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Datasheet

Agrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 11 October 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Agrilus planipennis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • emerald ash borer
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • The emerald ash borer, A. planipennis is an East Asian wood-boring beetle that is presently causing dramatic damage to ash (Fraxinus spp.) in the USA and Canada. Since its discovery in 2002 in Michigan, th...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Agrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer); adult beetle on a leaf in the USA. Note the highly irridescent appearance, the very large eyes and short antennae.  This is characteristic of many Buprestid beetles, often referred to as 'jewel beetles'.
TitleAdult
CaptionAgrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer); adult beetle on a leaf in the USA. Note the highly irridescent appearance, the very large eyes and short antennae. This is characteristic of many Buprestid beetles, often referred to as 'jewel beetles'.
Copyright©David Cappaert/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Agrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer); adult beetle on a leaf in the USA. Note the highly irridescent appearance, the very large eyes and short antennae.  This is characteristic of many Buprestid beetles, often referred to as 'jewel beetles'.
AdultAgrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer); adult beetle on a leaf in the USA. Note the highly irridescent appearance, the very large eyes and short antennae. This is characteristic of many Buprestid beetles, often referred to as 'jewel beetles'.©David Cappaert/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Agrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer); adult beetle, with elytra raised and dark wings visible. Note the highly irridescent appearance and the reddish tinge of the abdomen.
TitleAdult
CaptionAgrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer); adult beetle, with elytra raised and dark wings visible. Note the highly irridescent appearance and the reddish tinge of the abdomen.
Copyright©David Cappaert/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Agrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer); adult beetle, with elytra raised and dark wings visible. Note the highly irridescent appearance and the reddish tinge of the abdomen.
AdultAgrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer); adult beetle, with elytra raised and dark wings visible. Note the highly irridescent appearance and the reddish tinge of the abdomen.©David Cappaert/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Agrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer); egg cluster. EAB eggs are deposited in July, singly or in small clusters, in bark furrows. USA.
TitleEgg cluster
CaptionAgrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer); egg cluster. EAB eggs are deposited in July, singly or in small clusters, in bark furrows. USA.
Copyright©David Cappaert/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Agrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer); egg cluster. EAB eggs are deposited in July, singly or in small clusters, in bark furrows. USA.
Egg clusterAgrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer); egg cluster. EAB eggs are deposited in July, singly or in small clusters, in bark furrows. USA. ©David Cappaert/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Agrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer); larva boring in wood. Final instar collected in early September, when some individuals appeared to have completed feeding cycle. Maybury State Park, Michigan, USA. August 30, 2002.
TitleLarva
CaptionAgrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer); larva boring in wood. Final instar collected in early September, when some individuals appeared to have completed feeding cycle. Maybury State Park, Michigan, USA. August 30, 2002.
Copyright©David Cappaert/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Agrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer); larva boring in wood. Final instar collected in early September, when some individuals appeared to have completed feeding cycle. Maybury State Park, Michigan, USA. August 30, 2002.
LarvaAgrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer); larva boring in wood. Final instar collected in early September, when some individuals appeared to have completed feeding cycle. Maybury State Park, Michigan, USA. August 30, 2002.©David Cappaert/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Agrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer); almost fully mature larva feeding on cambium.
TitleLarva
CaptionAgrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer); almost fully mature larva feeding on cambium.
Copyright©David Cappaert/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Agrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer); almost fully mature larva feeding on cambium.
LarvaAgrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer); almost fully mature larva feeding on cambium. ©David Cappaert/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Agrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer); close-up of head capsule of almost fully mature larva feeding on cambium.
TitleLarva
CaptionAgrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer); close-up of head capsule of almost fully mature larva feeding on cambium.
Copyright©David Cappaert/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Agrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer); close-up of head capsule of almost fully mature larva feeding on cambium.
LarvaAgrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer); close-up of head capsule of almost fully mature larva feeding on cambium.©David Cappaert/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Agrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer); larval galleries.
TitleGalleries
CaptionAgrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer); larval galleries.
Copyright©David Cappaert/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Agrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer); larval galleries.
GalleriesAgrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer); larval galleries.©David Cappaert/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Agrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer); EAB galleries on a mature ash in the USA. Note scale and amount of damage.
TitleGalleries
CaptionAgrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer); EAB galleries on a mature ash in the USA. Note scale and amount of damage.
Copyright©Eric R. Day/Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Agrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer); EAB galleries on a mature ash in the USA. Note scale and amount of damage.
GalleriesAgrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer); EAB galleries on a mature ash in the USA. Note scale and amount of damage.©Eric R. Day/Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Agrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer); EAB galleries on a mature ash in the USA; note amount of damage visible under the tree bark.
TitleGalleries
CaptionAgrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer); EAB galleries on a mature ash in the USA; note amount of damage visible under the tree bark.
Copyright©Eric R. Day/Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Agrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer); EAB galleries on a mature ash in the USA; note amount of damage visible under the tree bark.
GalleriesAgrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer); EAB galleries on a mature ash in the USA; note amount of damage visible under the tree bark.©Eric R. Day/Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Agrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer); exit hole from which an adult beetle has emerged; note the characteristic 'D' shape.
TitleExit hole
CaptionAgrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer); exit hole from which an adult beetle has emerged; note the characteristic 'D' shape.
Copyright©David Cappaert/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Agrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer); exit hole from which an adult beetle has emerged; note the characteristic 'D' shape.
Exit holeAgrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer); exit hole from which an adult beetle has emerged; note the characteristic 'D' shape.©David Cappaert/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Agrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer); damage damage to an ash tree. Note thinning of the crown and browning of the foliage.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionAgrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer); damage damage to an ash tree. Note thinning of the crown and browning of the foliage.
Copyright©Eric R. Day/Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Agrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer); damage damage to an ash tree. Note thinning of the crown and browning of the foliage.
SymptomsAgrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer); damage damage to an ash tree. Note thinning of the crown and browning of the foliage.©Eric R. Day/Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Agrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer); damage damage to an ash tree in the USA. Note thinning of the crown and browning of the foliage.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionAgrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer); damage damage to an ash tree in the USA. Note thinning of the crown and browning of the foliage.
Copyright©Eric R. Day/Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Agrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer); damage damage to an ash tree in the USA. Note thinning of the crown and browning of the foliage.
SymptomsAgrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer); damage damage to an ash tree in the USA. Note thinning of the crown and browning of the foliage.©Eric R. Day/Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Agrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer); trunk injection. Mauget capsules are used to inject nutrients or pesticides into the cambium layer for uptake by the tree. The original mauget capsules are shown here.
TitleControl treatment
CaptionAgrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer); trunk injection. Mauget capsules are used to inject nutrients or pesticides into the cambium layer for uptake by the tree. The original mauget capsules are shown here.
Copyright©David Cappaert/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Agrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer); trunk injection. Mauget capsules are used to inject nutrients or pesticides into the cambium layer for uptake by the tree. The original mauget capsules are shown here.
Control treatmentAgrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer); trunk injection. Mauget capsules are used to inject nutrients or pesticides into the cambium layer for uptake by the tree. The original mauget capsules are shown here.©David Cappaert/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Atanycolus cappaerti; female, ovipositing into EAB host. A. cappaerti is a newly discovered Braconid (Hymenoptera) parasitoid of Agrilus planipennis.
TitleNatutral enemy of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (EAB)
CaptionAtanycolus cappaerti; female, ovipositing into EAB host. A. cappaerti is a newly discovered Braconid (Hymenoptera) parasitoid of Agrilus planipennis.
Copyright©David Cappaert/via Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Atanycolus cappaerti; female, ovipositing into EAB host. A. cappaerti is a newly discovered Braconid (Hymenoptera) parasitoid of Agrilus planipennis.
Natutral enemy of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (EAB)Atanycolus cappaerti; female, ovipositing into EAB host. A. cappaerti is a newly discovered Braconid (Hymenoptera) parasitoid of Agrilus planipennis.©David Cappaert/via Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Agrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer); natural enemy. Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Doryctinae). Adult probing bark for host larva. S. galinae is a new hymenopteran parasitoid and natural enemy of EAB, originally from the Russian Far East and South Korea. (https://www.aphis.usda.gov/plant_health/plant_pest_info/emerald_ash_b/downloads/EAB-FieldRelease-Guidelines.pdf)
TitleNatural enemy
CaptionAgrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer); natural enemy. Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Doryctinae). Adult probing bark for host larva. S. galinae is a new hymenopteran parasitoid and natural enemy of EAB, originally from the Russian Far East and South Korea. (https://www.aphis.usda.gov/plant_health/plant_pest_info/emerald_ash_b/downloads/EAB-FieldRelease-Guidelines.pdf)
Copyright©Jian Duan/USDA-ARS Beneficial Insects Introduction Research Unit - CC BY 2.0
Agrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer); natural enemy. Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Doryctinae). Adult probing bark for host larva. S. galinae is a new hymenopteran parasitoid and natural enemy of EAB, originally from the Russian Far East and South Korea. (https://www.aphis.usda.gov/plant_health/plant_pest_info/emerald_ash_b/downloads/EAB-FieldRelease-Guidelines.pdf)
Natural enemyAgrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer); natural enemy. Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Doryctinae). Adult probing bark for host larva. S. galinae is a new hymenopteran parasitoid and natural enemy of EAB, originally from the Russian Far East and South Korea. (https://www.aphis.usda.gov/plant_health/plant_pest_info/emerald_ash_b/downloads/EAB-FieldRelease-Guidelines.pdf)©Jian Duan/USDA-ARS Beneficial Insects Introduction Research Unit - CC BY 2.0
Atanycolus cappaerti; parasitoid cocoons (arrowed) in EAB larval galleries. A. cappaerti is a newly discovered Braconid (Hymenoptera) parasitoid of Agrilus planipennis.
TitleNatural enemy
CaptionAtanycolus cappaerti; parasitoid cocoons (arrowed) in EAB larval galleries. A. cappaerti is a newly discovered Braconid (Hymenoptera) parasitoid of Agrilus planipennis.
Copyright©David Cappaert/via Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Atanycolus cappaerti; parasitoid cocoons (arrowed) in EAB larval galleries. A. cappaerti is a newly discovered Braconid (Hymenoptera) parasitoid of Agrilus planipennis.
Natural enemyAtanycolus cappaerti; parasitoid cocoons (arrowed) in EAB larval galleries. A. cappaerti is a newly discovered Braconid (Hymenoptera) parasitoid of Agrilus planipennis.©David Cappaert/via Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Chionanthus virginicus (white fringe tree); close view, showing flowers and foliage. C. virginicus has recently (2012-14) been recognised as a new host plant for EAB, the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis): see ref: http://jee.oxfordjournals.org/content/108/1/370 - Author, Don Cipollini of Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio, USA.
TitleNew EAB host plant
CaptionChionanthus virginicus (white fringe tree); close view, showing flowers and foliage. C. virginicus has recently (2012-14) been recognised as a new host plant for EAB, the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis): see ref: http://jee.oxfordjournals.org/content/108/1/370 - Author, Don Cipollini of Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio, USA.
Copyright©Jerzy Opioła/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Chionanthus virginicus (white fringe tree); close view, showing flowers and foliage. C. virginicus has recently (2012-14) been recognised as a new host plant for EAB, the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis): see ref: http://jee.oxfordjournals.org/content/108/1/370 - Author, Don Cipollini of Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio, USA.
New EAB host plantChionanthus virginicus (white fringe tree); close view, showing flowers and foliage. C. virginicus has recently (2012-14) been recognised as a new host plant for EAB, the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis): see ref: http://jee.oxfordjournals.org/content/108/1/370 - Author, Don Cipollini of Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio, USA.©Jerzy Opioła/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Agrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer); A new host plant for EAB. Evidence of the successful current and past use of white fringetree by emerald ash borer. (A) Adult exit hole characteristic of emerald ash borer detected on white fringetree. (B) One-year-old feeding gallery found under the exit hole. (C) Two-year-old feeding gallery found on the same tree, showing wound-healing response. (D) Current season gallery with live emerald ash borer larva found on the same tree. ©Picture from: 'White Fringetree as a Novel Larval Host for Emerald Ash Borer'. Reproduced with permission from Oxford University Press. Journal of Economic Entomology Feb 2015, 108 (1) 370-375; DOI: 10.1093/jee/tou026. http://jee.oxfordjournals.org/content/108/1/370
TitleA new host plant for EAB
CaptionAgrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer); A new host plant for EAB. Evidence of the successful current and past use of white fringetree by emerald ash borer. (A) Adult exit hole characteristic of emerald ash borer detected on white fringetree. (B) One-year-old feeding gallery found under the exit hole. (C) Two-year-old feeding gallery found on the same tree, showing wound-healing response. (D) Current season gallery with live emerald ash borer larva found on the same tree. ©Picture from: 'White Fringetree as a Novel Larval Host for Emerald Ash Borer'. Reproduced with permission from Oxford University Press. Journal of Economic Entomology Feb 2015, 108 (1) 370-375; DOI: 10.1093/jee/tou026. http://jee.oxfordjournals.org/content/108/1/370
Copyright©Picture from: 'White Fringetree as a Novel Larval Host for Emerald Ash Borer'. With permission from Oxford University Press. Journal of Economic Entomology Feb 2015, 108 (1) 370-375;
Agrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer); A new host plant for EAB. Evidence of the successful current and past use of white fringetree by emerald ash borer. (A) Adult exit hole characteristic of emerald ash borer detected on white fringetree. (B) One-year-old feeding gallery found under the exit hole. (C) Two-year-old feeding gallery found on the same tree, showing wound-healing response. (D) Current season gallery with live emerald ash borer larva found on the same tree. ©Picture from: 'White Fringetree as a Novel Larval Host for Emerald Ash Borer'. Reproduced with permission from Oxford University Press. Journal of Economic Entomology Feb 2015, 108 (1) 370-375; DOI: 10.1093/jee/tou026. http://jee.oxfordjournals.org/content/108/1/370
A new host plant for EABAgrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer); A new host plant for EAB. Evidence of the successful current and past use of white fringetree by emerald ash borer. (A) Adult exit hole characteristic of emerald ash borer detected on white fringetree. (B) One-year-old feeding gallery found under the exit hole. (C) Two-year-old feeding gallery found on the same tree, showing wound-healing response. (D) Current season gallery with live emerald ash borer larva found on the same tree. ©Picture from: 'White Fringetree as a Novel Larval Host for Emerald Ash Borer'. Reproduced with permission from Oxford University Press. Journal of Economic Entomology Feb 2015, 108 (1) 370-375; DOI: 10.1093/jee/tou026. http://jee.oxfordjournals.org/content/108/1/370©Picture from: 'White Fringetree as a Novel Larval Host for Emerald Ash Borer'. With permission from Oxford University Press. Journal of Economic Entomology Feb 2015, 108 (1) 370-375;

