Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Insignorthezia insignis
(greenhouse orthezia)



Insignorthezia insignis (greenhouse orthezia)


  • Last modified
  • 28 March 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Insignorthezia insignis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • greenhouse orthezia
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Insignorthezia insignis (greenhouse orthezia); adults and nymphs, on blue sage in the Manie van der Schijff Botanical Garden, Pretoria, South Africa. August 2015.
TitleAdults and nymphs
CaptionInsignorthezia insignis (greenhouse orthezia); adults and nymphs, on blue sage in the Manie van der Schijff Botanical Garden, Pretoria, South Africa. August 2015.
Copyright©JMK/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Insignorthezia insignis (greenhouse orthezia); adults and nymphs, on blue sage in the Manie van der Schijff Botanical Garden, Pretoria, South Africa. August 2015.
Adults and nymphsInsignorthezia insignis (greenhouse orthezia); adults and nymphs, on blue sage in the Manie van der Schijff Botanical Garden, Pretoria, South Africa. August 2015.©JMK/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Insignorthezia insignis (greenhouse orthezia); adult.
CaptionInsignorthezia insignis (greenhouse orthezia); adult.
Copyright©United States National Collection of Scale Insects Photographs/USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS), - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Insignorthezia insignis (greenhouse orthezia); adult.
AdultInsignorthezia insignis (greenhouse orthezia); adult.©United States National Collection of Scale Insects Photographs/USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS), - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Insignorthezia insignis (greenhouse orthezia); infestation. Makiki, Lower Punchbowl, Tantalu, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA. July 2018.
CaptionInsignorthezia insignis (greenhouse orthezia); infestation. Makiki, Lower Punchbowl, Tantalu, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA. July 2018.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by Scott Nelson/via flickr - CC0
Insignorthezia insignis (greenhouse orthezia); infestation. Makiki, Lower Punchbowl, Tantalu, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA. July 2018.
InfestationInsignorthezia insignis (greenhouse orthezia); infestation. Makiki, Lower Punchbowl, Tantalu, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA. July 2018.Public Domain - Released by Scott Nelson/via flickr - CC0
Insignorthezia insignis (greenhouse orthezia); adult. Slide mounted specimen.
CaptionInsignorthezia insignis (greenhouse orthezia); adult. Slide mounted specimen.
Copyright©Alessandra Rung/Scale Insects/USDA APHIS PPQ, - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Insignorthezia insignis (greenhouse orthezia); adult. Slide mounted specimen.
AdultInsignorthezia insignis (greenhouse orthezia); adult. Slide mounted specimen.©Alessandra Rung/Scale Insects/USDA APHIS PPQ, - CC BY-NC 3.0 US


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Insignorthezia insignis (Browne)

Preferred Common Name

  • greenhouse orthezia

Other Scientific Names

  • Orthezia costis Ghesquière, 1933
  • Orthezia insignis Browne
  • Orthezia insignis Douglas
  • Orthezia nacrea Buckton, 1894

International Common Names

  • English: Jacaranda bug; Lantana bug
  • Spanish: cochinilla blanca menor de los citricos (Colombia)

Local Common Names

  • Colombia: cochenilla blanca menor de los citricos
  • East Africa: Lantana blight
  • Germany: Gewaechshaus-Roehrenschildlaus
  • South Africa: lantana dopluis
  • Spain: chinche harinosa del croto; escama blanca del croto
  • UK/England and Wales: Croton bug; glasshouse Orthezia; Kew bug
  • USA/California: marsupial coccid
  • USA/Hawaii: Maui blight

EPPO code

  • ORTHIN (Orthezia insignis)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Coccoidea
  •                                 Family: Ortheziidae
  •                                     Genus: Orthezia
  •                                         Species: Insignorthezia insignis

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Morrison (1952) pointed out that Orthezia insignis had been ascribed to the authorship of Douglas, 1887 incorrectly (Morrison, 1925), and that Lindinger (1935) had first recognized that the published notes of Browne (1887) constituted a description that pre-dated that by Douglas. Authorship of the name has since been attributed to Browne. Kozár (2004) included this species in the newly described genus Insignorthezia and the current preferred name for the pest is Insignorthezia insignis.



