Orobanche minor (common broomrape)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Plant Type
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Growth Stages
- Latitude/Altitude Ranges
- Air Temperature
- Rainfall Regime
- Soil Tolerances
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Plant Trade
- Impact Summary
- Environmental Impact
- Impact: Biodiversity
- Social Impact
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Orobanche minor Sm. (1797)
Preferred Common Name
- common broomrape
Other Scientific Names
- Orobanche abyssinnica A. Rich. (1851)
- Orobanche apiculata Wallr. (1822)
- Orobanche barbata Poir.
- Orobanche concolor Duby
- Orobanche crithmi Bertol.
- Orobanche euglossa Rchb.f.
- Orobanche grisebachii Reut. 1846
- Orobanche hyalina Spruner ex Reut.
- Orobanche laurina Bertol.
- Orobanche livida Sendtn. ex Freyn
- Orobanche pyrrha Rchb.f.
- Orobanche unicolor Boreau
- Orobanche yuccae Pa.Savi ex Bertol.
International Common Names
- English: clover broomrape; lesser broomrape; small broomrape
- Spanish: rabo de lobo
- French: Orobanche du trefle; petit orobanche
- Portuguese: erva-toira-menor
Local Common Names
- Germany: Kleeteufel; Kleine sommerwurz
- Italy: Orobanche del trifoglio
- Japan: yase-utsubo
- Netherlands: klavervreter
- USA: hellroot
- ORAGB (Orobanche grisebachii)
- ORAMI (Orobanche minor)
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Dicotyledonae
- Order: Scrophulariales
- Family: Orobanchaceae
- Genus: Orobanche
- Species: Orobanche minor
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
The taxonomy and nomenclature of O. minor is a matter of some disagreement as it exists in a wide range of forms which are variously treated as varieties, sub-species or distinct species. Beck-Mannagetta (1930) recognises two varieties, var. genuine and var. neglecta, and many 'forma' but Flora Europaea (Chater and Webb, 1972) recognises no divisions. Benharrat et al. (2000) have recently used molecular techniques to confirm the distinctions between O. minor and the closely related taxa O. amethystea, O. loricata and O. hederae. Stace (1991) and Rumsey and Jury (1991) list varieties in the UK as: var. minor (on a wide range of hosts); var. flava with yellow corolla (on Hypochaeris radicata and related species); var. maritima with yellow bosses on the lower lip (on Daucus carota, Plantago coronopus and Ononis repens); and var. compositarum, with narrow erect corollas pressed to the stem (mainly on Crepis virens [C. capillaris] and other Compositae [Asteraceae]). Where morphological variants are associated with particular host species it is not known whether the morphology is affected by the host, nor whether these variants are truly host-specific.
DescriptionTop of page
Plant TypeTop of page
DistributionTop of page
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Russia||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|Serbia and Montenegro||Present||Native|
|United States||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|Australia||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-New South Wales||Present||Introduced|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
Introduced to the USA, Japan, Chile, Australia, New Zealand, and southern Africa but little available information on the dates or methods of introduction. It has not proved invasive in the USA but causes concern in South Africa (Henderson et al., 1987) and has been a serious pest of tobacco locally in New Zealand (James and Frater, 1977).
Frost and Musselman (1980) report that in a survey of herbarium material, O. minor was found to have a 116-year history in the USA. The species has been collected 98 times in 12 states plus the District of Columbia and appears to be established at maritime ports and along railway lines. The distribution pattern suggests repeated introductions from foreign sources and persistence in some areas. Most of the infestations in the USA have later been eradicated, either by removal of host plants or by fumigation. (Eplee et al., 1994).
In Chile, O. minor is known to have occurred since 1952 and has spread south to latitude 39°S from its original site at latitude 37°S (Norambuena et al., 1999).
In Japan, O. minor was first recorded in 1937. It has spread to much of the country but has not apparently caused serious concern (K. Yoneyama, Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya 321-8505, Japan, personal communication).