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire

Preferred Common Name

  • emerald ash borer

EPPO code

  • AGRLPL (Agrilus plannipenis)

Summary of Invasiveness

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The emerald ash borer, A. planipennis is an East Asian wood-boring beetle that is presently causing dramatic damage to ash (Fraxinus spp.) in the USA and Canada. Since its discovery in 2002 in Michigan, the beetle has quickly spread to at least 15 US States and Canadian Provinces, mainly through the transport of infested firewood and other wood products. In about 10 years, it is estimated that the beetle has killed over 30 million forest and ornamental trees, causing significant economic damage as well as serious concern for the survival of several ash species and related biodiversity and ecosystems in North America. The beetle has recently been discovered in the region of Moscow, from where it could invade the whole of Europe. Given its enormous impact in North America, the beetle is now on the alert list of many global, regional and national plant protection and environment protection organizations worldwide.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Coleoptera
  •                         Family: Buprestidae
  •                             Genus: Agrilus
  •                                 Species: Agrilus planipennis

Description

Top of page Eggs

The eggs are light yellow, turning to brownish-yellow before hatching. They are oval and 1 x 0.6 mm. The centre of each egg is slightly convex.

Larvae

The mature larvae are 26-32 mm long and creamy-white. The body is flat and broad. The head is small and brown and retracted into the prothorax, exposing only the mouthparts. The prothorax is enlarged and the meso- and meta-thorax are slightly narrower. The mesothorax bears spiracles. The abdomen is ten-segmented. Segments one to eight have one pair of spiracles each and the last segment bears one pair of brownish serrated styles.

Pupae

The pupae are 10-14 mm long and creamy-white. The antennae stretch back to the base of the elytra and the last few segments of the abdomen bend slightly ventrally.

Adults

The adults are 8.5-14.0 mm long and 3.1-3.4 mm wide. The body is narrow and elongate, cuneiform and metallic blue-green. The species is glabrous, and is characterized by dense but fine sculpture. The head is flat and the vertex is shield-shaped. The compound eyes are kidney-shaped and somewhat bronze-coloured. The prothorax is transversely rectangular and slightly wider than the head, but is the same width as the anterior margin of the elytra. This anterior margin is raised, forming a transverse ridge, the surface of which is covered with punctures. The posterior margins of the elytra are round and obtuse with small, tooth-like, knobby projections on the edge.

Distribution

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A. planipennis is native to eastern Asia, where it has attracted little attention. In 2002, it was found in North America, probably introduced several years before through the port of Detroit, and now occurs in many US States (Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia and Wisconsin) as well as in the Canadian Provinces of Ontario and Quebec. The spread of A. planipennis in North America is frequently updated in Forest Service USDA et al. (2009). In 2007, it was officially reported from the region of Moscow, Russia. Unpublished observations and the extent of the outbreak in the Moscow region suggest that the beetle arrived there several years earlier (Baranchikov et al., 2008).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaRestricted distributionNative Not invasive Haack et al., 2002; Wei et al., 2004; CABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
-BeijingPresentWei et al., 2006
-HebeiWidespreadNative Not invasive Haack et al., 2002; Wei et al., 2004; CABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
-HeilongjiangWidespreadNative Not invasive Haack et al., 2002; Wei et al., 2004; CABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
-JilinWidespreadNative Not invasive Haack et al., 2002; Wei et al., 2004; CABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
-LiaoningWidespreadNative Not invasive Haack et al., 2002; Wei et al., 2004; CABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
-Nei MengguPresentNative Not invasive Haack et al., 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
-ShandongPresentNative Not invasive Haack et al., 2002; Wei et al., 2004; EPPO, 2014
-TianjinPresentLiu et al., 2003; Wei et al., 2004
-TianjinWidespreadNative Not invasive Liu et al., 2003; Wei et al., 2004
-XinjiangPresentNative Not invasive Wei et al., 2004; CABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
JapanPresentNative Not invasive Haack et al., 2002; Schaefer, 2005; EPPO, 2014
-HokkaidoPresentNative Not invasive Haack et al., 2002; Schaefer, 2005; CABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
-HonshuPresentNative Not invasive Haack et al., 2002; Schaefer, 2005; CABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
-KyushuPresentNative Not invasive Haack et al., 2002; Schaefer, 2005; CABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
-ShikokuPresentNative Not invasive Haack et al., 2002; Schaefer, 2005; CABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
Korea, DPRPresentNative Not invasive CABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
Korea, Republic ofWidespreadNative Not invasive Haack et al., 2002; Schaefer, 2005; Williams et al., 2005; EPPO, 2014
MongoliaAbsent, unreliable recordNative Not invasive Haack et al., 2002; Schaefer, 2005; EPPO, 2014No recent confirmation, possibly an error (Schaefer, 2005).
TaiwanPresentNative Not invasive Haack et al., 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014Type locality of junior synonym Agrilus feretrius but much further south than any other record therefore synonymy needs confirmation.

