Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Oryza sativa
(rice)

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Datasheet

Oryza sativa (rice)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Oryza sativa
  • Preferred Common Name
  • rice
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Oryza sativa L.

Preferred Common Name

  • rice

Other Scientific Names

  • Oryza aristata Blanco (1837)
  • Oryza glutinosa Lour. (1790)
  • Oryza montana Lour. (1790)
  • Oryza praecox Lour. (1790)

International Common Names

  • English: paddy
  • Spanish: arroz
  • French: riz
  • Portuguese: arroz comum

Local Common Names

  • Bangladesh: bhat
  • Cambodia: sröw
  • Germany: Reis, Gemeiner
  • Indonesia: padi
  • Italy: riso comune
  • Japan: kome
  • Laos: khauz
  • Malaysia: padi
  • Myanmar: sabar-bin
  • Netherlands: rijst, gewoone
  • Philippines: palay
  • Sweden: ris, vanlig
  • Thailand: khao
  • Vietnam: lúa

EPPO code

  • ORYSA (Oryza sativa)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Oryza
  •                                 Species: Oryza sativa

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 29 Apr 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 300 MT (F)
AngolaPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 9,300 MT (F)
BeninPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 99,299 MT
Burkina FasoPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 162,152 MT
BurundiPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 70,911 MT (F)
CameroonPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 52,000 MT (F)
Central African RepublicPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 50,000 MT (F)
ChadPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 169,764 MT
ComorosPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 17,000 MT (F)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresent
Congo, Republic of thePresentRice, paddy production (2008) 1,400 MT (F)
Côte d'IvoirePresentRice, paddy production (2008) 683,671 MT
EgyptPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 7,253,373 MT
EswatiniPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 170 MT (F)
EthiopiaPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 24,434 MT
GabonPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 1,100 MT (F)
GambiaPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 38,300 MT
GhanaPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 242,000 MT (F)
GuineaPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 1,534,088 MT
Guinea-BissauPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 148,757 MT
KenyaPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 63,248 MT
LiberiaPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 295,150 MT (*)
MadagascarPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 300,0000 MT (F)
MalawiPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 114,885 MT
MaliPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 1,309,758 MT
MauritaniaPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 82,163 MT
MauritiusPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 0 MT (F)
MoroccoPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 44,520 MT
MozambiquePresentRice, paddy production (2008) 101,914 MT
NigerPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 28,497 MT (*)
NigeriaPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 4,179,000 MT
RéunionPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 80 MT (F)
RwandaPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 62,000 MT (F)
SenegalPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 368,127 MT
Sierra LeonePresentRice, paddy production (2008) 100,0000 MT (F)
SomaliaPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 16,000 MT (F)
South AfricaPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 3,200 MT (F)
SudanPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 30,000 MT
TanzaniaPresent
TogoPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 70,237 MT
UgandaPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 171,000 MT
ZambiaPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 18,317 MT (F)
ZimbabwePresentRice, paddy production (2008) 600 MT (F)

Asia

AfghanistanPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 410,000 MT
AzerbaijanPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 3,740 MT
BangladeshPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 4,690,5000 MT
BhutanPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 74,438 MT (F)
BruneiPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 1,200 MT (F)
CambodiaPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 7,175,473 MT
ChinaPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 1,933,54175 MT
-AnhuiPresent
-ChongqingPresent
-FujianPresent
-GuangdongPresent
-GuangxiPresent
-GuizhouPresent
-HainanPresent
-HeilongjiangPresent
-HubeiPresent
-HunanPresent
-Inner MongoliaPresent
-JiangsuPresent
-JiangxiPresent
-JilinPresent
-NingxiaPresent
-ShandongPresent
-ShanghaiPresent
-SichuanPresent
-YunnanPresent
-ZhejiangPresent
IndiaPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 1,482,60000 MT
-Andhra PradeshPresent
-GujaratPresent
-HaryanaPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresent
-Jammu and KashmirPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-KeralaPresent
-Madhya PradeshPresent
-MeghalayaPresent
-PunjabPresent
-SikkimPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
-UttarakhandPresent
-West BengalPresent
IndonesiaPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 6,025,1072 MT
-JavaPresent
-SulawesiPresent
IranPresent
IraqPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 393,000 MT (F)
JapanPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 1,102,8750 MT
KazakhstanPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 254,710 MT
KyrgyzstanPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 17,700 MT
MalaysiaPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 2,384,000 MT
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent
-SarawakPresent
MyanmarPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 3,050,0000 MT (*)
NepalPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 4,299,264 MT
PakistanPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 1,042,8000 MT
PhilippinesPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 1,681,5500 MT
Saudi ArabiaPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 0 MT (F)
South KoreaPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 6,919,250 MT
Sri LankaPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 3,875,000 MT
SyriaPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 0 MT (M)
TajikistanPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 53,989 MT
ThailandPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 3,046,6918 MT
TurkeyPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 753,325 MT
TurkmenistanPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 110,900 MT (F)
UzbekistanPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 110,400 MT
VietnamPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 3,872,5100 MT

