnip moth); larval body colour may vary until the final instar. The fully grown larva is approximately 45 mm long and greyish-brown, often with a slightly greasy appearance. Some specimens appear more brown than grey.
CaptionAgrotis segetum (turnip moth); larval body colour may vary until the final instar. The fully grown larva is approximately 45 mm long and greyish-brown, often with a slightly greasy appearance. Some specimens appear more brown than grey.
Copyright©Crown Copyright
Agrotis segetum (turnip moth); larval body colour may vary until the final instar. The fully grown larva is approximately 45 mm long and greyish-brown, often with a slightly greasy appearance. Some specimens appear more brown than grey.
LarvaAgrotis segetum (turnip moth); larval body colour may vary until the final instar. The fully grown larva is approximately 45 mm long and greyish-brown, often with a slightly greasy appearance. Some specimens appear more brown than grey.©Crown Copyright
Agrotis segetum (turnip moth); larva on potato tuber, showing typical cutworm damage.
TitleLarval damage
CaptionAgrotis segetum (turnip moth); larva on potato tuber, showing typical cutworm damage.
Copyright©Crown Copyright
Agrotis segetum (turnip moth); larva on potato tuber, showing typical cutworm damage.
Larval damageAgrotis segetum (turnip moth); larva on potato tuber, showing typical cutworm damage.©Crown Copyright
Agrotis segetum (turnip moth); adult, with pupal case.
CaptionAgrotis segetum (turnip moth); adult, with pupal case.
Agrotis segetum (turnip moth); adult, with pupal case.
AdultAgrotis segetum (turnip moth); adult, with pupal case.©MAFF
Agrotis segetum (turnip moth); adult in normal resting position.
CaptionAgrotis segetum (turnip moth); adult in normal resting position.
Copyright©Crown Copyright
Agrotis segetum (turnip moth); adult in normal resting position.
AdultAgrotis segetum (turnip moth); adult in normal resting position.©Crown Copyright
Agrotis segetum (turnip moth); adult female at rest.
CaptionAgrotis segetum (turnip moth); adult female at rest.
Copyright©David Agassiz
Agrotis segetum (turnip moth); adult female at rest.
AdultAgrotis segetum (turnip moth); adult female at rest.©David Agassiz
Agrotis segetum (turnip moth); adult female. Museum set specimen.
CaptionAgrotis segetum (turnip moth); adult female. Museum set specimen.
Copyright©David Agassiz
Agrotis segetum (turnip moth); adult female. Museum set specimen.
AdultAgrotis segetum (turnip moth); adult female. Museum set specimen.©David Agassiz
Agrotis segetum (turnip moth); adult male at rest.
CaptionAgrotis segetum (turnip moth); adult male at rest.
Copyright©David Agassiz
Agrotis segetum (turnip moth); adult male at rest.
AdultAgrotis segetum (turnip moth); adult male at rest.©David Agassiz
Agrotis segetum (turnip moth); adult male. Museum set specimen.
CaptionAgrotis segetum (turnip moth); adult male. Museum set specimen.
Copyright©David Agassiz
Agrotis segetum (turnip moth); adult male. Museum set specimen.
AdultAgrotis segetum (turnip moth); adult male. Museum set specimen.©David Agassiz


Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Agrotis segetum Denis & Schiffermüller

Preferred Common Name

  • turnip moth

Other Scientific Names

  • Agrotis fucosa Butler
  • Agrotis segetis Hübner
  • Euxoa segetis
  • Euxoa segetum Denis & Schiffermüller
  • Euxoa segetum form albiptera Turati
  • Feltia segetum Denis & Schiffermüller
  • Noctua segetum Denis & Schiffermüller
  • Scotia segetum Denis & Schiffermüller

International Common Names

  • English: black cutworm; common cutworm; cutworm; dark moth; dart moth; tobacco cutworm; turnip dart moth
  • Spanish: gusano cortador; noctua común; rosquilla
  • French: noctuelle des moissons

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: agerugle; knoporm
  • Finland: orasyoekkoenen
  • Germany: erdraupe; saateule; winter saateule
  • Israel: agrotis hazrya
  • Italy: agrotide dei seminati; nottua dei seminati; nottua delle messi; nottuella delle messi
  • Netherlands: gewone aardrups; winterzaaduil aardrups; zwarte aardrups
  • Sweden: jordfly; jordflylarv
  • Turkey: yumru delen tirpan kurou

EPPO code

  • AGROSE (Agrotis segetum)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Noctuidae
  •                             Genus: Agrotis
  •                                 Species: Agrotis segetum

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


AfghanistanPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
AzerbaijanPresentRagimov and Rustamova, 1977; EPPO, 2014
BangladeshPresentAPPPC, 1987; CIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
BhutanPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
ChinaPresentEPPO, 2014
-FujianPresentWoo, 1935
-HebeiPresentAnon., 1977; EPPO, 2014
-HeilongjiangPresentWatanabe, 1935
-Hong KongPresentAPPPC, 1987; CIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
-HunanPresentLi et al., 1993
-JiangsuPresentHu, 1982; CIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
-Nei MengguPresentEPPO, 2014
-ShandongPresentZhao et al., 2004
-ShanxiPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
-XinjiangPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
Georgia (Republic of)WidespreadTulashvili, 1930
IndiaPresentEPPO, 2014
-Andhra PradeshWidespread
-AssamPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
-BiharWidespreadMisra et al., 1986
-GujaratWidespreadPatel et al., 1991
-HaryanaPresentKalra, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-Himachal PradeshPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
-Indian PunjabPresentAtwal et al., 1969; EPPO, 2014
-Jammu and KashmirPresentMathur and Srivastava, 1962; EPPO, 2014
-KarnatakaPresentKannan, 1925; EPPO, 2014; Manjula et al., 2015
-KeralaPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
-Madhya PradeshPresentRamesh Chandra, 2004
-RajasthanPresentKhan and Sharma, 1971; EPPO, 2014
-SikkimPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
-Tamil NaduPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
-Uttar PradeshPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
-UttarakhandPresentBisht et al., 2005
-West BengalPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
IndonesiaPresentEPPO, 2014
-JavaPresentCIE, 1987; Waterhouse, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-SumatraPresentWaterhouse, 1993
IranPresentNemann et al., 1965; EPPO, 2014
IraqPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
IsraelWidespreadRivnay, 1963; EPPO, 2014
JapanPresentEPPO, 2014
-HokkaidoPresentKuwayama et al., 1925; EPPO, 2014
-HonshuPresentEndo and Wakamura, 1982; EPPO, 2014
-KyushuPresentEPPO, 2014
JordanPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
KazakhstanPresentEremenko and Sem'yanov, 1981; EPPO, 2014
Korea, DPRPresentEguchi, 1926; APPPC, 1987; EPPO, 2014
Korea, Republic ofPresentEguchi, 1926; APPPC, 1987; EPPO, 2014
KyrgyzstanPresentEPPO, 2014
LebanonPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
MalaysiaPresentEPPO, 2014
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentCIE, 1987; Waterhouse, 1993; EPPO, 2014
MyanmarPresentCIE, 1987; Waterhouse, 1993; EPPO, 2014
NepalPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
PakistanPresentZethner et al., 1987; EPPO, 2014
PhilippinesPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
Saudi ArabiaPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
Sri LankaPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
SyriaPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
TaiwanPresentEPPO, 2014
TajikistanPresentEPPO, 2014
TurkeyPresentEPPO, 2014
TurkmenistanPresentEPPO, 2014
UzbekistanPresentEPPO, 2014
VietnamPresentWaterhouse, 1993
YemenPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014


AlgeriaPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
AngolaPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
BeninPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
BotswanaPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
Cape VerdePresentSchmutterer et al., 1978; EPPO, 2014
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentFoscolo and Lefevre, 1939; EPPO, 2014
Côte d'IvoirePresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
EgyptPresentEPPO, 2014
EthiopiaPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
KenyaPresentKhaemba, 1979; EPPO, 2014
LibyaPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
MalawiPresentBALLARD, 1914, Feb; EPPO, 2014
MaliPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
MoroccoPresentMege, 1923; EPPO, 2014
MozambiquePresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
NamibiaPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
Saint HelenaPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
-AscensionPresentCIE, 1987
SenegalPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
South AfricaPresentSkaife, 1921; EPPO, 2014
-Canary IslandsPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
SudanPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
TanzaniaPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
TogoPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
TunisiaPresentHannothiaux, 1965; EPPO, 2014
UgandaPresentHancock, 1927; EPPO, 2014
ZambiaPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
ZimbabwePresentJack, 1913; EPPO, 2014


AustriaPresentFulmek, 1918; EPPO, 2014
BelarusPresentEPPO, 2014
BelgiumPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
BulgariaPresentDryenski, 1930; EPPO, 2014
CroatiaPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
CyprusWidespreadCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
Czech RepublicPresentMu?ka and Jakl, 2009; EPPO, 2014
Czechoslovakia (former)PresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
DenmarkPresentAnon, 1905-1977; Bovien and Stapel, 1935; Thygesen, 1971; EPPO, 2014
EstoniaPresentZolk, 1930; EPPO, 2014
FinlandRestricted distributionVappula, 1932; EPPO, 2014
FrancePresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
GermanyPresentHerold, 1919; EPPO, 2014
GreecePresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
HungaryPresentKadocsa, 1935; EPPO, 2014
IrelandPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
ItalyPresentAnon., 1919; EPPO, 2014
-SardiniaPresentEPPO, 2014
-SicilyPresentEPPO, 2014
LatviaPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
LithuaniaPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
MacedoniaWidespreadVasilev, 1987
MaltaPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
MoldovaPresentEPPO, 2014
NetherlandsPresentEPPO, 2014
NorwayPresentSchoyen, 1934; EPPO, 2014
PolandPresentChrzanowski, 1931; EPPO, 2014
PortugalWidespreadCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
-AzoresPresentEPPO, 2014
-MadeiraPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
RomaniaPresentIonescu, 1986; EPPO, 2014
Russian FederationPresentEPPO, 2014
-Central RussiaWidespreadSacharov, 1913
-Eastern SiberiaPresentEPPO, 2014
-Russia (Europe)PresentEPPO, 2014
-Russian Far EastPresentCIE, 1987; EPPO, 2014
-Western SiberiaPresentEPPO, 2014
SerbiaPresentEPPO, 2014
SlovakiaWidespreadBirova, 1973
SloveniaWidespreadWeismann and Podmanicka, 1971
SpainPresentAnon., 1921; EPPO, 2014
-Balearic IslandsPresentEPPO, 2014
SwedenPresentNotini, 1942; EPPO, 2014
SwitzerlandPresentEPPO, 2014
UKPresentEPPO, 2014
-England and WalesPresentEPPO, 2014
UkrainePresentPospielov, 1913; EPPO, 2014
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)PresentCamprag et al., 1978

Growth Stages

Top of page Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / external feeding
Roots / external feeding
Roots / internal feeding
Stems / external feeding
Stems / internal feeding

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aleiodes dimidiatus Parasite Larvae
Anthicus crinitus
Bacillus thuringiensis
Bacillus thuringiensis galleriae Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis kenyae Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. dendrolimus Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis Pathogen Larvae
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen Larvae
Blondelia nigripes Parasite Larvae
Broscus punctatus Predator Larvae
Campoletis annulatus Parasite
Campoletis cognatus
Carabidae Predator Larvae
Cataglyphis bicolor Predator
Corvus frugilegus Predator
Cotesia congregata Parasite Larvae
Cotesia telengai Parasite Larvae
Ctenichneumon panzeri Parasite Larvae
Enicospilus merdarius Parasite
Erynia gammae Pathogen
Erynia radicans Pathogen
Exorista civilis Parasite Larvae
Exorista larvarum Parasite Larvae
Exorista xanthaspis Parasite Larvae
Gonia bimaculata Parasite Larvae
Gonia capitata Parasite Larvae
Granulosis virus Pathogen Larvae
Ichneumon sarcitorius Parasite Larvae
Lecanicillium lecanii Pathogen
Linnaemya comta Parasite Larvae
Lydella thompsoni Parasite Larvae
Macrocentrus collaris Parasite Larvae
Mermis gigantea Parasite
Metarhizium anisopliae Pathogen Larvae
Meteorus rubens Parasite Larvae
Microgaster spectabilis Parasite Larvae
Microlestes discoidalis Predator Larvae
Microplitis mediator
Netelia fuscicornis Parasite
Nilea hortulana Parasite Larvae
Nucleopolyhedrosis virus Pathogen Larvae
Paecilomyces farinosus Pathogen
Paecilomyces fumosoroseus Pathogen
Peleteria rubescens Parasite Larvae
Periscepsia carbonaria Parasite Larvae
Phryxe magnicornis Parasite Larvae
Phryxe vulgaris Parasite Larvae
Pimpla contemplator Parasite
Plecotus auritus Predator
Pseudogonia rufifrons Parasite Larvae
Rhinolophus ferrumequinum Predator
Rhinolophus hipposideros Predator
Rogas pellucens Parasite Larvae
Siphona collini Parasite Larvae
Siphona cristata Parasite Larvae
Spallanzania hebes Parasite Larvae
Steinernema carpocapsae Parasite
Steinernema feltiae Parasite
Steinernema websteri Parasite Gökçe et al., 2015
Tachina rohdendorfi Parasite Larvae
Trichoderma spermum Pathogen
Trichogramma evanescens Parasite Eggs USSR
Trichogramma maidis Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma pintoi Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma principium Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma rhenana Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma silvestre Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma telengai Parasite
Trichogramma turkeiensis Parasite
Tritaxys braueri Parasite Larvae
Turanogonia chinensis Parasite Larvae
Xenorhabdus nematophilus Pathogen