North America

CanadaRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive Haack et al., 2002; EPPO, 2014First observed in 2002.
-OntarioRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive NAPPO, 2010a; NAPPO, 2013a; NAPPO, 2013b; NAPPO, 2013c; NAPPO, 2013e; Haack et al., 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014First observed in 2002.
-QuebecRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive NAPPO, 2011b; NAPPO, 2013e; NAPPO, 2013g; NAPPO, 2013h; NAPPO, 2013i; CFIA, 2009; EPPO, 2014First observed in 2008.
USARestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive Haack et al., 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014First observed in 2002.
-AlabamaPresentNAPPO, 2016d
-ArkansasPresentNAPPO, 2016e
-ColoradoPresentEPPO, 2014
-ConnecticutPresentEPPO, 2014
-DelawareRestricted distributionIPPC, 2016
-District of ColumbiaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-GeorgiaPresentNAPPO, 2013f; EPPO, 2014
-IllinoisRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive Forest Service USDA, 2009; EPPO, 2014First observed in 2006.
-IndianaRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014First observed in 2004.
-IowaPresentNAPPO, 2010b; NAPPO, 2013f; EPPO, 2014
-KansasPresentNAPPO, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-KentuckyRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive NAPPO, 2010b; NAPPO, 2013d; Forest Service USDA, 2009; EPPO, 2014First observed in 2009.
-LouisianaPresentNAPPO, 2016a; NAPPO, 2016d
-MarylandRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014First observed in 2006.
-MassachusettsPresentEPPO, 2014
-MichiganRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive Haack et al., 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014First observed in 2002.
-MinnesotaRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive NAPPO, 2010b; Forest Service USDA, 2009; EPPO, 2014First observed in 2009.
-MissouriRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive NAPPO, 2013d; Forest Service USDA, 2009; EPPO, 2014First observed in 2008.
-NebraskaPresentNAPPO, 2016c
-New HampshireRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-New YorkRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive NAPPO, 2010b; Forest Service USDA, 2009; NAPPO, 2012; EPPO, 2014First observed in 2009.
-North CarolinaRestricted distributionNAPPO, 2013d; EPPO, 2014
-OhioRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014First observed in 2003.
-OklahomaPresentNAPPO, 2016d
-PennsylvaniaRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive Forest Service USDA, 2009; EPPO, 2014First observed in 2007.
-TennesseePresentNAPPO, 2010b; NAPPO, 2013d; EPPO, 2014
-TexasPresentNAPPO, 2016b
-VirginiaRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive OEPP/EPPO, 2004; CABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014First observed in 2008.
-West VirginiaRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive NAPPO, 2010b; Forest Service USDA, 2009; EPPO, 2014First observed in 2007.
-WisconsinRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive NAPPO, 2016d; Forest Service USDA, 2009; EPPO, 2014First observed in 2008.

Europe

NetherlandsAbsent, confirmed by surveyNPPO of the Netherlands, 2013; EPPO, 2014
Russian FederationRestricted distributionNative Not invasive Haack et al., 2002; EPPO, 2014
-Central RussiaRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive Baranchikov et al., 2008; EPPO, 2014In Moscow region, first observed in 2003.
-Russian Far EastRestricted distributionNative Not invasive Haack et al., 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014

History of Introduction and Spread

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A. planipennis is native to eastern Asia, where it has attracted little attention. In 2002, it was introduced into North America, probably in wood packing material or other wood products through the port of Detroit. It now occurs locally in many US States, Ontario and Quebec and is rapidly expanding its range (Poland, 2007; Forest Service USDA et al., 2009). In 2007, it was officially reported from the region of Moscow, Russia. Unpublished observations and the extent of the outbreak in this Moscow region suggest that the beetle arrived there several years earlier (Baranchikov et al., 2008).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Canada 2002 Yes CFIA, 2009
Central Russia 2007 Yes Baranchikov et al., 2008 In Moscow region.
Illinois 2006 Yes Forest Service USDA, 2009
Indiana 2004 Yes Forest Service USDA, 2009
Kentucky 2009 Yes Forest Service USDA, 2009
Maryland 2006 Yes Forest Service USDA, 2009
Michigan 2002 Yes Forest Service USDA, 2009
Minnesota 2009 Yes Forest Service USDA, 2009
Missouri 2008 Yes Forest Service USDA, 2009
New York 2009 Yes Forest Service USDA, 2009
Ohio 2003 Yes Forest Service USDA, 2009
Ontario 2002 Yes CFIA, 2009
Pennsylvania 2007 Yes Forest Service USDA, 2009
Quebec 2008 Yes CFIA, 2009
USA 2002 Yes Forest Service USDA, 2009
Virginia 2008 Yes Forest Service USDA, 2009
West Virginia 2007 Yes Forest Service USDA, 2009
Wisconsin 2008 Yes Forest Service USDA, 2009

Risk of Introduction

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A. planipennis has a high risk of further spread in North America, where restrictions have been imposed on the movement of ash trees, firewood, branches and logs from infested to uninfested areas (Haack et al., 2002; Cappaert et al., 2005). The species is featured on the Alert List of NAPPO (see http://www.pestalert.org). There is also a considerable risk that the beetle spreads from Moscow to most of Europe, where Fraxinus spp. are commonly grown in forests and for amenity purposes. In the light of its area of origin and the area where it has been introduced, and of the considerable damage in North America, it seems likely that A. planipennis would be able to survive and have economic impact in many parts of the EPPO region. Control (containment and suppression) would be very difficult to achieve (Baranchikov et al., 2008). On this basis, A. planipennis also features on the EPPO A1 list (OEPP/EPPO, 2005).

