Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Orthotomicus erosus
(Mediterranean pine beetle)

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Datasheet

Orthotomicus erosus (Mediterranean pine beetle)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 08 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Orthotomicus erosus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Mediterranean pine beetle
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Larval galleries of O. erosus in Pinus brutia, northern Cyprus.
TitleLarval galleries
CaptionLarval galleries of O. erosus in Pinus brutia, northern Cyprus.
CopyrightWilliam M. Ciesla
Larval galleries of O. erosus in Pinus brutia, northern Cyprus.
Larval galleriesLarval galleries of O. erosus in Pinus brutia, northern Cyprus.William M. Ciesla
Larval galleries of O. erosus in Pinus brutia, northern Cyprus.
TitleLarval galleries
CaptionLarval galleries of O. erosus in Pinus brutia, northern Cyprus.
CopyrightWilliam M. Ciesla
Larval galleries of O. erosus in Pinus brutia, northern Cyprus.
Larval galleriesLarval galleries of O. erosus in Pinus brutia, northern Cyprus.William M. Ciesla
Pinus brutia killed by O. erosus, northern Cyprus.
TitleDamage symptoms
CaptionPinus brutia killed by O. erosus, northern Cyprus.
CopyrightWilliam M. Ciesla
Pinus brutia killed by O. erosus, northern Cyprus.
Damage symptomsPinus brutia killed by O. erosus, northern Cyprus.William M. Ciesla

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Orthotomicus erosus (Wollaston, 1857)

Preferred Common Name

  • Mediterranean pine beetle

Other Scientific Names

  • Ips erosus (Wollaston, 1857)
  • Ips erosus var. robustus Knotek
  • Tomicus erosus Wollaston, 1857
  • Tomicus rectangulus Ferrari, 1867

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Borkenkaefer, Suedeuropaeischer Kiefern-; Sudeuropäischer Kiefernborkenkäfer,
  • Italy: Bostrico corroso

EPPO code

  • IPSXER (Orthotomicus erosus)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Coleoptera
  •                         Family: Scolytidae
  •                             Genus: Orthotomicus
  •                                 Species: Orthotomicus erosus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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This insect was originally placed in the genus Tomicus by Wollaston in 1857 and later placed into the genus Orthotomicus (Grüne, 1979). Wood and Bright (1992) placed it in the genus Ips. Ten years later, Bright and Skidmore (2002) reassigned it to Orthotomicus.

Description

Top of page Eggs

Scolytidae eggs are smooth, ovoid, white and translucent. The eggs of O. erosus are approximately 1 mm long and laid separately in niches along the egg gallery.

Larvae

All scolytidae larvae are similar in appearance and difficult to separate. They are white, 'C'-shaped and legless. The head capsule is lightly sclerotized and amber with dark, well-developed mouthparts. Each of the abdominal segments has two to three tergal folds and the pleuron is not longitudinally divided. The larvae do not change as they grow.

Pupae

Scolytidae pupae are white and mummy-like. They are exarate, with the legs and wings free from the body. Some species have paired abdominal urogomphi. The elytra are either rugose or smooth and they sometimes have a prominent head and thoracic tubercles.

Adults

The adults are, on average, 3 to 3.8 mm long and reddish-brown. They are typical bark beetles of the subfamily Ipinae, in the family Scolytidae. The head is covered by a thoracic shield and is not visible when viewed dorsally and the declivity is concave Each side is armed with four spines and the second from the top is more conspicuous (Grüne, 1979).

Distribution

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O. erosus is widely distributed across the Mediterranean and southern Europe, Asia and North Africa. It has been introduced into Fiji, South Africa, Swaziland (Wood and Bright, 1992) and the USA (Haack, 2004).