Plant Trade

Top of page
Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Growing medium accompanying plants eggs Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Leaves larvae Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Roots larvae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches larvae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)


Top of page

1977. Studies on the biology and control of cutworms in Peking suburbs. Acta Entomologica Sinica, 20(3):294-302

Adashkevich BP; Adylov ZK; Rasulev FK, 1981. The biomethod in action. Zashchita Rastenii, No. 9:9-10

Aldhous JR, 1959. Control of cutworms in forest nurseries. Forestry, 32(2)155-165.

Alekseev YUI, 1972. The biology of two closely related species of Braconids, Rogas pellucens Tel. and Rogas testaceus Spin (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) in Turkmenia. Izvestiya Akademi i Nauk Turkmenskoi SSR. Biologicheskikn Nauk, 4:58-61.

Allaway GP; Payne CC, 1984. Host range and virulence of five baculoviruses from lepidopterous hosts. Annals of Applied Biology, 105(1):29-37

Anderson TJ, 1915. Report on the Entomological Laboratory for the Year ending 31st March 1914. Annual Report of the Department of Agriculture British East Africa, 1913-1914, 52-83.

Anon, 1905-1977. Monthly Review(s) of Plant Diseases. Statens Plantepatologiske Forsoeg. Nos. 1-500.

Anon., 1919. R. Osservatorio di Fitopatologia. Turin, Monthly Leaflets, Nos. 1-12.

Anon., 1921. Reports on the state of crops in each province of Spain. Bol. Agric. Tec. Econ. Madrid. xiii , 156:1031-1045.

Anon., 1927. Destructive insects in wattles and gumtrees. Farming in S. Africa, 1:17.

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Arn H; Esbjerg P; Bues R; Toth M; Szocs G; Guerin P; Rauscher S, 1983. Field attraction of Agrotis segetum males in four European countries to mixtures containing three homologous acetates. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 9(2):267-276

Atwal AS; Chaudhary JP; Ramzan M, 1969. Studies on the seasonal abundance of insects in light trap in Ludhiana. Journal of Research of the Punjab Agriculture University, 6(1):186-196.

Balachowsky AS, ed. , 1972. Entomology applied to agriculture. Tome II. Lepidoptera. Second volume. Zygaenoidea-Pyraloidea-Noctuoidea. Entomologie appliquee a l'agriculture. Tome II. Lepidopteres. Deuxieme volume. Zygaenoidea-Pyraloidea-Noctuoidea. Paris, France: Masson et Cie, pp 1059-1634.

BALLARD E; 1914, Feb. A list of the more important insect pests of crops in the Nyasaland Protectorate. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 4(4):347-351.

Barbulescu A, 1973. Some aspects of the biology, ecology and attack of cutworms in the conditions of Rasht, Iran. Probleme de Protectia Plantelor, 1(2):101-110

Barrareiro-Garcia JM; Ortiz-Garcia R, 1989. Phenology of Heliothis armigera, Agrotis segetum and Agrotis ipsilon in the Badajoz area (Spain), 1987 and 1988. IOBC/WPRS Bulletin, 13(3):1-11.

Basappa H; Vijay Singh, 1990. Record of insect pests on niger (Guizotia abyssinnica). Journal of Oilseeds Research, 7(2):86-87

Bayram S; Klncer N, 1987. Some changes in the blood cells of larvae of Agrotis segetum (Den.-Schiff.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) parasitized by Periscepsia carbonaria (Panz.) (Diptera: Tachinidae). Turkiye I. Entomoloji Kongresi Bildirileri, 13-16 Ekim 1987, Ege Universitesi, Bornova, Izmir Bornova/Izmir, Turkey; Ege Universitesi Ataturk Kultur Merkezi, 437-446

Beck H, 1960. Die Larvalsystematik der Eulen ( Noctuidae). In: Sachtleben H, Stammer HJ, eds. Abhandlungen zur Larvalsystematik der Insekten. Berlin, Germany: Akademie - Verl., 406 pp.

Belski BI, 1924. List of pests of medicinal plants for observations made in the Environs of Kiev during 1919-1922. Transactions of the 4th All- Russian Entomology-Phytopathology Meeting, Moscow, 8-14th December 158-170.

Bernard L, 1914. Technique des traitements contre les insects de la Vigne. Paris, J.B. Bailliere et fils, 364.

Birova H, 1973. On knowledge of the natural enemies (Hymenoptera and Diptera) of some injurious Noctuids. Biologicke Prace, 19(7):79 [+ 2]pp.

Bisht RS; Tripathi DM; Mishra PN, 2005. Seasonal abundance of cutworms (Agrotis spp: Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) caught at light trap in Garhwal Himalaya. Indian Journal of Entomology, 67(3):247-251.

Blair BW, 1976. Comparison of the development of Agrotis ipsilon Hufn. and A. segetum (Denis & Schiff.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) at constant temperatures. Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa, 39(2):271-277

Bogarada AP, 1975. Brief notes on the pests and diseases of Solanum laciniatum. Zakhist Roslin, 21:77-80.

Bogdanov- Kat'kov NN; Dunin MS, 1935. Diseases and pests of chufa Cyperus esculentus L. Trans. Inst. Grain Legum. Crops Res., 6(2):144.

Bolet B, 1983. Produktion af Insektvirus til Biologisk Bek`mpelse. Udvikling af Methode til Produktion af Ageruglens Kapselvirus (ASGV). Planteavl, Kobenhavn, 87:417-424.

Boursin C, 1957. Notes diverses, synonymiques et critiques. VI (Lep. Phal.) Bull. mens, Soc. lineenne de Lyon, 26:208-213.

Bovien P; Stapel C, 1935. Knopormeangrebet i 1934. Tridskr. f. Pl. avl, 40:599-615.

Brouwer WMT; J de, 1973. Observations on cutworms, in particular Agrotis segetum. Publikatievan het Proefstation voor de Groenten- en Fruitteelt onder Glas, 176:10.