Europe

AlbaniaPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 0 MT (M)
BelgiumPresentIntroduced1921
Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresentIntroduced1892
BulgariaPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 38,645 MT
FrancePresentRice, paddy production (2008) 89,200 MT
GreecePresentRice, paddy production (2008) 208,800 MT
HungaryPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 12,600 MT
ItalyPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 1,400,000 MT (F)
PortugalPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 154,600 MT (F)
RomaniaPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 48,917 MT
RussiaPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 738,300 MT
SlovakiaPresentIntroduced2008
SpainPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 665,100 MT
-Canary IslandsPresentIntroducedFirst reported: 1960's
UkrainePresentRice, paddy production (2008) 100,700 MT

North America

BelizePresentRice, paddy production (2008) 11,780 MT
Costa RicaPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 248,045 MT
CubaPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 436,000 MT
Dominican RepublicPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 644,277 MT
El SalvadorPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 35,218 MT
GuatemalaPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 35,000 MT (F)
HaitiPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 110,000 MT
HondurasPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 23,632 MT (F)
JamaicaPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 2 MT (F)
MexicoPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 224,371 MT
NicaraguaPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 321,880 MT
PanamaPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 231,313 MT
Puerto RicoPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 0 MT (F)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 2,450 MT (F)
United StatesPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 9,239,630 MT
-ArkansasPresent
-FloridaPresent
-LouisianaPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 19,000 MT
-New South WalesPresent
-Western AustraliaPresent
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 100 MT (F)
FijiPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 11,595 MT
New ZealandPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 0 MT (M)
Papua New GuineaPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 800 MT (F)
Solomon IslandsPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 5,700 MT (F)

South America

ArgentinaPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 1,245,800 MT
BoliviaPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 369,141 MT (F)
BrazilPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 1,210,0138 MT
-MaranhaoPresent
-ParaPresent
-Rio Grande do SulPresent
ChilePresentRice, paddy production (2008) 121,400 MT
ColombiaPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 2,792,232 MT
EcuadorPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 1,442,052 MT
French GuianaPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 8,671 MT (F)
GuyanaPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 507,000 MT
ParaguayPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 132,000 MT (F)
PeruPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 2,793,980 MT
SurinamePresentRice, paddy production (2008) 182,877 MT
UruguayPresentRice, paddy production (2008) 1,330,000 MT
VenezuelaPresent

References

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Azzam O; Chancellor TCB, 2002. The biology, epidemiology, and management of rice tungro disease in Asia. Plant Disease, 86(2):88-100; 125 ref.

Bhattacharya AK; De Datta SK, 1971. Effects of soil temperature regimes on growth characteristics, nutrition and grain yield of IR22 rice. Agronomy Journal, 63:443-449.

Chang TT, 1976. The origin, evolution, cultivation, dissemination, and diversification of Asian and African rices. Euphytica, 25:425-441.

Chaudhary JB; Thakur RC; Bhargava M; Sood RD, 2001. Effect and impact of different technological inputs on rice (Oryza sativa) productivity in north-western Himalayan region under farmers' conditions. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 71(1):49-50; 4 ref.

Datta SKDe, 1981. Principles and practices of rice production. Principles and practices of rice production. New York, John Wiley & Sons. USA, xix + 618 pp.