A record of O. erosus in Norway (ISSG, 2009) published in previous versions of the Compendium is invalid. A Norwegian population of Orthotomicus which was thought to be O. erosus (Kirkendall, 1989) is now known to be Orthotomicus proximus (Seybold et al., 2016). There are no current records of native or introduced populations of O. erosus in Norway (Seybold et al., 2016)

A record of O. erosus in Chile (Ciesla, 1988; Ciesla and Parra Sanhueza, 1988Wood and Bright, 1992) published in previous versions of the Compendium is invalid. The invasive pine bark beetle commonly referred to in Chilean research as O. erosus is a misidentification of Orthotomicus laricis (Kirkendall, 2018).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaPresentNativeWood and Bright, 1992; Bright and Skidmore, 2002
-FujianPresentNativeWood and Bright, 1992; Bright and Skidmore, 2002
-HenanPresentNativeWood and Bright, 1992; Bright and Skidmore, 2002
-HunanPresentNativeWood and Bright, 1992; Bright and Skidmore, 2002
-JiangsuPresentNativeWood and Bright, 1992; Bright and Skidmore, 2002
-JiangxiPresentNativeWood and Bright, 1992; Bright and Skidmore, 2002
-ShaanxiPresentNativeWood and Bright, 1992; Bright and Skidmore, 2002
-SichuanPresentNativeWood and Bright, 1992; Bright and Skidmore, 2002
-XinjiangPresentNativeWood and Bright, 1992; Bright and Skidmore, 2002
IranPresentNative Invasive Wood and Bright, 1992; Bright and Skidmore, 2002
IsraelWidespreadNative Invasive Mendel and Halperin, 1982; Wood and Bright, 1992
JordanPresentNative Invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
SyriaPresentNative Invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
TajikistanPresent Invasive Kadyrov, 1988
TurkeyWidespreadNative Invasive Wood and Bright, 1992; Mercikoglu, 2001; Bright and Skidmore, 2002

Africa

AlgeriaPresentNative Invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
EgyptPresentNative Invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
LibyaPresentNative Invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
MoroccoPresentNative Invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
South AfricaPresentIntroduced1968 Invasive Tribe, 1990; Wood and Bright, 1992
SwazilandPresentIntroduced Invasive Bevan, 1984
TunisiaPresentNative Invasive Wood and Bright, 1992

North America

USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-CaliforniaPresentIntroduced2004 Invasive Haack, 2004
-FloridaAbsent, intercepted onlyIntroduced Invasive Haack, 2001
-MarylandAbsent, intercepted onlyIntroduced Invasive Haack, 2001
-New JerseyAbsent, intercepted onlyIntroduced Invasive Haack, 2001
-South CarolinaAbsent, intercepted onlyIntroduced Invasive Haack, 2001
-TexasAbsent, intercepted onlyIntroduced Invasive Haack, 2001

South America

ChileAbsent, invalid recordCiesla, 1988; Ciesla and Parra Sanhueza, 1988; Wood and Bright, 1992; Kirkendall et al., 2018
UruguayPresentGómez and Martínez, 2013

Europe

BulgariaPresentNative Invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
CyprusWidespreadNative Invasive Ciesla, 2003
FinlandAbsent, intercepted onlySiitonen, 2000
FrancePresentNative Invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
GreecePresentNative Invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
ItalyPresentNative Invasive Wood and Bright, 1992; Bright and Skidmore, 2002
NorwayAbsent, invalid recordISSG, 2009; Seybold et al., 2016
PortugalPresentNative Invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
-MadeiraPresentNative Invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
RomaniaPresentNative Invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
Russian FederationPresentNative Invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
-SiberiaPresentSiitonen, 2000
SloveniaPresentNativeISSG, 2009
SpainPresentNative Invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
SwitzerlandPresentNative Invasive Wood and Bright, 1992
UKPresentIntroducedWood and Bright, 1992