Bues R; Poitout S; Toubon JF, 1989. Geographic variability of Agrotis segetum and selection of development time. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 50(2):101-111

Caballero P; Fleishacker C; Vargas-Osuna E; Santiago-Alvarez C, 1988. An autochthonous baculovirus (granulosis virus; GV) of Agrotis segetum (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its possibilities for use in the fight against cutworms. Boletin de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 14(1):171-174

Camprag D; Durkic J; Sekulic R, 1978. The macroentomofauna in the soil of wheat fields in north-eastern Yugoslavia. In: Wetzel T, ed. Wissenschaftliche Beitrage, Martin-Luther-Universitat Halle-Wittenberg, 14:137-144

Casperson G; Otto D; Edlich C-D; Nitschmann J; Schmidt HB, 1983. Rasterelektronemikroskopische Untersuchungen an Ei dere Wintersaateule. Entomologische Nachrichten und Berichte, 27:4.

Chown SL; Language K, 1994. Recently established Diptera and Lepidoptera on sub-Antarctic Marion Island. African Entomology, 2(1):57-60

Chrzanowski A, 1931. Contribution to the knowledge of the injuries caused to cultivated plants by wireworms. Choroby Roslin, 1(3-4):52-53.

Chukhrij MG, 1978. Ultramicroscopic and ultrahistochemical study of the nucleat polyhedrosis virus of Agrotis segetum. Sel'skokhozyajstvennaya Biologiya (USSR), 13:784-787.

Chumak VA, 1975. Pests of Salvia sclarea. Zashchita Rastenii, No.12:35-36

CIE, 1987. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No. 490. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Cruger G, 1978. Observations in connection with an outbreak of cutworms (Agrotis spp.) in the year 1976. Nachrichtenblatt des Deutschen Pflanzenschutzdienstes, 30(2):17-19

Cuthbertson A, 1934. Biological notes on some Diptera in Southern Rhodesia. Proceedings of the Rhodesian Science Association, 33:32-50.

Cuthbertson A, 1937. Biological notes on some Diptera in Southern Rhodesia. Proceedings of the Rhodesian Science Association, 1:16-34.

Daiber KC, 1994. Injurious insects in asparagus in southern Africa. Zeitschr. f. Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 101(2):215-222.

Dekhtyarev NS, 1926. On the Parasites of Euxoa segetum, Schiff. in 1925. Prot. Plants in Ukraine, ii: 50-53.

Dobrovol'skii BV, 1935. Preliminary data on the Caoutchoue plant injuries in North Caucasus. Plant Prot., 111-116.

Druzhelyubova TS, 1973. Reactions of geographical populations of Agrotis segetum Schiff. to temperature and light. Trudy Vsesoyuznogo Nauchno-issledovatel'skogo Instituta Zashchity Rastenii, No.39:159 - 174

Dryenski P, 1930. Diseases and pests of gramminaceous plants in Bulgaria. 54 pp.

Durnovo ZP, 1933. Results on work on the Iaize moth and other pests of newly cultivated annual fibre plants. Diseases and Pests of Newly Cultivated Fibre Plants, 85-106. Izd. Novlubinst. VASKhNIL.

Durnovo ZP; Pogodina LN, 1933. Results of work on pests of perennial plants - Apocynum sibiricum, ramie and others during 1931 and 1932. Diseases and Pests of Newly Cultivated Fibre Plants, 73-84. Izd. Novlubinst. VASKhNIL.

Eguchi M, 1926. Noctuidae infesting Sugar-beet. Korea Agriculture Experimental Station Bulletin, 3:257-263.

El Kady EA; Salem YS; Loutfy MS; Abd-El-Salam NM, 1980. Biological studies on cutworms, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.) and Agrotis segetum (Schiff.). Plant Protection Research Institute Cairo (Egypt), 57-78.

Emmett BJ, 1984. Cutworms. Leaflet, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, UK, No. 225:6 pp.

Endo T; Wakamura S, 1982. Comparison of seasonal prevalences of Agrotis segetum Denis et Schiff. based on captures in synthetic sex pheromone trap and light- trap in Chiba city Japan. Proceedings of the Kanto-Tosan Plant Protection Society (Japan), 29:152-153.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.

Eremenko TS, 1981. Biocoenotic relations of parasites of the winter moth in the cotton agrocoenosis. In: Sem'yanov VP, ed. Noveishie dostizheniya sel'skokhozyaistvennoi entomologii (po materialam USh s"ezda VEO, Vil'nyus, 9-13 oktyabrya 1979 g.) Vilnius, Vsesoyuznoe Entomologicheskoe Obshchestvo USSR, 70-73

Erfurth P, 1973. The situation regarding attack by armyworms (Scotia (Agrotis) segetum Schiff.) and methods for the prevention of attack. Nachrichtenblatt fur den Pflanzenschutzdienst in der DDR, 27(3):65-68

Esbjerg P, 1985. Cutworms (Agrotis segetum) - Forecasting and Damages in 1983 and 1984. Second Danish Plant Protection Conference: 249-260.

Esbjerg P, 1987. The influence of diurnal time and weather on sex trap catches of the turnip moth (Agrotis segetum Schiff.) (Lep., Noctuidae). Journal of Applied Entomology, 103(2):177-184

Esbjerg P, 1988. Behaviour of 1st- and 2nd-instar cutworms (Agrotis segetum Schiff.) (Lep., Noctuidae): the influence of soil moisture. Journal of Applied Entomology, 105(3):295-302

Esbjerg P, 1988. Integrated Pest Management 1977-87. Ambitions and Realities. Proceedings of the 5th Danish Plant Protection Conference, 1988. Diseases and Pests: 287-306a.

Esbjerg P, 1989. Cutworm - a pest, which can be controlled. Gron Viden, Landbrug, No. 32:8 pp.

Esbjerg P, 1989. The influence of soil moisture on mortality and on the damaging effect of 2nd to 6th instar cutworms (Agrotis segetum Schiff., Lep.: Noctuidae). Acta Oecologica, Oecologia Applicata, 10(4):335-347

Esbjerg P, 1990. The significance of shelter for young cutworms (Agrotis segetum). Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 54(2):97-100

Esbjerg P, 1992. Temperature and soil moisture - two major factors affecting Agrotis segetum Schiff, Lep., Noctuidae) populations and their damage. IOBC/WPRS Bulletin. 1992, XV, 4:82-90.