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial-managed
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Natural forests Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)

Hosts/Species Affected

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A. planipennis essentially attacks Fraxinus spp. In eastern Asia, several native species are recorded as hosts (Fraxinus chinensis, Fraxinus lanuginosa and Fraxinus mandshurica), but the pest has not attracted particular attention. In North America, where it is introduced, A. planipennis damages native American species, especially Fraxinus americana, Fraxinus pennsylvanica and Fraxinus nigra (Anulewicz et al., 2008; Rebek et al., 2008). In Moscow, it also kills the European ash Fraxinus excelsior (Baranchikov et al., 2008). In Asia, it is said to also occur on Juglans ailantifolia, Pterocarya rhoifolia and Ulmus japonica [Ulmus davidiana var. japonica] (Haack et al., 2002). However, intensive studies to assess the potential host range of A. planipennis in North America showed that, although females may occasionally oviposit on other tree genera, larval development occurred only on Fraxinus spp. (Anulewicz et al., 2008). Cipollini (2015) has recently shown that emerald ash borer can attack and complete development in white fringetree, Chionanthus virginicus.

Growth Stages

Top of page Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

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The larvae make long serpentine galleries (up to 26-32 mm long) into the sapwood, which enlarge as they grow and are filled with brownish sawdust and frass. Callus tissue produced by the tree in response to larval feeding may cause vertical splits, 5-10 cm long, in the bark above a gallery. Newly emerged adults bore 'D'-shaped (3-4 mm diameter) exit holes on trunks and branches. As the larvae damage the vascular system, attacks cause general yellowing and thinning of the foliage, dying of branches, crown dieback and eventually death of the tree after 2 to 3 years of infestation. Basal sprouting and also the presence of woodpeckers may indicate wood-boring beetle activity. After 1 to 2 years of infestation, the bark often falls off in pieces from damaged trees, exposing the insect galleries.

List of Symptoms/Signs

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Leaves

  • abnormal colours

Stems

  • dieback
  • internal feeding

Whole plant

  • internal feeding
  • plant dead; dieback

Biology and Ecology

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Agrilus is a large genus of flat-headed woodborers with species found in Asia, Australia, Europe and North America (Browne, 1968). The larvae typically feed in the cambium of trees or in the stems of vines and small woody plants. The adults are attractive insects with striking metallic colours and are often referred to as jewel beetles. The life-cycle of A. planipennis is described in China by Yu (1992) and Wei et al. (2004, 2007) and in North America by Cappaert et al. (2005), Poland and McCullough (2006), Timms et al. (2006) and Poland (2007). In North America, A. planipennis typically has one generation per year, though some individuals may require 2 years to complete a generation. In China, it completes its cycle in 1 year in Tianjin Province, but it is usually semivoltine in the cooler climate of Heilongjiang and Jilin Provinces. In Michigan, USA, adult emergence occurs in late May and early June, coinciding with the accumulation of 230-260 degree days, calculated on a base 10°C threshold (Brown-Rytlewski and Wilson, 2005). After emergence, they walk to the crown of their host tree and feed on small amounts of ash foliage, continuing to feed throughout their life, which lasts about 3 to 6 weeks. Initial flight begins 3-4 h after first feeding. The adults are active from 06.00 to 17.00 h, especially on warm sunny days. Mating starts 5-7 days after emergence. Pureswaran and Poland (2009) showed the importance of olfactory cues in short range mate finding and a contact pheromone has recently been identified in the cuticle of sexually mature females (Silk et al., 2009). Females feed for another 5-7 days before oviposition begins. Eggs are laid individually on the bark surface, inside bark cracks and crevices, mostly in late June to early July in Michigan (Cappaert et al., 2005). Each female lays an average of 50-90 eggs although one female reared in captivity laid 258 eggs (Lyons et al., 2004). The eggs hatch in about 1-2 weeks. First-instar larvae tunnel through the bark to the cambium, where they feed from mid-June to October-November. The larvae make long serpentine galleries (up to 26-32 mm long) into the sapwood, which enlarge as they grow and are filled with brownish sawdust and frass. Larvae pass through four instars (Cappaert et al., 2005). In a univoltine cycle, the mature larvae overwinter in pupal cells about 1 cm deep in the sapwood or outer bark. Pupation occurs in April-May and adults emerge about 3 weeks later. The adults remain under the bark for 1-2 weeks and then emerge through 'D'-shaped exit holes that are about 3-4 mm wide.

In a semivoltine cycle, mid-instar larvae overwinter in the cambium, resume feeding in April and complete development in late summer (Wei et al., 2004, 2007).

 

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
D - Continental/Microthermal climate Preferred Continental/Microthermal climate (Average temp. of coldest month < 0°C, mean warmest month > 10°C)
Df - Continental climate, wet all year Preferred Continental climate, wet all year (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year)
Dw - Continental climate with dry winter Preferred Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters)

Notes on Natural Enemies

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In Asia, A. planipennis is attacked by a range of parasitoids. Most studies have been carried out in China, in order to find biological control agents for North America (Liu et al., 2003, 2007; Yang et al., 2005, 2006). Eggs are attacked by the encyrtid Oobius agrili, with parasitism rates of up to 61.5% (Liu et al., 2007). Larvae are parasitized by the gregarious eulophid Tetrastichus planipennisi and by a gregarious braconid, Spathius agrili. Yang et al. (2005) measured a parasitism rate of 30-90% by S. agrili alone and Yang et al. (2006) observed a parasitism rate by T. planipennisi of 32-65%. According to Liu et al. (2007), the two larval parasitoids were responsible for a 73.6% reduction in host population. Two braconids, Spathius depressithorax and Spathius generosus were reared from A. planipennis in the Russian Far East (Baranchikov et al., 2008). Predators and pathogens seem rare in Asia (Liu et al., 2003).