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Ezzat (1956) and Green (1922) described I. insignis (as Orthezia insignis) in detail. Body of adult female is about 1.5 mm long and 1.3 mm wide (excluding the ovisac), brownish olive green; dorsum mostly bare of wax except for two narrow logitudinal rows of 12 small white wax processes, these rows situated on either side of the mid-line; the dorsal wax processes fairly short, the longest and most curled occurring towards the posterior end. Venter with white waxy areas around mouthparts and limb bases, and the white ovisac of sculpted wax arising from just posterior of the hind leg coxae and from a submarginal belt around the abdomen. Ovisac 1.5 - 3.5 mm long, of brittle wax plates, nearly parallel-sided, curving slightly upwards posteriorly, ending in a dorsal opening. Unlike most Coccoidea, I. insignis carries the ovisac attached to the body, rather than attaching it to the substrate. Antennae are 8-segmented, brownish, about 0.9 mm long, terminal segment longest. Eyes each situated on a conical projection just posterior to each antenna base.

Immature females lack any development of the ovisac but otherwise resemble smaller versions of the adult; first instar with body 0.3 mm long, antennae each 6-segmented, lacking ventral waxy areas and without bare area between dorsal rows of wax plates; second instar similar but larger; third instar larger again, with 7-segmented antennae and ventral waxy areas present.

Males are seldom produced (Green (1922) observed them produced at approximately four-year intervals in Sri Lanka). Adult male with body (excluding terminal wax filaments) 2.0 mm long; the single pair of wings appears greyish white with powdery wax; a pair of halteres present; antennae each 9-segmented, significantly longer than body, covered with short hairs; a pair of compound eyes present, each associated with a single ocellus; mouthparts absent; legs long and slender; abdomen terminates in a caudal tuft of white wax filaments arising from the antepenultimate segment.


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The distribution map includes records based on specimens of I. insignis from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK): dates of collection, where known, are noted in the List of countries (NHM, various dates).

The records for Peru in CIE (1957) and in the literature are doubtful (Beinagolea, 1971).

I. insignis has been eradicated from the UK (CP Malumphy, Central Science Laboratory, York, UK, personal communication, 1998).

I. insignis is native to the Neotropical region, probably to Guyana and neighbouring countries; elsewhere in the world it has been introduced. Ezzat (1956) provides a world map showing isotherms defining areas of the world where conditions exist in which he considered I. insignis could live. Areas with the average temperature over the whole year of 17.8 - 34° C can potentially support this insect outdoors; this includes the Americas from the USA to the northern half of Argentina, the southern half of Eurasia, Africa apart from the extreme southern tip, the indo-Pacific islands and Australia except its southern 25%. Towards the higher latitudes (and at higher altitudes) within this range, the insect is more likely to occur under glass, and outside these areas it could still establish in heated glasshouses.

A record of I. insignis in Japan (Ben Dov et al., 1998) published in previous versions of the Compendium is unreliable. Ben Dov et al. (1998) cites Morrison (1952) as the source of the record of I. insignis in Japan, but neither the original reference nor a specimen record is given in Morrison (1952). There is no record of I. insignis in Japan in Kawai (1980), Mito and Uesugi (2004), National Institute for Environmental Studies (2015) or the Global Invasive Species Database (ISSG, 2017).


Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


ChinaPresentBen-Dov et al., 1998
-KarnatakaPresentMuniappan and Viraktamath, 1986; Hussain et al., 1996
-KeralaPresentNHM collection
-MaharashtraPresentNHM collection
-Tamil NaduPresentCIE, 1957; Muniappan and Viraktamath, 1986
-West BengalPresentNHM collection
IndonesiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-JavaPresentNHM collection
JapanAbsent, unreliable recordMAFF, Japan, communication to CABI, 2017; Ben-Dov et al., 1998
MalaysiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentCIE, 1957
MyanmarPresentNHM collection
Sri LankaPresentCIE, 1957