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
HabitatTop of page
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial||Managed||Cultivated / agricultural land||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Managed grasslands (grazing systems)||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Disturbed areas||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Rail / roadsides||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
Where morphological variants are associated with particular host species it is not known whether the morphology is affected by the host, nor whether these variants are truly host-specific.
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
|Apium graveolens (celery)||Apiaceae||Other|
|Arachis hypogaea (groundnut)||Fabaceae||Other|
|Bidens (Burmarigold)||Asteraceae||Wild host|
|Carduus chamaecephalus (stemless thistle)||Asteraceae||Wild host|
|Carthamus tinctorius (safflower)||Asteraceae||Other|
|Centella asiatica (Asiatic pennywort)||Apiaceae||Wild host|
|Daucus carota (carrot)||Apiaceae||Other|
|Guizotia abyssinica (niger)||Asteraceae||Other|
|Helianthus annuus (sunflower)||Asteraceae||Other|
|Hypochaeris radicata (cat's ear)||Asteraceae||Wild host|
|Lactuca sativa (lettuce)||Asteraceae||Other|
|Lotus corniculatus (bird's-foot trefoil)||Fabaceae||Other|
|Medicago sativa (lucerne)||Fabaceae||Other|
|Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)||Solanaceae||Other|
|Tagetes minuta (stinking Roger)||Asteraceae||Wild host|
|Trifolium pratense (red clover)||Fabaceae||Main|
|Trifolium repens (white clover)||Fabaceae||Main|
|Trifolium subterraneum (subterranean clover)||Fabaceae||Main|
|Vicia faba (faba bean)||Fabaceae||Main|
|Xanthium (Cocklebur)||Asteraceae||Wild host|
Growth StagesTop of page
Latitude/Altitude RangesTop of page
|Latitude North (°N)||Latitude South (°S)||Altitude Lower (m)||Altitude Upper (m)|
Air TemperatureTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit|
|Mean annual temperature (ºC)||8||29|
|Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC)||20||40|
|Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC)||0||15|
RainfallTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit||Description|
|Dry season duration||0||10||number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall|
|Mean annual rainfall||180||1300||mm; lower/upper limits|
Rainfall RegimeTop of page
Soil TolerancesTop of page
Special soil tolerances
Natural enemiesTop of page
|Natural enemy||Type||Life stages||Specificity||References||Biological control in||Biological control on|
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
Orobanche species are affected by a wide range of fungal pathogens and many of those recorded by Linke et al. (1992) on O. crenata are likely to also occur on O. minor, in addition to Aspergillus niger and Alternaria alternata which were recorded on O. minor. The complete collapse of plants sometimes observed after attack by Phytomyza is often the result of fungal infection associated with the physical damage caused to the stems by Phytomyza larvae.
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
Seeds of O. minor are small enough to be blown some distance by wind but rarely further than a few metres. Movement in surface water is likely to occasionally provide longer-distance dispersal.
Vector Transmission (Biotic)
Movement by animals may occasionally occur but only in a sporadic way.
By far the most important agent of local dispersal is farm machinery transporting contaminated soil from field to field and from farm to farm.
Accidental introduction over long distances, including national boundaries, may occur when contaminated soil or crop seed is introduced.
Intentional introduction is unlikely.
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Fruits (inc. pods)||seeds|
|Growing medium accompanying plants||seeds|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches||seeds|
|True seeds (inc. grain)||seeds|
|Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
Impact SummaryTop of page
|Fisheries / aquaculture||None|
ImpactTop of page
O. minor is recorded by Holm et al. (1979, 1997) as a 'serious' weed of beans and peas in Egypt, of legumes in Czechoslovakia, and of clover, rape and tobacco in New Zealand; also a 'principal' weed of legumes in Italy and Pakistan, and in grassland in Uganda. It is also common in lucerne in Turkey, in legumes in Hungary and vegetables in Saudi Arabia. The most widespread hosts appear to be the forage legumes (Trifolium spp., Medicago sativa and Lotus corniculatus). In Ethiopia it may cause local damage to safflower, sunflower, tobacco, noug (Guizotia abyssinica), lettuce, groundnut, faba bean and tobacco, as well as to clovers (Parker, 1992).