Oceania

FijiPresentIntroduced Invasive Wood and Bright, 1992

Risk of Introduction

Top of page The adults are strong fliers, capable of covering several kilometres in search of suitable host material. O. erosus is commonly associated with recently killed pines (Mendel and Halperin, 1982). When this is coupled with a wide host range and multiple generations throughout much of its natural range, there is a high likelihood that it will be transported in unprocessed logs, crating, pallets or dunnage, containing bark. Its introduction and establishment in Chile, England, Fiji, South Africa and Swaziland demonstrates its ability to be easily moved via international trade. Moreover, numerous interceptions of O. erosus in USA ports, since the ban of bark from packing material, indicates that this is a fairly common occurrence. Between 1985 and 2000, O. erosus was the second most commonly intercepted bark beetle at USA ports of entry where it was intercepted 385 times in wood-packing material from 19 countries (Haack, 2001).

O. erosus has a broad host range. Moreover, its successful introduction and establishment into five countries demonstrates its ability to adapt to new pine hosts. Chararas (1973) reported that in Turkey, O. erosus was successfully reared on a variety of hosts, including several North American pines. In this study, O. erosus was not significantly affected by differences in host terpenes, provided that they did not differ drastically from their indigenous hosts, or did not contain repellents such as heptane, which is found in the North American Pinus jeffreyi.

Although obviously adaptable, the ability of O. erosus to adapt to varying climatic conditions and hosts or compete with other insects, may be questionable. In Chile, for example, O. erosus was introduced around 1986, but was either not successful in competing with another introduced bark beetle, Hylurgus ligniperda, or unable to adapt to the host, Pinus radiata, or the local climatic conditions were unsuitable for its development. It is now difficult to find O. erosus in Chile. In contrast, Karnavar (1984) reported that O. erosus first appeared in Swaziland in the early 1980s and soon became a major pest.

Habitat

Top of page O. erosus infests pines in both plantations and natural forests. This insect is also capable of attacking logging residues or trees that have been damaged by storms. Pine plantations, which have been established under unfavourable site conditions, are especially open to attack. Periods of drought favour the development of outbreaks.

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page O. erosus breeds in Pinus spp. (pines) throughout its natural range. Indigenous European pine hosts include Pinus canariensis (Canary Island pine), Pinus brutia (Calabrian pine), Pinus nigra (black pine), Pinus pinaster (maritime pine), Pinus pinea (Italian stone pine), Pinus sylvestris (Scotch pine) and a form of mugo pine, Pinus mugo subsp. uncinata [Pinus uncinata].

Near Eastern hosts include two varieties of Calabrian pine; Pinus brutia var. eldarica and Pinus brutia var. pityusa [P. brutia]. Known Asian pine hosts are Pinus massoniana (Masson pine), Pinus armandii (Armand pine), Pinus kesiya (Khasi pine), Pinus yunnanensis (Yunnan pine) and Pinus taiwanensis (Chinese pine).

Several North American pines that have been planted in areas where this insect is native or has become established, include Pinus coulteri (Coulter pine), Pinus caribaea (Caribbean pine), Pinus echinata (shortleaf pine), Pinus radiata (Monterey pine), Pinus patula (Mexican weeping pine) and Pinus strobus (Eastern white pine).

Occasionally, maturing beetles feed in Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir), Picea spp. (spruce), Abies spp. (fir) and Cedrus spp. (cedar). However, this insect does not breed in trees other than pines (Eglitis, 2000).

Growth Stages

Top of page Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

Top of page Standing trees are killed by a single generation of O. erosus. Therefore, the most conspicuous symptom is that the foliage of infested trees fades from green to yellow to reddish-brown.

Breeding attacks are characterized by the presence of reddish-brown boring dust on the bark surface of trees, freshly cut logs or wind-thrown trees. If relatively vigorous trees are attacked, pitch tubes may be found in the bark crevasses. The gallery pattern in the cambial region of infested trees consists of a nuptial chamber and one to five longitudinal egg galleries, but this could vary depending on the host and location. A blue stain in the woody tissue accompanies the breeding attacks.

Round exit holes are visible on the bark surface of trees where this insect has completed its life cycle and the adults have emerged.