De Datta SK, 1986. Technology development and the spread of direct-seeded flooded rice in Southeast Asia. Experimental Agriculture, 22:417-426.

Haefele SM; Johnson DE; Diallo S; Wopereis MCS; Janin I, 2000. Improved soil fertility and weed management is profitable for irrigated rice farmers in Sahelian West Africa. Field Crops Research, 66(2):101-113; 25 ref.

Haefele SM; Wopereis MCS; Donovan C; Maubuisson J, 2001. Improving the productivity and profitability of irrigated rice production in Mauritania. European Journal of Agronomy, 14(3):181-196; 29 ref.

Hakim, M. A., Juraimi, A. S., Ismail, M. R., Hanafi, M. M., Selamat, A., 2013. A survey on weed diversity in coastal rice fields of Sebarang Perak in Peninsular Malaysia. JAPS, Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, 23(2), 534-542. http://www.thejaps.org.pk/docs/v-23-2/33.pdf

International Rice Research Institute, 1986. World rice statistics 1985. Manila, Philippines: IRRI, 271 pp.

IRRI, 1993. Rice Almanac. Los Banos, Philippines: International Rice Research Institute.

Jahn GC; Sophea P; Bunnarith K; Chanty P, 2000. Ecological characterization of biotic constraints to rice in Cambodia. International Rice Research Notes, 25(3):23-24; 4 ref.

Juliano BO, 1980. Properties of the rice caryopsis. In: Rice: production and utilization. Connecticut, USA: AVI Publishing Company, 403-438.

Keer Kvan; Leuven KU; TrTbuil G; GozT E, 2000. Identifying and grading limiting factors of upland rice yields in farmers' fields of northern Thailand. International Rice Research Notes, 25(1):31-33; 3 ref.

Ou SH, 1985. Rice diseases. Wallingford, UK; CAB International, 380 pp.

Reissig WH; Heinrichs EA; Litsinger JA; Moody K; Fiedler L; Mew TW; Barrion AT, 1986. Illustrated guide to integrated pest management in rice in tropical Asia. Laguna, Philippines; International Rice Research Institute, xi + 411pp.

Savary S; Willocquet L; Elazegui FA; Castilla NP; Teng PS, 2000. Rice pest constraints in tropical Asia: quantification of yield losses due to rice pests in a range of production situations. Plant Disease, 84(3):357-369; 58 ref.

Singh KM; Singh MP; Singh TK, 2000. Bio-efficacy of nursery application, seedling root dip and post-transplanting application of certain insecticides against rice gall midge, Orseolia oryzae. Indian Journal of Entomology, 62(2):191-195; 6 ref.

Vergara BS, 1980. Rice plant growth and development. In: Rice: production and utilization. Connecticut, USA: AVI Publishing Company, 75-86.

Vergara BS; Chang TT, 1983. The flowering response of the rice plant to photoperiod - a review of the literature. 4th ed. Los Banos, Philippines: IRRI, 61 pp.

Vergara BS; De Datta SK, 1989. Rice. In: Plant Resources of South-East Asia - A Selection. Wageningen, Netherlands: Pudoc, 206-213.

Watt BK; Merrill AL, 1963. Composition of foods - Raw, processed, prepared. United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Agricultural Handbook 8.

Wood B, 2001. Rat control in oil palms and rice fields. Pesticide Outlook, 12:71-74.

Yang YH; Huang Q, 2000. Infection of Corallocytostroma oryzae Yu et Zhang in rice and its control. Plant Protection, 26:28-29.

Yoshida S, 1981. Fundamentals of rice crop science. Los Banos, Philippines: IRRI, 269.