In some countries, the importance of O. minor as a weed has declined with the reduced cultivation of Trifolium seed crops, as in the Netherlands (ter Borg et al., 1994), and in the UK (Parker and Riches, 1993).
Environmental ImpactTop of page
Impact: BiodiversityTop of page
Social ImpactTop of page
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page
- Invasive in its native range
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Highly mobile locally
- Has high reproductive potential
- Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
- Negatively impacts agriculture
- Competition - monopolizing resources
- Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
- Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
- Difficult/costly to control
UsesTop of page
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
Benharrat et al. (2000) have recently used molecular techniques to confirm the morphological distinctions between O. minor and the closely related taxa O. amethystea, O. loricata and O. hederae. For a full monograph see Beck-Mannagetta (1930). For keys which include all the main species of concern see Chater and Webb (1972) and Parker and Riches (1993).
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.Cultural Control
Infestation may be prevented by phytosanitation, aimed at preventing the spread of viable seeds. This may involve minimizing the movement of infested soil by farm machinery and vehicles, preventing grazing on infested plant material, treating manure (e.g. composting) and avoiding the use of hay made from Orobanche-infested plants (Jacobsohn, 1984). The use of Orobanche-infested crop seeds should also be avoided.
Trap crops and catch crops are used in the control of some other Orobanche species. These stimulate germination of Orobanche in the soil, in order to deplete the seed reserve. Trap crops promote Orobanche seed germination but do not support parasitism; catch crops support parasitism but are destroyed prior to Orobanche flowering. Examples of trap crops for Orobanche include flax (Ramaiah, 1987), mung beans, maize and sorghum (Foy et al., 1989). A catch crop that has been effective in Egypt is berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum), harvested repeatedly for forage to prevent full development and seeding of the parasite (Al-Menoufi, 1994). Kropac (1973) has also reported that a catch crop of Trifolium repens and Lolium multiflorum was effective in eliminating seeds of Orobanche spp., including O. minor. Though these methods have in some cases proved successful, the use of trap and catch crops has limitations for two reasons: (a) local strains of the parasites may differ in their response; (b) it takes several years of trap or catch cropping to reduce parasite seed populations to non-damaging levels.
Frater (1975) proposes deep ploughing as a control measure, depending on the observation that infestation on tobacco in New Zealand arises from shallow soil layers.
Fertilization, especially phosphate and ammonium nitrogen, can help to suppress O. minor (Yoneyama et al., 2001). Westwood and Foy (1999) show that the levels of ammonium required to inhibit O. minor are non-toxic to a range of likely host crops.
Host-plant resistance is an important approach to the control of several other species of Orobanche, but there is no known instance of the selection of crop varieties resistant to O. minor.
Hand-pulling of Orobanche flowering stems can be useful, preferably at an early stage before maximum damage has been caused, but stems should immediately be removed from the field as they may continue developing flowers and spreading seeds even without being connected to the host. Hand-weeding is very important, especially when only a few Orobanche plants develop in a field. This can prevent further spread of the parasite and avoid damage.
Soil fumigation with metham sodium [metam] has been used with moderate success against O. minor in New Zealand (James and Frater, 1977).
There are few herbicides that have an adequate margin of selectivity against Orobanche species and none have been developed specifically for control of O. minor. Glyphosate can be used for control of O. crenata in faba bean and some other crops if applied at low rates (Garcia-Torres, 1994). The imidazolinone herbicides have shown promise applied in various ways for control of Orobanche spp. in legumes and sunflower, especially imazethapyr pre-emergence, post-emergence or as seed dressings in legumes, and imazapyr in lentil and sunflower (e.g. Garcia-Torres and Lopez-Granados, 1991a, b; Garcia Torres et al., 1995, 1996, 1998). A number of these options are likely to be suitable for control of O. minor in the relevant crops, but these compounds will need to be used with care to avoid the development of herbicide-resistant populations of Orobanche. For a broad review of control options for Orobanche spp., see Parker and Riches (1993).