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Stems / gummosis or resinosis
Stems / visible frass
Whole plant / frass visible
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Biology and Ecology

Top of page Life History and Habits

Orthotomicus is a small genus of bark beetles found in Asia, Europe and North America, and is closely related to the Ips genus. Twelve species are known worldwide. Eleven species have Palearctic distributions and one species, Orthotomicus caelatus, is found in North America (Wood, 1982).

The adults of O. erosus are polygamous. The males bore through the bark to the cambium layer where they construct a nuptial chamber. They are joined by one to three females, each of which mates with the male and then constructs an individual egg gallery from the nuptial chamber, parallel to the grain of the wood. Typically, a female oviposits between 26 and 75 eggs in niches along the sides of the galleries (Mendel and Halperin, 1982). The females will make ventilation holes in their egg galleries and they sometimes abandon the gallery and finish their egg laying in another tree. The larvae mine at right angles to the parent gallery and have three instars.

The adults must feed before reaching sexual maturation. This occurs beneath the bark of the tree in which the brood developed, providing that the bark is still moist. If the inner bark is too dry, maturation feeding can take place in a different host tree, sometimes of a different species. Occasionally, maturation feeding will take place during normal egg gallery construction and oviposition (Mendel and Halperin, 1982).

O. erosus completes two to seven generations per year, depending on the temperature. Two generations per year are common in Turkey, France and Morocco. In Tunisia, Chararas and M'Sadda (1973) found that O. erosus completed three and sometimes four generations in a year, with the development time being a function of the nutritive quality of the wood, as well as the temperature. In Israel, where the beetle can complete three to five generations in a year, the time required for the development of a brood varies from 25 days in the summer to 76 days in the winter (Mendel, 1983). Based on these development times, Mendel (1983) concluded that coastal Israel could have as many as seven generations per year. Tribe (1990) estimated that four generations per year occur in South Africa, based on an average development time of 35 days for one generation.

The winter is spent in the adult stage. From mid-October to December, the adults aggregate beneath the bark of the host in which they developed, or in a new one. They enter the new host through a single hole and then concentrate as many as several hundred individuals into the phloem/cambium region (Mendel, 1983). Beetle flight can occur through a broad temperature range of 14 to 38°C (Chararas and M'Sadda, 1973). In Israel, the threshold for flight is even lower during winter (12°C) (Mendel, 1983).

Breeding generally takes place in the rough-barked sections of the bole and in branches larger than 5 cm in diameter. Smooth-barked areas are primarily used for maturation feeding. The lower trunk of relatively old pines is not suitable for attack because the bark is too thick. In Israel, trees that are younger than 5-years-old are not usually attacked (Mendel and Halperin, 1982).

O. erosus commonly occurs in association with other bark beetles. Common associates on pines in Israel included Pityogenes calcaratus, Tomicus destruens [Hylurgus destruens] and Carphoborus minimus (Mendel and Halperin, 1982). In South Africa, Tribe (1990) found Hylastes angustatus, Hylurgus ligniperda and Pissodes nemorensis associated with O. erosus. Ciesla (2004) reported the occurrence of Tomicus minor in the upper boles of trees infested by O. erosus in Cyprus.

A number of wood-staining fungi are associated with O. erosus in a symbiotic relationship. These also play a role in the death of the host tree and cause the loss of lumber quality. A number of these fungi have been identified and include Ophiostoma ips and Verticicladiella alacris (Wingfield and Marasas, 1980).