Esbjerg P, 1999. Integrated and organic production, routes to sustainable quality production. In: HSgg M, Ahvenainen R, Evers AM, Tiilikkala K, eds. Agri-Food Quality II: quality management for fruits and vegetables - from field to table. Turku, Finland, 22-25 April 1998. Cambridge, UK: Royal Society of Chemistry, 47-51.

Esbjerg P; Jorgensen J; Nielsen JK; Philipsen H; Zethner O; Ogaard L, 1983. Integrated control of insects with carrots, the carrot fly (Psila rosae) and the turnip moth (Agrotis segetum) as crop-pest model. Danish Journal of Plant and Soil Science, 87:303-355.

Esbjerg P; Nielsen JK; Philipsen H; Zethner O; Ogard L, 1986. Soil moisture as mortality factor for cutworms, Agrotis segetum Schiff. (Lep., Noctuidae). Journal of Applied Entomology, 102(3):277-285

Esbjerg P; Ravn HP; Percy-Smith A, 1995. Cutworms in organic vegetable growing. Gron Viden, Havebrug, 87: 1-6.

Esbjerg P; Ravn HP; Percy-Smith A, 1996. Pheromone traps against the turnip moth - need-related control of budworms. Grn Viden, Havebrug, No. 96:8 pp.

Foscolo E; Lefevre PC, 1939. Culture et parasites de la patate douce dans l'Ituri. Bull. Agr. Congo Belge, 30(3):404-420.

Fritzsche R; Geissler K; Schleiphake E, 1991. Results of experiments with granulosis and nuclear polyhedrosis virus preparations in fruits, vegetables and ornamental plants. Nachrichentblatt des Deutschen Pflanzenschtzdienstes, 43(5):92-95.

Fulmek L, 1918. Cutworms in vinyards. Mitt. k.k. landw. -bakter. u. Pflanzenschutzstation. Zeitschr. f. Pflanzenkrankheit, Stuttgart, 1-2:88.

Gabarra R, 1989. Report on catches of Heliothis armigera, Agrotis ipsilon and Agrotis segetum in pheromone traps in Catalonia (Spain) within the OILB network. IOBC/WPRS Bulletin, 13(3):22-26.

Gomaa AA, 1978. Biological study on the cutworm, Agrotis segetum Schiff. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Zoologie, 65(1):37-43

Green EE, 1916. On some animal pests of the Hevea rubber tree. Transations of the 3rd. International Congress of Tropical Agriculture London, 608-636.

Grivanov KP, 1937. Distribution of Euxoa segetum Schiff. in relation to soil conditions. Summary of the Scientific Research Work of the Institute of Plant Protection for the year 1936. Part I Pests and Diseases of Cereals and Shelterbelts. Leningrad, Lenin Acad. Agric. Sci. Roy. Svo, 252, 16-22

Gül N; Ayvali C, 1995. Cellular defense reactions in Agrotis segetum (Dennis and Schiffermuller) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Turkish Journal of Biology, 19(3):259-268; 21 ref.

Gökçe C; Erbas Z; Yilmaz H; Demirbag Z; Demir I, 2015. A new entomopathogenic nematode species from Turkey, Steinernema websteri (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), and its virulence. Turkish Journal of Biology, 39(1):167-174.

Hachler M, 1992. The turnip moth Agrotis segetum D. & Sch. (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), pest of large-scale cultivation and market gardening. Observations in French-speaking Switzerland. Revue Suisse de Viticulture, d'Arboriculture et d'Horticulture, 24(5):261-267

Hancock GLR, 1927. Annual Report of the Assistant Entomologist. Report of the Department of Agriculture of Uganda, 27-29.

Hannothiaux M, 1965. Observations on the pests of forage crops in Tunesia. Bull. Ec. sup. Agric. Tunis, 8-9:231-245.

Hansson BS; Toth M; Lofstedt C; Szocs G; Subchev M; Lofqvist J, 1990. Pheromone variation among eastern European and a western Asian population of the turnip moth Agrotis segetum. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 16(5):1611-1622

Herold W, 1919. A Contribution to the knowledge of Agrotis segetum, Schiff. Zeitschr. f. angew. Entom., 1:47-59.

Hu JY, 1982. Occurrence pattern and forecast for Agrotis segetum in Nantong cotton growing area. Zhiwu Baohu, 8(3):6-7

Huger A, 1960. Investigations on the pathology of a microsporidiosis of A. segetum, caused by N. perezioides, sp.n. Z. Pflkrankheit., 67(2):65-77.

Hulbert D; Suss A, 1983. Biology and economic importance of the winter cutworm, Scotia (Agrotis) segetum Schiffermuller (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Beitrage zur Entomologie, 33(2):383-438

Ionescu C, 1986. Distribution range, structure and seasonal dynamics, in the year 1982, of the principal species of Lepidoptera Noctuidae of economic importance in Romania. Analele Institutului de Cercetari pentru Protectia Plantelor, 19:121-136

Jack RW, 1913. Insect Pests of Tobacco in Southern Rhodesia. Bulletin of the Department of Agriculture, Salisbury, Rhodesia, 140:18.

Kaaber S; Andreassen S, 1999. Notes on two migrant moths from the Faroe Islands, Agrotis segetum (L.) and Noctua orbona (Hfn) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Frodskaparrit, 47:159-168.

Kadocsa G, 1935. The cutworm on crimson clover. Koztelek, 45:85-86.

Kalra VK, 1992. Parasitism of Agrotis segetum Denis and Schiff. by Turanogonia chinensis Wied. on Brassica cultivars in Haryana. Journal of Insect Science, 5(1):86-87

Kannan KK, 1925. Report of the Entomologist. Annual Report of the Agricultural Department of Mysore, 1923-1924, 10-12.

Kansu IA; Ugur A, 1984. Investigations into the biological relationships between Pimpla turionellp (L.) (Hym. Ichneumonidae) and some lepidopterous pupae hosts. Doga Bilim Dergisi, 8(2):160-173

Kay RH; Wheatley GA, 1980. Some observations on the biology of the turnip moth (Agrotis segetum) relevant to its control with insecticides. British Crop Protection Council: Proceedings of the 1979 British Crop Protection Conference - Pests and Diseases (10th British Insecticide and Fungicide Conference) 19th to 22nd November 1979. Hotel Metropole, Brighton, England. Volumes 1, 2 and 3. British Crop Protection Council. Croydon, Surrey UK, 215-222

Khaemba BM, 1979. A survey of insect pest species associated with sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in Kenya. Kenya Entomologist's Newsletter, No. 9:3-6

Khan RM; Sharma SK, 1971. Some new pest records on sugarbeet in India. Indian Journal of Entomology, 33(1):105-106.