The use of transgenic crops engineered with target-site herbicide resistance is perhaps one of the most promising solutions for Orobanche infestation in many crops. Using glyphosate on transgenic oilseed rape, and chlorsulfuron and asulam on tobacco, complete control of O. aegyptiaca was achieved without affecting the crop or its yield (Joel et al., 1995). These techniques have yet to be applied to the control of O. minor, but when the relevant herbicide-resistant crops become available they should prove valuable.
The broomrape-fly Phytomyza orobanchia was widely used for Orobanche control in the Soviet Union and some East European countries in the 1960s and 1970s (Girling et al., 1979). Infested Orobanche shoots were collected during the growing season, dried and stored under controlled temperature and humidity over the winter and released from specially constructed 'phytomyzaria' which allowed separation and destruction of the smaller hyperparasites as they emerged. The topic has recently been reviewed in some detail and there has been some renewed interest in its exploitation (see Kroschel and Klein, 1999; Klein and Kroschel, 2002). These authors provide detailed reviews of the biology of the insect, its very large number of hyper-parasites (at least 24 are listed) and the early elaborate systems for its exploitation in eastern Europe, where success was often over 90% in terms of reduced Orobanche seed production in the treated fields, but problems had arisen from interference by hyperparasites and also from insecticide use. They emphasise that repeated releases are needed over several seasons to overcome the problem of the long-lived seed bank. Recent attempts at introduction of P. orobanchia to Chile as a classical biocontrol agent against introduced infestations of O. minor and O. ramosa are showing promise (Normabuena et al., 1999, 2001).
Orobanche-specific forms of Fusarium oxysporum have shown promise for control of some other Orobanche spp. in tobacco and in sunflower (Parker and Riches, 1993). Ulocladium atrum has also appeared promising against O. crenata (Linke et al., 1992), but neither of these agents has yet been developed for practical use.
Ideas for integrated control of Orobanche species are reviewed by Pieterse et al. (1992) and by Parker and Riches (1993). Approaches for possible inclusion in an integrated control programme include general techniques of crop rotation, flooding, fumigation, solarization, prevention of seeding and biocontrol, as well as more crop-specific methods including crop resistance, herbicides and time of planting.
ReferencesTop of page
Al-Menoufi OA, 1994. The Orobanche problem in Egypt. Biology and management of Orobanche. Proceedings of the third international workshop on Orobanche and related Striga research, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 8-12 November 1993 [edited by Pieterse, A.H.; Verkleij, J.A.C.; Borg, S.J. ter] Amsterdam, Netherlands; Royal Tropical Institute, 663-671
Beck-Mennagetta G, 1930. Orobanchaceae. In: Engler HGA, ed. Das Pflanzenreich, 96(IV-261):1-275.
Chater AO, Webb DA, 1972. 2. Orobanche. In: Tutin TG, Heywood VH, Burgess NA, Morre DM, Valentine, DH, Walters SM, Webb DM, eds. Flora Europaea 3. Diapensiaceae to Myoporaceae. Cambridge, UK: University Press, 286-293.
Eplee RE, Fay CL, Norris R, 1994. Orobanche infestations in the USA. Biology and management of Orobanche. In: Pieterse AH, Verkleij JAC, Borg SJ ter, eds. Proceedings of the third international workshop on Orobanche and related Striga research, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 8-12 November 1993. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Royal Tropical Institute, 611-613
Frater KC, 1975. Broomrape control. New Zealand Tobacco Growers Journal, November:10
Garcia Torres L, 1994. Progress in Orobanche control, an overview. In: Pieterse AH, Verkleij JAC, Borg SJ ter, eds. Biology and management of Orobanche. Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on Orobanche and Related Striga Research, Amsterdam, Netherlands: KIT, 390-399.