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aulonium ruficorne Predator Eggs/Larvae
Calosota aestivalis Parasite
Cerocephala eccoptogastri Parasite
Corticeus pini Predator Eggs/Larvae
Dendrocopos syriacus Predator
Dendrosoter caenopachoides Parasite
Dendrosoter hartigii Parasite Israel Pinus
Dendrosoter labdacus Parasite
Dendrosoter middendorffii Parasite Israel Pinus
Dendrosoter protuberans Parasite
Eurytoma morio Parasite Larvae/Pupae
Graphium pseudormiticum Pathogen
Heydenia pretiosa Parasite
Metacolus azureus Parasite
Metacolus unifasciatus Parasite
Platysoma oblongum Predator Larvae/Pupae
Rhaphitelus maculatus Parasite
Roptrocerus xylophagorum Parasite Larvae/Pupae

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page The parasitoids of O. erosus include Hymenoptera from the families Braconidae, Eurytomidae and Pteromalidae. A number of beetles and the Syrian woodpecker, Picoides syriacus, are reported as predators. The overall effectiveness of these agents is unknown. However, as is the case with other bark beetles, the natural enemies undoubtedly keep populations of O. erosus in check until there is an abundance of suitable host material for colonization, in the form of trees that have been drought stressed, wind-thrown, broken in the snow, etc.

Tribe (2003) noted that Dendrosoter caenopachoides is dispersing slowly, which he attributes to the fact that it can only parasitize hosts in thin-barked trees but in these it can achieve very high rates of parasitism.

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark adults Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches adults; eggs; larvae; nymphs; pupae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye

Wood Packaging

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Wood Packaging liable to carry the pest in trade/transportTimber typeUsed as packing
Solid wood packing material with bark Pine: crating, dunnage, pallets Yes
Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Loose wood packing material
Non-wood
Processed or treated wood
Solid wood packing material without bark

Impact

Top of page O. erosus is normally a secondary bark beetle and infests recently fallen trees, broken branches, logging debris, slash and standing trees that have been wounded or are under some form of stress (Chararas and M'Sadda, 1973; Mendel and Halperin, 1982). In Morocco, Questienne (1979) noted that bark beetles affected pine plantations more heavily than natural stands due to the sub-optimum climatic and edaphic conditions in the plantations. Baylis et al. (1986) reported attacks of O. erosus on fire-damaged Pinus radiata, Pinus elliottii and Pinus pinaster, in South Africa. Moisture deficiency is one of the key factors leading to attack by O. erosus. Bevan (1984) noted that O. erosus was normally secondary in plantations of Pinus patula and P. elliottii in Swaziland but would attack living trees under extreme drought stress. Serrao-Nogueira (1976) noted that the trees weakened by a lack of water in urban settings were subsequently infested by O. erosus. In Italy, Capretti et al. (1987) described O. erosus damage in 12- to 20-year-old Pinus halepensis plantations following a hot, dry summer and cold winter.

Occasionally other insects or diseases are the stressing agents that lead to attacks by O. erosus. In France, Carle (1971) noted that O. erosus was one of the beetles involved in the decline of P. pinaster following the weakening of the host by the scale insect, Matsucoccus feytaudi. Zwolinski et al. (1995), working in South Africa, described the occurrence of O. erosus on P. radiata infected with the canker-causing fungus, Diplodia pinea [Sphaeropsis sapinea]. O. erosus was one of two beetles attacking these trees and was confined to the zone of discoloration produced by the fungus.

Throughout its geographic range, there have been reports of population build-ups of O. erosus in weakened or stressed host material, followed by attacks on healthy trees. In Israel, Halperin et al. (1982) related the increase of bark beetle outbreaks in P. halepensis to the maturation of plantations and increased thinning. Also in Israel, Mendel and Halperin (1982) reported that the agents predisposing stands to attack were thinning operations, followed by dry winters or fires in neighbouring pine stands. Ferreira and Ferreira (1986) indicated that O. erosus periodically reaches epidemic levels and has caused the death of many P. pinaster trees in Portugal.

Environmental Impact

Top of page In its native habitat, O. erosus is usually a secondary insect and thus is part of a complex of insects, fungi and other organisms that aid in the decomposition of dead trees. However, it is capable of attacking and killing stressed trees, and these attacks occasionally develop into outbreaks. Outbreaks can reduce the pine component of forests and the subsequent increased fuel loading, due to the high levels of tree mortality, can result in wildfires of increased intensity.