In North America, the main natural enemies are woodpeckers, which kill 9-95% of the larvae (Cappaert et al., 2005). Parasitism by native North American parasitoids is usually very low, although Cappaert and McCullough (2009) recently reported high parasitism rates (up to 71%) by a previously undescribed braconid, Atanycolus cappaerti, in Michigan.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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To date, at least six exotic species of Agrilus have established in the USA. Between 1985 and 2000, 38 confirmed detections of Agrilus spp. were made at US points of entry, 28 from dunnage, four from crating, four from grapevine leaves, one from a cutting and one in a ship's hold (Haack et al., 2002).

Natural dispersal

Laboratory studies using computer-monitored flight mills and digital video monitoring of beetles in a free flight room showed that the adults are strong fliers (Taylor et al., 2007). Long-distance flights of several kilometres are possible. However, field observations at outlier sites suggest that dispersal by adults alone is less than 1 km per year, usually 100-200 m per year (Cappaert et al., 2005; Poland, 2007).

Accidental Introduction

Long-distance dispersal occurs through human-assisted movement of plants and wood products (including wood, wood packing, wood chips and firewood) containing bark strips, moving in local and international trade. While it probably came to North America in wood packing material, the rapid spread of the beetle in North America (ca. 10 km/year in Michigan) is attributed mainly to the transport of infested firewood (Cappaert et al., 2005; Poland, 2007).

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark adults; eggs; larvae; nymphs; pupae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants adults; eggs; larvae; nymphs; pupae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches adults; eggs; larvae; nymphs; pupae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Wood larvae; pupae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Leaves
Roots
True seeds (inc. grain)

Wood Packaging

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Wood Packaging liable to carry the pest in trade/transportTimber typeUsed as packing
Solid wood packing material with bark No
Solid wood packing material without bark Fraxinus spp. Yes
Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Loose wood packing material
Non-wood
Processed or treated wood

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Negative
Economic/livelihood Negative
Environment (generally) Negative

Impact

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Economic Impact

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Trees attacked by A. planipennis are ultimately killed. In China and Russia, A. planipennis typically attacks weakened ash trees, particularly those that grow in open areas or at the edge of closed forests. Entire stands can be killed during outbreaks, but only when American ash species are planted (Liu et al., 2003; Zhao et al., 2007; Baranchikov et al., 2008). Attack densities are highest in the lower bole of host trees (Yu, 1992). In contrast, in North America, A. planipennis has infested and killed trees in both open settings and closed forests and the attacks begin in the upper bole and main branches of host trees. To date, it is estimated that A. planipennis has killed over 30 million trees over the past few years in North America, in particular Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Fraxinus americana and Fraxinus nigra, as well as several horticultural varieties of ash (Poland, 2007; Forest Service USDA et al., 2009). A. planipennis can kill trees of various size and condition (small trees of 5 cm trunk diameter to large mature trees). Tree death usually occurs within 3 years following initial attack although heavier infestations can kill trees within 1 to 2 years (Haack et al., 2002). The spread of A. planipennis in North America is expected to continue, and the economic impact of the invasion is likely to become enormous (Poland and McCullough, 2006). There are more than 8 billion ash trees in the USA alone, belonging to 16 native ash species, among which six are economically important. Ashes are important park, garden and street trees. These trees have to be replaced and there are now fewer viable choices for their replacement. Ash wood is a high-quality material for various special uses albeit not produced on a plantation scale. The undiscounted compensatory values of forest and urban ash in the USA were estimated at US$282 billion and US$20-60 billion, respectively (Poland and McCullough, 2006).

Environmental Impact

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Various species of ash are important components of many broadleaf forest communities in the northern hemisphere. In the native range of A. planipennis in eastern Asia, there is no particular indication that A. planipennis has a significant impact on native forests. However, in North America ashes are being attacked in open situations and in forests, and tens of millions of trees are killed. The long-term environmental impact of this mortality will undoubtedly be very high. Some ash species, such as Fraxinus nigra and F. pennsylvanica, are dominant species of forest ecosystems and play essential roles in ecosystem functioning. Ash forests are likely to show an altered tree species composition and reduced biodiversity. For example, at least 21 moth species feed exclusively on ash, among which several are vulnerable to extinction (Wagner, 2007). Ground beetle species richness is reduced in ash stands impacted by A. planipennis, at least initially (Herms et al., 2008). Preliminary studies also suggest that stands affected by the beetle, either through natural mortality or eradication efforts, are likely to be more invaded by invasive plants (Hausman et al., 2008; Herms et al., 2008).

Impact: Biodiversity

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Ash forests are likely to show an altered tree species composition and reduced biodiversity. Several ash species will surely decline in North America, which, through cascading effects, may have consequences on other components of biodiversity. For example, at least 21 moth species feed exclusively on ash, among which several are vulnerable to extinction (Wagner, 2007). Ground beetle species richness is reduced in ash stands impacted by A. planipennis, at least initially (Herms et al., 2008).

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Fraxinus (ashes)No DetailsCanada; USAHerbivory/grazing/browsingPoland and McCullough, 2006
Fraxinus americana (white ash)No DetailsCanada; USAHerbivory/grazing/browsingPoland and McCullough, 2006
Fraxinus excelsior (ash)No details No detailsRussia (Europe)Herbivory/grazing/browsingBaranchikov et al., 2008
Fraxinus nigra (black ash)No details No detailsCanada; USAHerbivory/grazing/browsingPoland and McCullough, 2006
Fraxinus pennsylvanica (downy ash)No details No detailsCanada; USAHerbivory/grazing/browsingPoland and McCullough, 2006

Social Impact

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Ash species are important amenity trees in North America, and millions of ash trees have been cut in cities and villages.

Risk and Impact Factors

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Impact mechanisms

  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Herbivory/grazing/browsing

Impact outcomes

  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Host damage
  • Increases vulnerability to invasions
  • Negatively impacts forestry
  • Negatively impacts tourism
  • Reduced amenity values
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species

Invasiveness

  • Has a broad native range
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Proved invasive outside its native range

Likelihood of entry/control

  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally

Detection and Inspection

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The larval galleries and exit holes are characteristic, and are not normally seen in Fraxinus spp. outside Asia. At high densities, other external symptoms include bark cracks, dieback and epicormic shoots. However, detecting trees with low to moderate densities of A. planipennis is difficult using visual surveys because the beetles initially colonize the upper canopy.