Garcia-Torres L, Castejon-Munoz M, Lopez-Granados F, Jurado-Exposito M, 1995. Imazapyr applied postemergence in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) for broomrape (Orobanche cernua) control. Weed Technology, 9:819-824.
Garcia-Torres L, Jurado-Exposito M, Castejon-Munoz M, Lopez-Granados F, 1996. Herbicide-treated crop seeds for control of Orobanche spp. In: Moreno MT, Cubero JI, eds. Advances in Parasitic Plant Research, Sevilla, Spain: Junta de Andalucia, 699-715.
Garcia-Torres L, Lopez-Granados F, 1991. Progress of herbicide control of broomrape (Orobanche spp.) in legumes and sunflower (Helinanthus annuus L.). In: Ransom JK, Musselman LJ, Worsham AD, Parker C, eds. Proceedings of the Fifth international symposium of parasitic weeds, Nairobi, Kenya, 24-30 June 1991. Nairobi, Kenya: CIMMYT (International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center), 306-309
Graham, RA, 1957. Orobanchaceae. In: Turrill WB, Milne-Redhead E, eds. Flora of Tropical East Africa. London, UK: Crown Agents for Overseas Governments.
Henderson M, Fourie DMC, Wells MJ, Henderson L, 1987. Declared Weeds and Alien Invader Plants in South Africa. Bulletin 413. Pretoria, South Africa: Department of Agriculture and Water Supply.
Holm LG, Doll J, Holm E, Pancho JV, Herberger JP, 1997. World Weeds: Natural Histories and Distribution. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Jacobsohn R, 1984. Broomrape avoidance and control: agronomic problems and available methods. In: Borg SJ ter, ed. Proceedings of a Workshop on Biology and Control of Orobanche. Wageningen, Netherlands: LH/VPO, 18-24.
Johnson AW, Roseberry G, Parker C, 1976. A novel approach to Striga and Orobanche control using synthetic germination stimulants. Weed Research, 16:223-227.
Jones M, 1991. Seed mass and seed production in British Orobanche species. Proceedings of the 5th international symposium of parasitic weeds, Nairobi, Kenya, 24-30 June 1991 [edited by Ransom, J.K.; Musselman, L.J.; Worsham, A.D.; Parker, C.] Nairobi, Kenya; CIMMYT (International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center), 447-453
Jones M, 1991. Studies on the pollination of Orobanche species in the British Isles. Progress in Orobanche research. Proceedings of the international workshop on Orobanche research, Obermarchtal, Germany, 19-22 August 1989., 6-17; 18 ref.
Kebreab E, Murdoch AJ, 1999. A model of the effects of a wide range of constant and alternating temperatures on seed germination of four Orobanche species. Annals of Botany, 84:549-557.
Kebreab E, Murdoch AJ, 1999. Effect of temperature and humidity on the longevity of Orobanche seeds. Weed Research Oxford, 39:199-211.
Kropac Z, 1973. Weedy Orobanche spp. of Czechoslovakia and the range of their parasitism. Symposium on Parasitic Weeds, Malta, 35-43.
Kroschel J, Klein O, 1999. Biological control of Orobanche spp. with Phytomyza orobanchia Kalt., a review. In: Kroschel J, Abderabihi M, Betz H. eds. Advances in Parasitic Weed Control at On-farm Level, Volume II. Wekersheim, Germany: Margraf Verlag, 135-159.
Linke KH, Schneibel C, Saxena MC, Sauerborn J, 1992. Fungi occurring on Orobanche spp. and their preliminary evaluation for Orobanche control. Tropical Pest Management, 38:127-130.
Morozov IV, Foy CL, Westwood JH, 2000. Small broomrape (Orobanche minor) and egyptian broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca) parasitization of red clover (Trifolium pratense). Weed Technology, 14(2):312-320; 27 ref.