Detection and Inspection

Top of page The bark surface should be inspected for pitch tubes and/or boring dust. The presence of galleries and insect life stages should be looked for in the cambium and inner bark on unprocessed logs or dunnage, crating or pallets, containing bark strips.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page The genus Orthotomicus is intermediate between the closely related genera Ips and Pityokteines. The adults of O. erosus are similar in appearance to bark beetles of the genus Ips. The gallery pattern of O. erosus is also similar in structure to those produced by Ips engraver beetles. Beetles of the genus Orthotomicus can be separated from Ips by the structure of the antennal club, the more striking sexual dimorphism of the elytral declivity and by the third (lowest) pair of declivital spines being distinctly mesad of the lateral margin (Wood and Bright, 1992). To ensure a positive identification, a taxonomist, with expertise in the family Scolytidae, should examine bark beetles believed to be a new introduction.

Prevention and Control

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Cultural Control

The most effective means of reducing the losses caused by O. erosus are cultural methods designed to maintain healthy, vigorous pine forests that are capable of resisting attack. Available tactics include: avoiding planting pines on unsuitable sites; periodic thinning to reduce stocking levels and competition for available moisture; and the rapid removal of wind-thrown trees or broken tops caused by ice and snow, which can serve as breeding sites.

Biological Control

Within its natural range, the population levels of O. erosus are undoubtedly held in check by a complex of indigenous natural enemies unless forest conditions favour a population increase. However, in South Africa, where O. erosus has been introduced, a classical biological control programme, involving the rearing and release of the parasitoid, Dendrosoter caenopachoides, was conducted. The programme resulted in the establishment of this parasitoid (Tribe and Kfir, 2001).

Chemical Control

In trials in Israel, pine trap-logs containing the larvae and pupae of O. erosus were sprayed with carbaryl, chloropyrifos, or cypermethrin at concentrations of 0.1, 0.5 or 1.25% a.i.. At 1.25%, the effectiveness of the treatment (based on the rate of prevention of beetle emergence) was 100% with chloropyrifos (chlorpyrifos) and cypermethrin, and 94% with carbaryl. At 0.5%, chloropyrifos was 98% effective, but in general the lower concentrations did not provide an effective control (Mendel et al., 1983).

The chemical control of O. erosus has been attempted in Turkey but, as is the case with the chemical control of bark beetles in general, this has proven to be costly and of marginal effectiveness. Therefore the chemical control of this insect is not recommended (Mercikoglu, 2001).

Pheromonal Control

The response of O. erosus to pheromones was studied in south-western France. O. erosus adults were caught mostly in traps baited with a combination of the insect-produced compounds 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol and ipsdienol. When used together with 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol, an increase in the concentration of up to 1000-fold of racemic ipsdienol resulted in a continual increase in the numbers of O. erosus and Ips sexdentatus caught. This was accompanied by a steady increase in the percentage of females collected. It is assumed that 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol influences the landing behaviour of O. erosus, whereas ipsdienol acts as a long-distance signal (Klimetzek and Vité, 1986). The use of pheromones for the mass-trapping of adult beetles has reportedly been met with some degree of success in Turkey and was found to be less costly than mechanical or chemical control methods (Mercikoglu, 2001).

Field Monitoring

Aerial and ground surveys can be conducted over pine forests to detect tree mortality caused by O. erosus and other bark beetles. The population levels of adults can be monitored with funnel traps baited with commercial Ips lures. The occurrence of O. erosus outside its geographic range could also be monitored with pheromone traps.

Integrated Pest Management

The management of O. erosus can be accomplished by a combination of monitoring designed to detect low levels of bark beetle-caused tree mortality, the rapid removal and processing of infested trees, and the management of pine forests to keep them in a vigorous condition.
 

References

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Baylis NT, Ronde C de, James DB, 1986. Observations of damage of a secondary nature following a wild fire at the Otterford State Forest. South African Forestry Journal, No. 137:36-37

Bevan D, 1984. Orthotomicus erosus (Wollaston) in Usutu pine plantations, Swaziland. Forest Research Report, Usutu Pulp Company Limited, No. 64:34 pp.