AlgeriaPresentCIE, 1957
CameroonPresentNHM collection
Cape VerdePresentNHM collection
CongoPresentCIE, 1957
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentNHM collection
EgyptPresentCIE, 1957
GhanaPresentNHM collection
KenyaPresentCIE, 1957
MadagascarPresentCIE, 1957
MalawiPresentBooth et al., 1995
MauritiusPresentCIE, 1957
MoroccoPresentBen-Dov et al., 1998
NigeriaPresentCIE, 1957
RéunionPresentCIE, 1957
Saint HelenaPresentBooth et al., 1995
Sao Tome and PrincipePresentCIE, 1957
SeychellesPresentNHM collection
Sierra LeonePresentNHM collection
South AfricaPresentCIE, 1957
-Canary IslandsPresentBen-Dov et al., 1998
TanzaniaPresentCIE, 1957
UgandaPresentEpila, 1986
ZambiaPresentCIE, 1957
ZimbabwePresentNMH collection

North America

BermudaPresentCIE, 1957
CanadaPresentBen-Dov et al., 1998
MexicoPresentBen-Dov et al., 1998; Arriola et al., 2016
-ArizonaPresentCIE, 1957
-CaliforniaPresentGill, 1993
-ConnecticutPresentBen-Dov et al., 1998
-FloridaPresentCIE, 1957
-HawaiiPresentBooth et al., 1995
-IllinoisPresentBen-Dov et al., 1998
-IndianaPresentBen-Dov et al., 1998
-MassachusettsPresentBen-Dov et al., 1998
-MichiganPresentBen-Dov et al., 1998
-MissouriPresentCIE, 1957
-New JerseyPresentBen-Dov et al., 1998
-New YorkPresentBen-Dov et al., 1998
-OhioPresentBen-Dov et al., 1998
-PennsylvaniaPresentBen-Dov et al., 1998
-TennesseePresentCIE, 1957
-UtahPresentCIE, 1957
-VirginiaPresentBen-Dov et al., 1998
-WashingtonPresentBen-Dov et al., 1998
-WisconsinPresentBen-Dov et al., 1998

Central America and Caribbean

Antigua and BarbudaPresentBen-Dov et al., 1998
BahamasPresentBen-Dov et al., 1998
BarbadosPresentCIE, 1957
BelizePresentNHM collection
British Virgin IslandsPresentBen-Dov et al., 1998
Cayman IslandsPresentNHM collection
Costa RicaPresentCIE, 1957
CubaPresentCIE, 1957
DominicaPresentCIE, 1957
Dominican RepublicPresentCIE, 1957
El SalvadorPresentBen-Dov et al., 1998
GuadeloupePresentNHM collection
GuatemalaPresentBen-Dov et al., 1998
HaitiPresentBen-Dov et al., 1998
HondurasPresentBen-Dov et al., 1998
JamaicaPresentCIE, 1957
MontserratPresentCIE, 1957
PanamaPresentNHM collection; Ben-Dov et al., 1998
Puerto RicoPresentCIE, 1957
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentNHM collection; Ben-Dov et al., 1998
Trinidad and TobagoPresentCIE, 1957

South America

ArgentinaPresentCIE, 1957
BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-BahiaPresentCIE, 1957
-CearaPresentCavalcante, 1975
-Minas GeraisPresentCIE, 1957
-ParaibaPresentCIE, 1957
-ParanaPresentNakano et al., 1974
-Rio de JaneiroPresentCIE, 1957
-Rio Grande do SulPresentCIE, 1957
-Sao PauloPresentCIE, 1957
ColombiaPresentNHM collection
EcuadorPresentNHM collection
GuyanaPresentCIE, 1957
ParaguayPresentCIE, 1957
SurinamePresentCIE, 1957
VenezuelaPresentCIE, 1957


AustriaPresentBen-Dov et al., 1998
BelgiumPresentNHM collection
DenmarkPresentBen-Dov et al., 1998
FrancePresentBen-Dov et al., 1998
GermanyPresentBen-Dov et al., 1998
HungaryPresentBen-Dov et al., 1998
ItalyPresentCIE, 1957
PortugalPresentBen-Dov et al., 1998
-AzoresPresentBen-Dov et al., 1998
-MadeiraPresentCIE, 1957
Russian FederationPresentBen-Dov et al., 1998
SpainPresentNHM collection
SwitzerlandPresentBen-Dov et al., 1998


New CaledoniaPresentWilliams and Watson, 1990

Risk of Introduction

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I. insignis is not listed as a quarantine pest. Accidental introductions to new countries apparently occur on infested planting material. Global warming may alter or extend its potential range in tropical countries.