Murphy D, 1972. Killer parasite. Gardeners Chronicle, 172(13): 23.
Musselman LJ, Parker C, Dixon N, 1981. Notes on autogamy and flower structure in agronomically important species of Striga (Scrophulariaceae) and Orobanche (Orobanchaceae). Beitrage zur Biologie der Pflanzen, 56:329-343.
Norambuena H, Diaz J, Kroschel J, Klein O, Esacobar S, 2001. Rearing and field release of Phytomyza orobanchia on Orobanche ramosa in Chile. In: Fer A, Thalouarn P, Joel DM, Musselman LJ, Parker C, Kerkleij, eds. Proceedings of the Seventh International Parasitic Weed Symposium, Nantes, 2001, 258-261.
Norambuena H, Kroschel J, Klein O, 1999. Introduction of Phytomyza orobanchia for biocontrol of Orobanche spp. in Chile. In: Kroschel J, Abderabihi M, Betz H, eds. Advances in Parasitic Weed Control at Ob-farm lkevel Vol. II. Joint Action to Control Orobanche in the WANA Region. Weikersheim, Germany: Margraf Verlag, 197-204.
Parker C, 1992. Orobanche and Alectra species in Ethiopia. In: Rezene Fessehaie, Parker C, eds. Problems and Control of Parasitic Weeds in Ethiopia. Proceedings of the Second Ethiopian Weed Science Workshop, Addis Abeba, September, 1988. Addis Abeba, Ethiopia: Ethiopian Weed Science Council, 53-55.
Pieterse AH, Garcia-Torres L, Al-Menoufi OA, Linke K-H, ter Borg SJ, 1992. Integrated control of the parasitic angiosperm Orobanche (broomrape). Paper presented at the International Food Legume Conference II, Cairo, 9 pp.
Shimizu N, Morita H, Hirota S, 2001. Illustrated Book of Naturalized Plants in Japan. Tokyo, Japan: Zennokyo.
Southwood OR, 1971. The effect of superphosphate application, 2,4-DB and grazing on broomrape (Orobanche minor Sm.) in a subterranean clover pasture. Weed Research, 11:240-246.
Stace C, 1991. New Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Stapf O, 1906. Order XCIII. Orobanchaceae. In: Dyer T, ed. Flora of Tropical Africa Vol. IV Section II Hydrophyllaceae to Pedalineae, 462-468.
ter Borg SJ, Naber H, Bezemer TM, Zaitoun FMF, 1994. Orobanche minor in the Netherlands: an agricultural problem became an endangered species. In: Pieterse AH, Verkleij JAC, ter Borg SJ, eds, Biology and management of Orobanche. Proceedings of the third international workshop on Orobanche and related Striga research, Amsterdam, Netherlands, November 1993, 614-618.
Timko MP, Flore CS, Riopel JL, 1989. Control of the germination and early development in parasitic angiosperms. In: Teylorson RB, ed. Recent Advances in the Development and Germination of Seeds. New York, USA: Plenum Press, 225-240.
USDA-ARS, 2003. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx
Westwood JH, Foy CL, 1999. Influence of nitrogen on germination and early development of broomrape (Orobanche spp.). Weed Science, 47:2-7.
Yoneyama K, Takeuchi Y, Yokota T, 2001. Production of clover broomrape seed germination stimulants by red clover root requires nitrate but is inhibited by phosphate and ammonium. Physiologia Plantarum, 112(1):25-30; 38 ref.
CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Chater AO, Webb DA, 1972. Orobanche. In: Flora Europaea 3. Diapensiaceae to Myoporaceae, [ed. by Tutin TG, Heywood VH, Burgess NA, Morre DM, Valentine DH, Walters SM, Webb DM]. Cambridge, UK: University Press. 286-293.
Shimizu N, Morita H, Hirota S, 2001. Illustrated Book of Naturalized Plants in Japan., Tokyo, Japan: Zennokyo.
USDA-ARS, 2003. Hedychium flavescens. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database, Beltsville, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl
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