Bright DE, Skidmore RE, 2002. A catalogue of Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera), Supplement 2 (1995-1999). Ottawa, Canada: NRC Research Press, 523 pp.

Capretti P, Panconesi A, Parrini C, 1987. Dieback of Aleppo and maritime pine in plantations in northern Maremma, Italy. Monti e Boschi, 38(1):42-46

Carle P, 1971. Phenomena determining the succession of insects causing the degeneration of maritime pine in Var. Annales de Zoologie, Ecologie Animale, 3:177-192

Chararas C, 1973. Adaptability of Orthotomicus erosus to conifers other than its usual host species. Comptes Rendus Hebomadaires de Seances de l'Acadamie de Sciences, 275(4):555-558.

Chararas C, M'Sadda K, 1973. Study of the biology, behaviour and the action of cobalt60 ionising radiations in Orthotomicus erosus Woll., (Coleoptera Scolytidae), a specific pest of conifers. Archives de l'Institut Pasteur de Tunis, 50(3):243-265

Ciesla WM, 1988. Pine bark beetles: a new pest management challenge for Chilean foresters. Journal of Forestry, 86(12):27-31

Ciesla WM, 2004. Forests and forest protection in Cyprus. Forestry Chronicle, 79(6): in press.

Ciesla WM, Parra Sanhueza P, 1988. Orthotomicus erosus Corporación Nacional Forestal, Protección Fitosanitaria Forestal (Chile). Folleto de Divulgación, Ano 8 N 16.

Eglitis A, 2000. Exotic Pest Information System for North America Prototype Application (EXFOR): Orthotomicus erosus. http://spfnic.fs.fed.us/exfor/data/pestreports.cfm?pestidval=9&langdisplay=english.

Ferreira MC, Ferreira GWS, 1986. Pests of maritime pine in Portugal - scolytids. Boletim Agricola, No. 36:4pp.

Gómez D, Martínez G, 2013. Bark beetles in pine tree plantations in Uruguay: first record of Orthotomicus erosus Wollaston (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). Coleopterists Bulletin, 67(4):470-472. http://www.bioone.org/loi/cole

Grüne S, 1979. Handbuch zur bestimmung der Europäischen Borkenkäfer (Brief illustrated key to European bark beetles). Hannover, Germany: Verlag M & H Schapfer.

Haack RA, 2001. Intercepted scolytidae (Coleoptera) at U.S. ports of entry: 1985-2000. Bark Beetles and Reforestation Pests: Facing a Crisis. Proceedings of a meeting of IUFRO Working Parties S7.03.03 (Integrated control of scolytid beetles) and S7.03.03 (Insects affecting reforestation), Velaine-en-Haye, France, 5-7 September, 2001. Integrated Pest Management Reviews, 6(3/4)253-282.

Haack RA, 2001. Intercepted Scolytidae (Coleoptera) at US ports of entry: 1985-200. Integrated Pest Management Reviews 6: 253-282.

Haack RA, 2004. Orthotomicus erosus: a new pine-infesting bark beetle in the United States. Newsletter of the Michigan Entomological Society., 3. http://insects.ummz.umich.edu/mes/

Halperin J, Mendel Z, Golan Y, 1982. On the damage caused by bark beetles to pine plantations. Preliminary report. La-Yaaran, 32(1-4):31-38, 64

ISSG, 2009. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. http://www.issg.org/database

Kadyrov AKh, 1988. On the fauna of scolytids (Coleoptera, Scolytidae) of tree species of south-western Tadzhikistan. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie, 67(1):42-47

Karnavar GK, 1984. Preliminary studies on the use of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol as an attractant for the pine bark beetle, Orthotomicus erosus. Journal of the Royal Swaziland Society of Science and Technology, 5(2):2-4

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