Hosts/Species Affected

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I. insignis is polyphagous, usually preferring woody hosts, occurring mainly on the shoots and twigs. Ben-Dov et al. (1998) list hosts from 34 plant families. It is most often found on trees and shrubs of the Verbenaceae (especially Lantana, Clerodendron and Duranta species), Solanaceae (especially Capsicum and Solanum), Acanthaceae, Compositae (especially Eupatorium and other ornamentals) and Rubiaceae (including Coffea). Green (1922) remarked that, while I. insignis damages numerous ornamental plants in Sri Lanka, it was not a pest on tea or coffee. Ezzat (1956) successfully reared I. insignis on sprouting potato tubers in Egypt, where he recorded the pest damaging a wide range of crops and utility plants such as sugarcane, Citrus, potatoes, tomatoes, chrysanthemums, shade trees such as Jacaranda, and windbreaks such as Casuarina.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
Bidens pilosa (blackjack)AsteraceaeUnknown
Capsicum (peppers)SolanaceaeOther
Casuarina equisetifolia (casuarina)CasuarinaceaeOther
Chromolaena odorata (Siam weed)AsteraceaeUnknown
Chrysanthemum (daisy)AsteraceaeOther
Clerodendrum (Fragrant clerodendron)LamiaceaeOther
Coffea (coffee)RubiaceaeOther
Commidendrum robustum (Gumwood)AsteraceaeOther
Galinsoga parviflora (gallant soldier)AsteraceaeUnknown
Jacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda)BignoniaceaeMain
Lantana camara (lantana)VerbenaceaeWild host
Malpighia glabra (acerola)MalpighiaceaeOther
Olea europaea subsp. europaea (European olive)OleaceaeOther
Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane)PoaceaeOther
Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)SolanaceaeOther
Solanum melongena (aubergine)SolanaceaeOther
Solanum tuberosum (potato)SolanaceaeOther

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage


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I. insignis extracts large quantities of sap, causing general host debilitation, but not death (Green, 1922). Build-up of sticky honeydew deposits occurs on nearby surfaces, which may attract attendant ants. Unsightly sooty moulds grow on the sugary deposits (Green, 1922), and badly fouled leaves may be dropped prematurely and the quality of fruits may be reduced. The older females are easy to see on young stems, especially when they walk about and the movement of the white ovisacs catches the light.

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Growing point / external feeding
Inflorescence / external feeding
Leaves / external feeding
Stems / external feeding
Whole plant / external feeding

Biology and Ecology

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Ezzat (1956) and Green (1922) provide biological information on I. insignis. There are three immature instars in the female and four in the male; reproduction is parthenogenetic (Epila, 1986). Males are produced very sporadically; Green (1922) observed them at about four-year intervals in Sri Lanka.

According to Ezzat's (1956) observations of specimens reared on sprouting potato tubers, adult females begin laying eggs when the ovisac has developed to a length of 1.5 mm. Depending on temperature, a female lays up to two eggs per day and a total of 58-95 eggs in her life, which may be 52 - 190 days long. Green (1922) estimated the lifetime of a female in Sri Lanka to be 15 weeks (105 days), with reproduction starting at nine weeks (63 days). There are up to three successive generations in a year, but reproduction is usually asynchronous, so all stages of development may be present at any time. Ezzat's (1956) timing of the different developmental stages in relation to temperature in Egypt (reared on potato sprouts) gave the following:

Egg incubation period 23-37 days (at 23° and 16° C, respectively)
First instar 15-34.5 days (at 26° and 15° C, respectively)
Second instar 13-28 days (at 26° and 15° C, respectively)
Third instar 14-33 days (at 26° and 16° C, respectively)

Ezzat (1956) recorded the shortest lifecycle (77.5 days) at 29° C. He experimented with rearing I. insignis at different temperatures, and concluded that the minimum and maximum critical temperatures for successful survival of colonies were 14° and 34° C, respectively. Below the minimum temperature development halts, and above 34° egg mortality increases significantly.

Temperature and humidity effects on the life cycle of I. insignis were also studied by Nakano et al. (1974) in Brazil, using cultures on potato sprouts; their findings broadly agree with those of Ezzat (1956).