Girdled trap trees with sticky bands to capture adults have proven useful in detecting new infestations although the technique is labour intensive, destructive and not ideal for large-scale surveys (Cappaert et al., 2005). Studies are being carried out to discover trapping methods and attractive lures that could be more effective for detection (Rodriguez-Saona et al., 2006; De Groot et al., 2008; Lelito et al., 2008; Pureswaran and Poland, 2009).

Prevention and Control

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Since the discovery of A. planipennis in North America in 2002, various control methods have been studied and implemented.

Silvicultural Methods

In North America and Europe, A. planipennis attacks and kills healthy trees. Thus, the silvicultural methods to maintain or enhance tree vigour, which are usually applied to prevent the attack of most bark and wood-boring insects are of little value.

To prevent the emergence of adults from dead or cut trees, mechanical destruction of infested trees through chipping, grinding or heat treatment is recommended (McCullough et al., 2007).

Chemical Control

Insecticides can be sprayed on cut logs to kill adults at emergence and sanitize infested logs (Petrice and Haack, 2006). Cover sprays and trunk or soil injections of insecticides can also be used to protect high value urban and shade trees within the quarantined areas, although annual treatments are usually required (Poland, 2007). Effectiveness depends on insecticide products, injection methods, timing tree size and the extent of previous injury. No insecticide seems to provide 100% control, but ash trees can tolerate minor damage by the beetle. In woodland and forested areas, insecticidal control is neither economically viable nor environmentally desirable (Cappaert et al., 2005; Poland and McCullough, 2006).

Biological Control

Three parasitoid species were collected in China, determined to have adequate specificity, and released in North America: the egg parasitoid Oobius agrili and two larval parasitoids, Tetrastichus planipennisi and Spathius agrili (Bauer et al., 2007). At least O. agrili and S. agrili seem to have become established (Bauer et al., 2008) but impacts of the parasitoids have not yet been determined.

The fungus Beauveria bassiana has been found to be highly virulent against A. planipennis, and demonstrated lethal effects in greenhouse and field trials when applied on emerging adults and larvae (Liu and Bauer, 2008a). Foliar and trunk applications in the field were also able to significantly reduce populations of A. planipennis both at newly colonised ash sites and at sites with established pest populations (Liu and Bauer, 2008b).

Phytosanitary Measures

In the USA and Canada, movement of ash material from infested areas is regulated by federal quarantine regulations. Prohibited material includes ash trees, limbs or cut firewood, ash logs and lumber, uncomposted ash wood chips and bark chips larger than 1 inch in diameter. In Michigan, sale or transport of ash nursery trees is prohibited state-wide, and transport of any non-coniferous firewood out of the quarantined counties is prohibited as well (Poland and McCullough, 2006). In various regions in the USA and Canada, eradication cuts have been carried out at outlier sites, consisting of the cutting and shipping of all ash trees within a certain distance of infested trees (Poland and McCullough, 2006; Poland, 2007).

Current regulations, following the IPPC International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures No. 15, require that solid wood packaging material be heat treated or fumigated prior to export.

References

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Anulewicz AC; McCullough DG; Cappaert DL; Poland TM, 2008. Host range of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in North America: results of multiple-choice field experiments. Environmental Entomology, 37(1):230-241. http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1603/0046-225X%282008%2937%5B230%3AHROTEA%5D2.0.CO%3B2

Baranchikov Y; Mozolevskaya E; Yurchenko G; Kenis M, 2008. Occurrence of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis in Russia and its potential impact on European forestry. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 38(2):233-238. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/epp

Bauer LS; Liu H; Gould JR; Reardon RC, 2007. Progress on biological control of the emerald ash borer in North America. Biocontrol News and Information, 28:51N-54N.

Bauer LS; Liu H; Miller D; Gould JR, 2008. Developing a classical biological control program for agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive ash pest in north America. Newsletter of the Michigan Entomological Society, 53:38-39.

Belokobylskij SA; Yurchenko GI; Strazanac JS; Zaldívar-Riverón A; Mastro V, 2012. A new emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) parasitoid species of Spathius Nees (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Doryctinae) from the Russian Far East and South Korea. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 105(2):165-178. http://esa.publisher.ingentaconnect.com/content/esa/aesa/2012/00000105/00000002/art00005

Browne FG, 1968. Pests and diseases of forest plantation trees: an annotated list of the principal species occurring in the British Commonwealth. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press.

Brown-Rytlewski DE; Wilson MA, 2005. Tracking the emergence of emerald ash borer adults. Emerald Ash Borer Research and Technology Development Meeting, Romulus, MI, 5-6 Oct. 2004. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service publication FHTET-2004-15 [ed. by Mastro, V. \Reardon, D.]. Washington, DC, USA: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, 13-14.

CABI/EPPO, 2006. Agrilus planipennis. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No. 675. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Cappaert D; McCullough DG, 2009. Occurrence and seasonal abundance of Atanycolus cappaerti (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) a native parasitoid of emerald ash borer, Agrilus plonipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Great Lakes Entomologist, 42(1/2):16-29.

Cappaert D; McCullough DG; Poland TM; Siegert NW, 2005. Emerald ash borer in North America: a research and regulatory challenge. American Entomologist, 51:152-165.

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Cipollini D, 2015. White fringetree as a novel larval host for emerald ash borer. Journal of Economic Entomology, January 2015. http://jee.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2015/01/10/jee.tou026

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

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Groot Pde; Grant GG; Poland TM; Scharbach R; Buchan L; Nott RW; Macdonald L; Pitt D, 2008. Electrophysiological response and attraction of emerald ash borer to green leaf volatiles (GLVs) emitted by host foliage. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 34(9):1170-1179. http://www.springerlink.com/link.asp?id=104273

Haack RA; Jendek E; Houping Liu; Marchant KR; Petrice TR; Poland TM; Hui Ye, 2002. The emerald ash borer: a new exotic pest in North America. Newsletter of the Michigan Entomological Society, 47(3-4):1-5.

Hausman CE; Rocha OJ; Jaeger JF, 2008. How emerald ash borer facilitates a secondary spread of invasive plant species : Impacts of emerald ash borer eradication and tree mortality. Emerald ash borer research and development review meeting; 2007 October 23-24; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. FHTET 2007-04 [ed. by Mastro, V. \Lance, D. \Reardon, R. \Parra, G.]. Morgantown, West Virginia, USA: US Forest Service, Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team, 14-15.