Distribution References

Abdul Rafi, Abdul Hameed, Akhtar M A, Shah S M A, Muhammad Junaid, Muhammad Shahid, Shah S F, 2013. Field based assessment of rice bacterial leaf blight in major rice growing zones of Pakistan. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture. 29 (3), 415-422. http://www.aup.edu.pk/sj_pdf/11%20272-2013%20FIELD%20BASED%20ASSESSMENT%20OF%20RICE%20BACTERIAL%20LEAF%20BLIGHT%20IN.pdf

Afolabi O, Amoussa R, Bilé M, Oludare A, Gbogbo V, Poulin L, Koebnik R, Szurek B, Silué D, 2016. First report of bacterial leaf blight of rice caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in Benin. Plant Disease. 100 (2), 515. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-07-15-0821-PDN

Afolabi O, Milan B, Amoussa R, Koebnik R, Szurek B, Habarugira G, Bigirimana J, Silue D, 2014. First report of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola causing bacterial leaf streak of rice in Burundi. Plant Disease. 98 (10), 1426. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-05-14-0504-PDN

Afolabi O, Milan B, Poulin L, Ongom J, Szurek B, Koebnik R, Silue D, 2014a. First report of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola causing bacterial leaf streak of rice in Uganda. Plant Disease. 98 (11), 1579. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-07-14-0745-PDN

Ahmadpour A, Pordel A, Heidarian Z, Javan-Nikkhah M, 2013. Bipolaris coicis causing adlay leaf blight in Iran. Australasian Plant Disease Notes. 8 (1), 137-139. DOI:10.1007/s13314-013-0116-8

Akhtar M A, Muhammad Zakria, Abbasi F M, Masood M A, 2003. Incidence of bacterial blight of rice in Pakistan during 2002. Pakistan Journal of Botany. 35 (5), 993-997.

Akhtar N, Bashir U, Mushtaq S, 2014. First report of leaf spot of rice caused by Alternaria arborescens in Pakistan. Plant Disease. 98 (6), 846. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-09-13-0969-PDN

Akhtar N, Hafeez R, Awan Z A, 2014a. First report of rice leaf spot by Alternaria gaisen from Pakistan. Plant Disease. 98 (10), 1440. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-05-14-0477-PDN

Aksoy H M, Boluk E, 2019. First report of Pantoea ananatis in japonia rice varieties in Turkey. Journal of Plant Pathology. 101 (2), 409-409. DOI:10.1007/s42161-018-0178-8

Alam M S, Islam M R, Ismail Hossain, Bhuiyan M R, Khan M A I, 2016. Pathotypic variation of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in Bangladesh. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection. 49 (1/4), 31-42. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/gapp20

Ali Anwar, Teli M A, Bhat G N, Parray G A, Wani, 2009. Status of rice blast (Pyricularia grisea), cultivar reaction and races of its causal fungus in temperate agro-ecosystem of Kashmir, India. SAARC Journal of Agriculture. 7 (2), 25-37.

Amer Rasul, Muhammad Yasir, Mansoor-Ul-Hasan, Sarwat Zia, Muhammad Sagheer, Habib-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad Saleem, Ali R A, Ayub M B, Faizan Amjad, Muhammad Iqbal, Saif Ullah, Siddique M A, 2019. Population fluctuations of rice leaf folder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenée (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in relation to the meteorological factors. Pakistan Entomologist. 41 (2), 141-145. http://www.pakentomol.com/cms/pages/tables/upload/file/5e4b843c2e85e12.pdf

Amponsah N T, Nutsugah S K, 2010. Nematodes associated with soils and roots of field crops in northern Ghana. Pakistan Journal of Nematology. 28 (1), 65-73.

Anh Ta Hoang, Zhang HengMu, Yang Jian, Chen JianPing, Hébrard E, Zhou GuoHui, Vien Ngo Vinh, Cheng JiaAn, 2011. Identification, characterization, and distribution of southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus in Vietnam. Plant Disease. 95 (9), 1063-1069. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-07-10-0535

Arayaskul N, Poompouang S, Lithanatudom P, Lithanatudom S K, 2020. First report of a leaf blight in rice (Oryza sativa) caused by Pantoea ananatis and Pantoea stewartii in Thailand. Plant Disease. 104 (2), 562-562. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-05-19-1038-PDN

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Aslam H M U, Gleason M L, Ikram A, Alam M W, Ahmed M Z, Mansha M Z, Yasin O, Hameed A, Amrao L, 2019. First report of brown leaf spot of rice caused by Curvularia hawaiiensis in Pakistan. Plant Disease. 103 (10), 2679-2679. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-02-19-0311-PDN