Khan RM; Sharma SK, 1972. Cataglypis bicolor Fab. (Hym.: Formicidae) as a predator on few Noctuid larvae. Madras Agricultural Journal, 59(3):192

Khan SM, 1997. Effectiveness of Meloboris collector (Hym.: Ichneumonidae) against its host Agrotis segetum and A. ipsilon (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 13(1):77; 6 ref.

Khan SM; Ozer M, 1988. Biology of Microplitis mediator (Hym.: Braconidae) a gregarious endoparasite of Agrotis segetum (Lep.: Noctuidae). Entomophaga, 33(2):211-217

Kiryanova ES; Puchkova LV, 1955. A new parasite of the beet Weevil. Neoaplactana bothynoderi. Kirjaniva et Putschkova, sp. n. Nematoda. Trud, Zoolological Institute, 18:53-62.

Kitchunov NI, 1916. Cultivation of bush-fruit. Progressive Fruit-Growing and Market- Gardening. Petrograd, 139 pp.

Kosobutzki MI, 1928. The noctuid attacking winter crops (Euxoa segetum Schiff.) in the Votsk Autonomous region, biology, ecology and measures of control, 1926-1928. Super Roy., 192, Izhevsk, Izd. Votsk. obl. Stantz. Zashch. Rast.

Kosoglazov AA, 1981. Pests of perennial flowering plants. Noveishie dostizheniya sel'skokhozyaistvennoi entomologii (po materialam USh s"ezda VEO, Vil'nyus, 9-13 oktyabrya 1979 g.), 98-101.

Kozhanchikov IV, 1936. On the periodicity of mass propagation of insect pests. First report. The influence of temperature and humidity of the pupal development of Agrotis segetum Schiff. and on the quantity of the next generation. Bulletin of Plant Protection 1:19, 36.

Kuwayama S; Kuribayashi K; Oshima K, 1925. Insects and Fungi injurious to the sugar-beet and the preventive methods. Hokkaido Agricultural Experimental Station Bulletin 36, 1-138.

Kuwayama S; Oshima K, 1964. Ecological studies on Calosoma chinese , a predacious Carabid against army- and cut-worms and some related species. Report of the Hokkaido National Agricultural Experimental Station, 66, 46+2, 15.

Langenbruch GA, 1977. Experiments on the possibility of controlling Agrotis segetum by means of Bacillus thuringiensis. Nachrichtenblatt des Deutschen Pflanzenschutzdienstes, 29(9):133-137

Lappin GI, 1926. Pests of new medicinal plants in Northern Caucasus. North Caucasian Plant Protection Station, 2:145-152.

Le moult L, 1922. Le Hanneton et son parasite. Comples rendus Acad. Agric. de France, viii 21:596-601.

Lee-SangMyeong; Lee-DongWoon; Choo-HoYul; Park-JiWong, 1997. Pathogenecities of Beauveria bassiana against some agro-forest insect pests. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology, 36(4):351-356.

Li FC; Nie GF; Feng Y; Xia ZM, 1993. Study on Hexamermis agrotis Wang et al. - an important natural enemy of cutworms. Entomological Knowledge, 30(1):40-42

Lipa JJ, 1971. Interaction of Microsporidian Plistophora noctuidae and nuclear polyhedrosis virus Borrelinavirus agrotidis in Agrotis segetum (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). Society for Invertebrate Pathology: IVth International Colloquium on Insect Pathology. With the Society for Invertebrate Pathology. College Park, Maryland-USA 25-28 August 1970. Beltsville, Maryland, Entomology Research Division, ARS, USDA. USA, 152-155

Lipa JJ, 1976. Fungi isolated from five noctuid species (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera). Prace Naukowe Instytutu Ochrony Roslin, 18(2):25-48

Lofstedt C; Lanne BS; Lofqvist J; Appelgren M; Bergstrom G, 1985. Individual variation in the pheromone of the turnip moth, Agrotis segetum. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 11(9):1181-1196

Lossbroek TG; Theunissen J, 1985. The entomogenous nematode Neoaplectana bibionis as a biological control agent of Agrotis segetum in lettuce. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 39(3):261-264

Madatyan AV; Eremnko TS; Nabikhaniva SK, 1987. Parasitoids of the turnip moth. Zashita rastenii, 6:34-35.

Manjula KN; Kotikal YK; Patil HB; Biradar IB, 2015. Studies on insect fauna, their natural enemies and pollinators in fenugreek. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 28(2):279-281.

Mathur AC; Srivastava JB, 1962. Insect pests of Mentha. Bulletin of the Regional Research Laboratory Jammu, 1(1):49-50.

Mathur YK; Verma JP; Sharma SK, 1971. Microlestes discoidalis Fairm. (Col. Carabidae) as a predator of Euxoa segetum Walk. (Lep., Noctuidae). Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, 107(1280/82):12

Mege M, 1923. Ennemis et maladies de la betterave observes au Maroc. Rev. Path. Veg. and Ent. Agric. Expt., 4:339-341.

Mejer NF, 1928. On the biology of parasites of Feltia segetum Schiff. Izv. Otd. Prikl. Ent., iii, 2:201-218.

Menozzi C, 1938. Observations on insect pests of sugar-beet and their control during the sugar-beet seasons in 1937. Industr. Saccar. Ital., 31:3, 8.

Mikkelsen S; Esbjerg P, 1981. The influence of climatic factors on cutworm (Agrotis segetum) attack level, investigated by means of linear regression models. Danish Research Service for Plant and Soil Science, 1561, 85:291-301.

Misra SS; Nagia DK; Ram G, 1986. Efficacy of granular systemic insecticides against potato cutworms Agrotis spp. Indian Journal of Entomology, 48(2):144-147

Mizerova FV, 1916. Pests of clover in the govt. of Orel according to observations in 1913-14. Proceedings of the Conference on Pests of Clover in Central Russia. Entomology Station of the Zemstvo of the Government of Tula, 151-153.

Mu?ka F; Jakl A, 2009. Damaging occurrence of turnip moth on sugar beet and fodder beet in the Czech Republic - a historical overview until 2005. (?kodlivé výskyty osenice polní na cukrovce a krmné repe na územi Ceské republiky - historický prehled do roku 2005.) Listy Cukrovarnické a Reparské, 125(5/6):170-173.

Mukhitdinova SM, 1971. The phenology, population dynamics and survival rates of Agrotis segetum Schiff. in southern Tadzhikistan. Trudy Vsesoyuznogo Nauchno-issledovatel'skogo Instituta Zashchity Rastenii, 32(1):123-137

Nemann E; Leuchs F; Holtmann H; Pag H, 1965. Plant protection problems in Iran. Gesunde Pfl., 17(10):196-205.