Herms DA; Ghandi KJK; Cardina J; Long RP; Knight KS; Smith A; McCullough DG, 2008. Emerald ash borer research and development review meeting; 2007 October 23-24; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. FHTET 2007-04 [ed. by Mastro, V. \Lance, D. \Reardon, R. \Parra, G.]. Morgantown, West Virginia, USA: US Forest Service, Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team, 10.

IPPC, 2016. Agrilus planipennis (Emerald Ash Borer) - APHIS adds Delaware to the regulated area in the United States. IPPC Official Pest Report, No. USA-85/1. Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/

Lelito JP; Fraser I; Mastro VC; Tumlinson JH; Baker TC, 2008. Novel visual-cue-based sticky traps for monitoring of emerald ash borers, Agrilus planipennis (Col., Buprestidae). Journal of Applied Entomology, 132(8):668-674. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/jen

Liu HP; Bauer LS, 2008. Microbial control of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) with Beauveria bassiana strain GHA: field applications. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 18(6):557-571. http://journalsonline.tandf.co.uk/link.asp?id=100635

Liu HP; Bauer LS, 2008. Microbial Control of Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) with Beauveria bassiana Strain GHA: Greenhouse and Field Trials. Biological Control, 45:124-132.

Liu HP; Bauer LS; Gao RuiTong; Zhao TongHai; Petrice TR; Haack RA, 2003. Exploratory survey for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), and its natural enemies in China. Great Lakes Entomologist, 36(3/4):191-204.

Liu HP; Bauer LS; Miller DL; Zhao TongHai; Gao RuiTong; Song LiWen; Luan QingShu; Jin RuoZhong; Gao ChangQi, 2007. Seasonal abundance of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and its natural enemies Oobius agrili (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in China. Biological Control, 42(1):61-71. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/10499644

Lyons DB; Groot Pde; Jones GC; Scharbach R, 2009. Host selection by Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): inferences from sticky-band trapping. Canadian Entomologist, 141(1):40-52. http://pubservices.nrc-cnrc.ca/rp-ps/absres.jsp?jcode=ent&ftl=n08-045&lang=eng

Lyons DB; Jones GC; Wainin-Keizer K, 2004. The biology and phenology of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis. Emerald Ash Borer Research and Technology Development Meeting, Port Huron, MI, 30 Sept.-1 Oct. 2003. Morgantown, WV, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service publication FHTET-2004-02, FHTET-2004-02 [ed. by Mastro, V. \Reardon, R.]. Morgantown, West Virginia, USA: USDA Forest Service, 5.

McCullough DG; Poland TM; Cappaert D; Clark EL; Fraser I; Mastro V; Smith S; Pell C, 2007. Effects of chipping, grinding, and heat on survival of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), in chips. Journal of Economic Entomology, 100(4):1304-1315. http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1603/0022-0493%282007%29100%5B1304%3AEOCGAH%5D2.0.CO%3B2

NAPPO, 2010. Phytosanitary Alert System: Sixteen counties in New York added to the Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis) quarantine area. NAPPO. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=464

NAPPO, 2010. Phytosanitary Alert System: Update on the Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) in Canada - First Report of Presence in Brantford, Ontario. NAPPO. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=437

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NAPPO, 2011. Phytosanitary Alert System: Entire Commonwealth of Pennsylvannia added to the Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis) quarantined area. NAPPO. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=484

NAPPO, 2012. Phytosanitary Alert System: Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis): New counties in Kansas and New York added to the regulated areas. Phytosanitary Alert System: Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis): New counties in Kansas and New York added to the regulated areas. NAPPO. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=536

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NAPPO, 2013. Phytosanitary Alert System: December 2013 Report: emerald ash borer found in new locations in Ontario and Quebec. Phytosanitary Alert System: December 2013 Report: emerald ash borer found in new locations in Ontario and Quebec. NAPPO. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=572

NAPPO, 2013. Phytosanitary Alert System: Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis): Counties in Kentucky, Missouri, North Carolina, and Tennessee added to the regulated area. Phytosanitary Alert System: Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis): Counties in Kentucky, Missouri, North Carolina, and Tennessee added to the regulated area. NAPPO. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=555

NAPPO, 2013. Phytosanitary Alert System: Emerald ash borer confirmed in Grey County, Ontario. Phytosanitary Alert System: Emerald ash borer confirmed in Grey County, Ontario. NAPPO. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=551

NAPPO, 2013. Phytosanitary Alert System: emerald ash borer confirmed in the city of Kawartha lakes, Ontario. Phytosanitary Alert System: emerald ash borer confirmed in the city of Kawartha lakes, Ontario. NAPPO. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=552

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NAPPO, 2016. Agrilus planipennis (Emerald Ash Borer) - APHIS adds Counties in Arkansas to the regulated area in the United States. NAPPO. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=696

NAPPO, 2016. Phytosanitary Alert System: Agrilus planipennis (Emerald Ash Borer) - APHIS adds Counties in Nebraska to the regulated area in the United States. NAPPO. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=670

NAPPO, 2016. Phytosanitary Alert System: Agrilus planipennis (Emerald Ash Borer) - APHIS adds County in Texas to the regulated area in the United States. NAPPO. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=671

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Emerald Ash Borerhttp://www.inspection.gc.ca/english/plaveg/pestrava/agrpla/agrplae.shtml
Emerald ash borerhttp://www.emeraldashborer.info/
USDA Forest Service North Central Research Station Emerald Ash Borerhttp://nrs.fs.fed.us/disturbance/invasive_species/eab/

Organizations

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Canada: Canadian Forest Service, Ottawa, ON K1A 0E8, http://cfs.nrcan.gc.ca/

USA: Michigan State University, Department of Entomology, East Lansing, MI 48824, http://www.ent.msu.edu/

USA: Ohio State University, Department of Entomology, Wooster, OH 44691, http://entomology.osu.edu/main.asp

USA: United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, D.C. 20250-1111, http://www.fs.fed.us/

Contributors

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19/08/2009 Updated by:

Marc Kenis, CABI Europe - Switzerland, 1 Chemin des Grillons, CH-2800 Delémont, Switzerland

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