Azizi M M F, Ismail S I, Hata E M, Zulperi D, Ina-Salwany M Y, Abdullah M A F, 2019a. First report of Pantoea stewartii subsp. Indologenes causing leaf blight on rice in Malaysia. Plant Disease. 103 (6), 1407-1407. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-08-18-1403-PDN

Azizi M M F, Zulperi D, Rahman M A A, Abdul-Basir B, Othman N A, Ismail S I, Hata E M, Ina-Salwany M Y, Abdullah M A F, 2019. First report of Pantoea ananatis causing leaf blight disease of rice in Peninsular Malaysia. Plant Disease. 103 (8), 2122-2123. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-01-19-0191-PDN

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Bolaños C, Leiva A M, Saavedra J, Bruzzone C, Cruz M, Cuellar W J, 2017. Occurrence and molecular detection of Rice hoja blanca virus (Genus Tenuivirus) in Peru. Plant Disease. 101 (6), 1070. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Carrer Filho R, Rodrigues L L, Abreu A G, Souza R R, Rangel P H N, Mello R N, Rocha G A, Cunha M G, 2018. Detection of Pantoea agglomerans in germplasm rice accessions (Oryza sativa) in Brazil. Plant Disease. 102 (1), 237-238. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-06-17-0905-PDN

Chapuis E, Besnard G, Andrianasetra S, Rakotomalala M, Hieu Trang Nguyen, Bellafiore S, 2016. First report of the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne graminicola) in Madagascar rice fields. Australasian Plant Disease Notes. 11 (1), 32. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13314-016-0222-5 DOI:10.1007/s13314-016-0222-5

Chavan S M, Patel K G, Arve S S, 2013. Incidence of yellow stem borer, Scirpophaga incertulas (Wlk.) at different geographical locations in South Gujarat. Insect Environment. 19 (1), 19-21. http://www.currentbiotica.com/Insect/Volume19-1/IE-V19(1)-8.pdf

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Chen XiaoJuan, He ShuLin, Yang YunZhong, 2011. Composition of rice stem borers in western rice areas of Sichuan Province and new characteristics of their occurrence and damage. Plant Diseases and Pests. 2 (3), 35-38.

Cheng ZhaoBang, Li Shuo, Gao RuiZhen, Sun Feng, Liu WanCai, Zhou GuoHui, Wu JianXiang, Zhou XuePing, Zhou YiJun, 2013. Distribution and genetic diversity of Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus in China. Virology Journal. 10 (307), (16 October 2013). http://www.virologyj.com/content/pdf/1743-422X-10-307.pdf

Cherry R, Nuessly G, 2010. Establishment of a new stink bug pest, Oebalus insularis (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), in Florida rice. Florida Entomologist. 93 (2), 291-293. DOI:10.1653/024.093.0221

Chong J, Yee SiewFung, Eng L, 2015. Rice Tungro Disease in Sarawak: past and present status. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 18 (6), 285-289. http://scialert.net/fulltext/?doi=pjbs.2015.285.289&org=11

Constantino R, 2002. The pest termites of South America: taxonomy, distribution and status. Journal of Applied Entomology. 126 (7/8), 355-365. DOI:10.1046/j.1439-0418.2002.00670.x

Cortesi P, Bartoli F, Pizzatti C, Song W Y, Schaad N W, 2005. First report of Acidovorax avenae ssp. avenae on rice in Italy. Journal of Plant Pathology. 87 (1), 76.

Cortesi P, Pizzatti C, 2007. Palea browning, a new disease of rice in Italy caused by Pantoea ananatis. Journal of Plant Pathology. 89 (Suppl.3), S76. http://www.agr.unipi.it/sipav/jpp/index.html

Cother E J, Noble D H, Ven R J van de, Lanoiselet V, Ash G, Vuthy N, Visarto P, Stodart B, 2010. Bacterial pathogens of rice in the Kingdom of Cambodia and description of a new pathogen causing a serious sheath rot disease. Plant Pathology. 59 (5), 944-953. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3059.2010.02310.x

Cother E J, Reinke R, McKenzie C, Lanoiselet V M, Noble D H, 2004. An unusual stem necrosis of rice caused by Pantoea ananas and the first record of this pathogen on rice in Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology. 33 (4), 495-503. DOI:10.1071/AP04053

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