Dispersal occurs at the first instar (crawler) stage; these insects are very small, light and can survive several days without feeding. Green (1922) pointed out that they cannot walk far by themselves but are ideally suited to transport by water, wind and animal agents including domestic animals and man. Accidental introductions to new countries apparently occur on infested planting material.

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Decadiomus bahamicus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Hyperaspis donzeli Predator Adults/Nymphs Kenya ornamental woody plants
Hyperaspis pantherina Predator Adults/Eggs/Larvae

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Only one biological control agent is known to be effective against I. insignis: the coccinellid predator, Hyperaspis pantherina (Booth et al., 1995). This species is native to Mexico and has been introduced to several other tropical countries as a biological control agent against I. insignis.


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I. insignis is rarely damaging in the Caribbean region, where it originated; in this region it occurs mainly on wild hosts. Bartlett (1978) remarks that it tends to become a serious pest in areas where it has been introduced to drier climatic zones, although primarily it is a glasshouse pest in subtropical and temperate regions. Over much of its geographical range it is regarded as a minor pest, but in Hawaii, East Africa and South and Central America it has at times become a severe problem on Citrus, coffee, olive, Jacaranda, Lantana and other ornamental plants.

The establishment of I. insignis on St. Helena in the late 1980s caused concern because, in the absence of any natural enemies, the pest was destroying the last remaining stands of the endemic gumwood, Commidendrum robustum (Booth et al., 1995).


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I. insignis has been introduced to some countries as a control agent against the weed Lantana camara, but its polyphagous habits make this use unwise as it tends to cause more problems than it solves (Green, 1922).

Detection and Inspection

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Examine shrubs or trees closely for signs of sooty mould or sticky honeydew on leaves and stems, or ants running about. Look for I. insignis on twigs and stems (and sometimes on the underside of leaf midribs); the white ovisacs of the adult females are easily seen, especially when they walk about and the moving ovisacs catch the light. Good light conditions are essential for examination; in poor light, a powerful flashlight is helpful.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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In life, I. insignis can be distinguished from most species of Orthezia by the large proportion of the dorsum lacking a waxy cover, leaving the olive-green body colour visible. Most species of Orthezia have dorsal wax plates more fully developed, with little or no bare cuticle visible. In many parts of the world I. insignis is the only common ortheziid pest. However, in its native Neotropical Region, economically important species of Orthezia are present with which it could be confused. It can only be identified authoritatively by examination of slide-mounted adult females under a compound light microscope and use of taxonomic keys. Williams and Watson (1990) describe a method for preparation of slide mounts, and a good key is provided by Morrison (1952).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Biological Control

Biological control of I. insignis has only ever been achieved in tropical countries, using the coccinellid predator, Hyperaspis pantherina. This is the only natural enemy that has a proven track record in reducing infestations of I. insignis significantly, the most recent success being its use in St. Helena in the early 1990s to save the last stands of endemic gumwood trees that were threatened with extinction (IIBC, 1996).

Bartlett (1978) mentions the introduction of Hyperaspis donzeli and the chamaemyiid, Melaleucopis simmondsi, to Brazil but there is no record of establishment.

Chemical Control

Green (1922) regarded I. insignis as the most difficult scale insect to control by chemical means, and suggested that any pesticide found to be effective against it would be effective against all scale insect pests. It is probably the water-repellent properties of its thick waxy plates that make I. insignis resistant to chemical sprays. Green (1922) found sprays containing soaps more effective than other pesticides. In view of the ineffectiveness of sprays, it is probably wise to ensure that any pesticide used against I. insignis does not injure its natural enemies, since they are likely to be important in helping to keep populations at low levels in the long term.

Hussain et al. (1996) tested neem and Pongamia pinnata oils at 4% against I. insignis on Crossandra sp. in Karnataka, India. At this concentration, both oils were found to be more effective at controlling the pest than quinalphos.

Phytosanitary Measures

If regulation is required, planting material of host-plant species of I. insignis should be inspected in the growing season previous to shipment and be found free of infestation. A phytosanitary certificate should guarantee absence of the pest from consignments of either planting material or produce. Any shipments of vegetative material of woody plants should be examined thoroughly to detect I. insignis.


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Arriola Padilla VJ, Estrada Martínez E, Romero Nápoles J, González Hernández H, Pérez Miranda R, 2016. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) on ornamental plants in greenhouses from the central zone of the Morelos state, Mexico. (Insectos escama (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) en plantas ornamentales en viveros de la zona centro del estado de Morelos, México.) Interciencia, 41(8):552-560.