Neupane FP; Bhimsen, 1971. Assessment of damage due to cutworms in potato. Nepalese Journal of Agriculture, 6/11:153-155

Nikolov NK, 1990. The influence of soil moisture on the development of some species of the genus Agrotis (Lep. Noctuidae). Rasteniev dni nauki, 17:102-110.

Nikolskii VL, 1936. Pests of the rossoshanks tree nurseries. Summary of the scientific research work of the institute of plant protection for the year 1935. 596. Leningrad, Lenin Academy of Agricultural Science, 189-192.

Nilars MS; Esbjerg P, 1998. PC forecasting model for cutworm (Agrotis segetum) in organic farming, based on sex trap catches and data collected with HARDI METPOLE. DJF Rapport, Markbrug, No. 3:183-192; 6 ref.

Notini G, 1942. Green mycosis as a means of control. Vaxtskyddsnotiser, 2:29-32.

Ogaard L; Esbjerg P, 1993. Observations on hibernation of cutworms, Agrotis segetum Schiff. (Lep., Noctuidae). Journal of Applied Entomology, 116(4):326-332

Ostrovskii NI; Drozdovskaya LS, 1970. The basic pests and diseases of poppies. Zashchita Rastenii, 15(11):27-29

Otto D; Pilz R; Behnisch I, 1976. Identification of sex pheromones of the noctuids Agrotis (Scotia) segetum Schiff. and Mamestra (Barathra) brassicae L. Archiv fur Phytopathologie und Pflanzenschutz, 12(3):197-212

Ozols E, 1930. Flax pests. Parsk. Mater. Pestisan Organizac. Darb. Linkopibas Noz. Latvija, 1919-1929, 94-100.

Paillot A, 1940. Contribution a l'etude du developpement polyembryonnaire d'Amicroplus collaris Spin., Braconide parasite d'Euxoa (Agrotis) segetum Schiff. Ann. Epiphyt. Phytogen., 6(1):67-102.

Panasyuk MP, 1937. Scientific research work of the All-Union scientific research institute of sugar industry for the year 1936. 285 pp.

Patel AG; Yadav DN; Patel RC, 1991. Natural enemies of Agrotis spp. from Gujarat. Gujarat Agricultural University Research Journal, 17(1):130-131

Poole RW, 1989. Noctuidae, Part 1. In: Heppner JB, ed. Lepidopterum Catalogues. Brill. Leiden.

Popov C; Mateias MC, 1979. Effects of cartain parasites on the population level of Scotia segetum. Stud. Cercet. Biol., 31(2):159-162.

Pospelov V, 1944. Microbiological method of controlling agricultural pests. Proceedings of the Lenin Academy of Agricultural Science, 9(7):3-8.

Pospelov VP, 1924. Annual Report of the Departmet of Applied Entomology, October 1923-October 1924. Annals of the State Institute of Experimental Agronomy, 6:243-252.

Pospelov VP, 1927. Flacherie (Septicaemia) of the Larvae of Agrotis segetum, Schiff. Report of the Bureau of Applied Entomology, 1:1-23.

Pospielov V, 1913. Experiments on the artficial infection of Euxoa segetum Schiff, by its parasites in the Government of Kiev. Herald of the Sugar Industry, 11 pp.

Ragimov ZA; Rustamova MR, 1977. Parasites of Agrotis segetum. Zashchita Rastenii, No. 9:21

Rambousek Fr., Stranak Fr, 1920. A contribution to the study of Euxoa segetum. Zemmed archiv v. Praze, 24-34.

Ramesh Chandra, 2004. Status of medicinal plants with respect to infestation of insect pests in and around Chitrakoot, District-Satna (M.P.). Flora and Fauna (Jhansi), 10(2):88-92.

Reddy DNR; Puttaswamy, 1984. Pests infesting chilli (Capsicum annum L.) in the nursery. Mysore Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 18(2):122-125.

Rivnay E, 1963. Present status of lepidopterous pests of maize and other gramineous crops in Israel. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 11(1):1-3.

Romanov VP, 1930. On pests of tobacco. Bulletin of the North Caucasus Plant Protection Station, V, 45-48.

Sacharov N, 1913. The biology of Felia (Agrotis) exclamationis, L, and of Euxoa (Agrotis) segetum. Schiffe according to observations in the Govts. of Tula and Tver in 1909-1910. Entomological Station of the Astrachan Society of Fruit-growing, Gardening, Market-gardening and Field Cultivation, Astrachan, 17 pp.

Sacharov N, 1916. Laphygma (Caradrina) exigua, Hb. and its control. The Agricultural Herald of the South East. Saradov, 3, 14th February 1916, 5-9.

Sakharov NL, 1929. On the parasitism of Gonia and Cnephalia in the larvae of Euxoa segetum Schiff. Plant Protection VI, 1-2:71-74.

Salamov TS, 1974. Ichneumonids as parasites of Agrotis segetum. Zashchita Rastenii, No. 4:34

Schmutterer H; Pieres A; Klein Koch C, 1978. Pests of the Cape Verde Islands. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie, 83(3):320-336.

Schoyen TH, 1934. Report on insects injurious to agriculture and horticulture in 1930-1933. Landbruksdirekt. Arsberetn. 1930-1933, C1-C44.

Shaskova RV, 1972. Parasites of Agrotis segetum Schiff, Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Turkmenskoi SSR. Biologidheskikh Nauk, 4:77-80.

Shchegolev VN, 1929. Owlet-moth as pests of technical plants in the North Caucasus. Plant Protection, vi, 3-4:399-406.

Shek GKh; Bulavskaya NF, 1978. Particulars of the development of dart moths. Zashchita Rastenii, No. 5:44

Sherlock PL, 1983. The natural incidence of disease in the cutworm Agrotis segetum in England and Wales. Annals of Applied Biology, 102(1):49-56

Sing SP, 1989. A note on the adult biology of Agrotis spinifera (Hubner) in potato. Bulletin of Entomology, 27(2):191-193.

Singh SP, 1982. Some observations on potato cutworms and their natural enemies. Entomon, 7(2):197-203

Skaife SH, 1921. South African Entomophthoraceae. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa, Cape Town, ix 1:77-86.

Soegaard Joergensen A, 1978. The species of cutworms (Agrotis spp.) found in Danish agricultural and horticultural crops. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie, 87(1):76-81

Stutzer MJ; Wsorow WJ, 1927. On Infections of the caterpillars of Euxoa segetum. Central bibl. Bakt. Paras. Infekt. Ilte Abt. lxxi, 1-7:113-129.