Bartlett BR, 1978. Ortheziidae. In: Clausen CP, ed. Introduced Parasites and Predators of Arthropod Pests and Weeds: A World Review. Agriculture Handbook No. 480. Washington, DC, USA: United States Department of Agriculture, 136-137.

Beingolea G OD, 1971. Contribution to the knowledge of the Ortheziids of Peru.-I. Taxonomy. Revista Peruana de Entomologia, 14:1-32

Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D. R., Gibson, G. A. P., 1998. ScaleNet: a database of the scale insects of the world. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: United States Department of Agriculture. World Wide Web page at

Booth RG, Cross AE, Fowler SV, Shaw RH, 1995. The biology and taxonomy of Hyperaspis pantherina (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and the classical biological control of its prey, Orthezia insignis (Homoptera: Ortheziidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research, 85(3):307-314

Browne ET, 1887. Notes on a species of Orthezia found in Kew Gardens. Quekett Microscope Club Journal (series 2), 3:169-172.

Cavalcante LCC, 1975. Orthezia insignis (Browne, 1887), a polyphagous pest. Fitossanidade, 1(3):97

CIE, 1957. Distribution Maps of Pests No. 73. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Epila JSO, 1986. Aspects of the biology of Orthezia insignis Browne (Ortheziidae: Homoptera) infesting Hamelia sphaerocarpa Ruiz & Pav. (Rubiaceae) in Uganda I. Life history. Insect Science and its Application, 7(1):53-59

Ezzat YM, 1956. Studies on the "Kew Bug" Orthezia insignis Browne [Coccoidea - Ortheziidae]. Bulletin Société Entomologique d'Egypte, 40:415-431.

Garcia, M. M., Denno, B. D., Miller, D. R., Miller, G. L., Ben-Dov, Y., Hardy, N. B., 2016. ScaleNet: A literature-based model of scale insect biology and systematics.

Gill RJ, 1993. The scale insects of California. Part 2. The minor families (Homoptera: Coccoidea). Technical Series in Agricultural Biosystematics and Plant Pathology Number 2. Sacramento, California, USA: California Department of Food and Agriculture, 79-80.

Green EE, 1922. The Coccidae of Ceylon. Part V. London, UK: Dulou & Co, 347-472.

Hussain MA, Puttaswamy, Viraktamath CA, 1996. Effect of botanical oils on lantana bug, Orthezia insignis Browne infesting crossandra. Insect Environment, 2(3):85-86.

IIBC, 1996. Annual Report 1995. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

ISSG, 2017. Species profile Orthezia insignis, Global Invasive Species Database (GISD)

Kawai, S., 1980. Scale insects of Japan in colors. Tokyo, Japan: National Agricultural Education Association. 455 pp.

Lindinger L, 1935. Die nunmehr giltigen namen der arten in meinem "schildlausbuch" ind in den "schildlausen der Mitteleuropaischen gewachshauser. Entomologisches Jahrbuch, 44:127-149.

Mito, T., Uesugi, T., 2004. Invasive alieb species in Japan: the status quo and the new regulation for prevention of their adverse effects., Global Environmental Research, 8(2):171-193

Morrison H, 1925. Classification of scale insects of the subfamily Ortheziinae. Journal of Agricultural Research, 30:97-154.

Morrison H, 1952. Classification of the Ortheziidae. Supplement to "classification of scale insects of the subfamily Ortheziinae". United States Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin No. 1052.

Muniappan R, Viraktamath CA, 1986. Insects and mites associated with Chromolpna odorata (L.) R.M. King and H. Robinson (Asteraceae) in Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. Entomon, 11(4):285-287

Nakano O, Joko T, Parra JRP, 1974. Observations on the biology of Orthezia insignis Browne, 1887 (Homoptera-Ortheziidae). Anais de Sociedade Entomologica do Brasil, 3(1):44-48

National Institute for Environmental Studies, 2015. Invasive species of Japan

Williams DJ, Watson GW, 1990. The scale insects of the tropical South Pacific region. Part 3: the soft scales (Coccidae) and other families. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 267 pp.

Distribution Maps

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