Svensson M; Bengtsson M; Lofqvist J, 1995. Communication disruption of male Agrotis segetum moths with one or several sex pheromone components. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 75(3):257-264

Takahashi R, 1936. Some observations on the insect pests of agricultural plants in the mountanious regions in Formosa. Journal of the Society of Tropical Agriculture, 8(3):237-240.

Taylor B, 1984. Chinese cabbage. Booklet, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, UK, No. 2336:33 pp.

Telenga NA, 1956. Investigations on Trichogramma evanescens Westw. and T. pallida Meyer (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae) and their use for the control of injurious insects in the USSR. Review of Entomology, 35(3):599-610.

Thomsen L; Damgaard PH; Eilenberg J; Smiths PH, 1998. Screening of selected Bacillus thuringiensis strains against Agrotis segetum larvae. Bull. IOBC/WPRS, 21(4):235-239.

Thomsen L; Eilenberg J; Esbjerg P, 1996. Effects of destruxins on Pieris brassicae and Agrotis segetum. Bull. IOBC/WPRS, 19(9):190-195.

Thygesen Th, 1968. Cutworms. Investigations on biology and control 1959-66. Danish Journal of Plant and Soil Science, 71:429-443.

Thygesen Th, 1971. On the correlation between cutworm attacks, light trapping and weather conditions. Danish Journal of Plant and Soil Science, 75:807-815.

Tribel' SA; Voblov AP, 1984. Attention: cutworms. Zashchita Rasteni, No. 4:28-29

Tulashvili N, 1930. Observations on pests of tea and citrus on the Batum coast during 1927-1928. Mitt. Pfl. Sch. Abt. Volkskom. Landw. S. S. R. Georg, 1:189-230.

Tunblad B, 1947. Poison bran against cutworms in a nursery. Vaxtskyddsnotiser, 4:53-55.

Turhan N; Tunc A; Belli A; Kismir A; Ksakurek N, 1983. Studies on the determination of the insect and mite fauna of soyabean (Glycina max L.) in the Cukurova district. Bitki Koruma Bulteni, 23(3):148-169

Uchida T, 1924. Some Japanese Ichneumonidae, the hosts of which are known. Journal of the Sapporo Society of Agriculture and Forestry, 69:195-256.

Urban S, 1965. A mycosis of A. segetum. Nachr. Bl. dt. Pfl. schutzdienst, Berl., 19:81-82.

Vappula NA, 1932. Field crop pests in Finland in 1931. Valtion Maatalaouskoetoiminnan Tiednantoja, 41:4.

Vasilev L, 1987. The problem of Agrotis (=Scotia) segetum in Macedonia and the possibilities for control. Tutun Tobacco, 37(3-4):81-97

Vassiliev IV, 1914. Pests of cotton in Fergana, according to observations made in 1913. Memoires of the Bureau of Entomology of the Scientific Commitee of the Central Board of Land Administration and Agriculture, St. Petersburg, 10:23.

Vastrad AS; Patil VC; Rajenda-Hedge, 1998. Insect pest of grain Amaranthus. Insect-Environment, 3(4):111.

Veselinov D; Boikov A, 1967. New pests of carnation in Bulgaria . Rastit. Zasht., 15(12):28-29.

Watanabe C, 1935. On some species of Braconidae from North China and Korea. Insecta Matsum., 10(1-2):43-51.

Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp.

Weismann L; Podmanicka D, 1971. The effects of diet and rearing temperature on the duration of larval development in Scotia segetum Den. et Schiff. Biologia, Bratislava, 25(8):537-545.

Wilkinson DS, 1928. New parasitic Hymenoptera. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 3:261-265.

Woo FC, 1935. Survey of the distribution and prevalence of cotton insects in China during the year 1934. Special Publication of the National Agricutural Research Bureau of China, 12:34.

Woodford JAT, 1985. Cutworm damage to raspberry and black currant in Scotland. Plant Pathology, 34(4):626-628

Wulker G, 1924. Die Kiefer und ihre Feinde. Ber. Senckenberg. Naturf. Ges., 1:1-20.

Yang Wen Kuo; (Ching-yang); Yeh; (Tseng-fang), 1965. Studies on the biology of Linnaemyia compta (Fallen) (Diptera, Larvaevoridae). Acta Ent. Sin., 14(5):446-460.

Yokomizo K; Kashio T, 1996. Application of an entomogenous nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae, for control of the cutworm, Agrotis segetum, in carrot fields. Proceedings of the Association for the Plant Protection of Kyushu, 42:89-92.

Zethner O, 1980. Control of Agrotis segetum (Lep.: Noctuidae) in root crops by granulosis virus. Entomophaga, 25(1):27-35

Zethner O; Khan BM; Chaudhry MI; Bolet B; Khan S; Khan H; Gul H; Ogaard L; Zaman M; Nawaz G, 1987. Agrotis segetum granulosis virus as a control agent against field populations of Agrotis ipsilon and A. segetum (Lep: Noctuidae) on tobacco, okra, potato and sugar beet in northern Pakistan. Entomophaga, 32(5):449-455; 10 ref.

Zhao PeiBao; Shi YangSheng; Wang AnMin; Feng Ke, 2004. The specific composition and damage of lawn phytophagous insects in northwest Shandong. Entomological Knowledge, 41(5):472-475.

Zhumanov BZh, 1978. Fauna and importance of the parasites of the turnip moth - Agrotis segetum Schiff. (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) in the Vakhsh valley of Tadzhikistan. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Tadzhikskoi SSR, Biologicheskikh Nauk, No. 3:56-63

Zhumanov BZh, 1980. On the biology of Spallanzania hebes Fall. (Diptera, larvaevoridae) - a parasite of the winter cutworm in Tajikstan. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Tadzhikskoi SSR, Biologicheskikh Nauk, No. 2 (79):67-73

Zimmarmann H, 1919. Lebensweise und Bekempfung der Erdraupe. Fuhlings landw. Ztg., Stuttgart, 7-8:130-145.

Zimmermann G, 1980. Ppcilomyces tenuipes (Peck) Samson, a rare entomopathogenic fungus, on noctuids. Anzeiger fur Schadlingskunde Pflanzenschutz Umweltschutz, 53(5):69-72

Zolk K, 1930. Euxoa segetum and ist control. Tartu Ulikooli Entom.katsejaana teadaanded, 10:49.

Zufarova NB; Kislitsina TI, 1991. Identifying noctuid species. Zashchita Rastenii (Moskva), 7:54-55

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map