Orobanche aegyptiaca (Egyptian broomrape)
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- List of Symptoms/Signs
- Biology and Ecology
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Plant Trade
- Detection and Inspection
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Links to Websites
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Orobanche aegyptiaca Pers. (1806)
Preferred Common Name
- Egyptian broomrape
Other Scientific Names
- Kopsia aegyptiaca Caruel (1902)
- Orobanche parasitica Fischer
- Phelipaea aegyptiaca Walp. (1844)
- Phelipaea indica G. Don (1838)
- Phelipaea pedunculata Walpers (1832)
- Phelipanche aegyptiaca Pomel (1874)
International Common Names
- Arabic: halook
Local Common Names
- Cuba: orobanche
- Germany: Aegyptische Sommerwurz
- ORAAE (Orobanche aegyptiaca)
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Dicotyledonae
- Order: Scrophulariales
- Family: Orobanchaceae
- Genus: Orobanche
- Species: Orobanche aegyptiaca
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
DescriptionTop of page
Chromosome number (2n) = 24.
DistributionTop of page
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 28 May 2021
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|United Arab Emirates||Present|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
HabitatTop of page
Habitat ListTop of page
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
SymptomsTop of page
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Leaves / wilting|
|Leaves / yellowed or dead|
|Roots / reduced root system|
|Whole plant / early senescence|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
Natural enemiesTop of page
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
Agricultural products of various crops may carry Orobanche seeds if harvested in an infested field.
Agricultural tools should always be cleaned after being used in an infested field to avoid transfer of Orobanche seeds or contaminated soil to non-infested fields.
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes||seeds||Yes||Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope|
|Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx||seeds||Yes||Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope|
|Fruits (inc. pods)||seeds||Yes||Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope|
|Growing medium accompanying plants||seeds||Yes||Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope|
|Roots||seeds||Yes||Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope|
|True seeds (inc. grain)||seeds||Yes||Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope|
ImpactTop of page
DiagnosisTop of page
Detection and InspectionTop of page
After crop establishment, the roots may be carefully retrieved and washed, and inspected for the presence of the typical tubercles, 1-20 mm. Note that the tubercles are easily disconnected from the roots if the root system is pulled out of the soil.
Later in the life of the crop, emerged shoots of O. aegyptiaca will be found, but much damage will by then already have occurred.
Bio-assay of Field Infestation
Flax can sometimes serve as an indicator of field infestation. Flax plants parasitized by Orobanche rapidly develop chlorosis and are considerably stunted. It is therefore used as a reliable tool to pinpoint infected spots in the field (Joel et al., 1990). It can also serve as a tool for infestation diagnosis in pots with soil samples taken from the field, and in experiments where the influence of different treatments on the Orobanche seed bank or on infestation needs to be examined (Joel et al., 1995a).
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
Most countries prohibit entry of major parasitic weed species, including Orobanche spp.
Phytosanitation is aimed at preventing the spread of viable seeds by minimizing the movement of infested soil by farm machinery and vehicles, preventing grazing on infested plant material, treating manure (e.g. composting) and avoiding the use of hay made of Orobanche-infested plants (Jacobsohn, 1984). One should also avoid the use of Orobanche-infested crop seeds.
Hand-weeding of emerged stems is too late to prevent crop damage but may be worthwhile where infestations are still light, to prevent or reduce future infestations. The stems should immediately be removed from the field to preclude seed shed after pulling.
Trap crops may be used to promote germination of Orobanche seeds in soil, without themselves supporting parasitism, in order to deplete the seed reserve. Examples of trap crops for O. ramosa include flax, Phaseolus bean, sorghum, maize and cucumber (Parker and Riches, 1993). There are few examples of the fully successful use of this principle, but it should be considered in any integrated control approach.
Soil solarization, based on mulching moist soil with polyethylene sheets for several weeks under solar irradiation, can provide excellent levels of control of Orobanche seeds in the upper soil layers where temperatures are high enough (Jacobsohn et al., 1980), and this has been confirmed in a number of studies involving O. ramosa (see Parker and Riches, 1993).
Kebreab and Murdoch (1999) showed that seeds maintained at high mositure and high temperature lose viability relatively rapidly. This could explain the success that has been occasionally reported from prolonged flooding or water-logging (e.g. Mohamed-Ahmed and Drennan, 1994). A period of at least 6 weeks may be needed.
Screening of tobacco and tomato varieties against O. ramosa or O. aegyptiaca have demonstrated some variations in susceptibility (see Parker and Riches, 1993; Qasem and Kaswari, 1995) but there are no reports of successful application of these results.
The fly Phytomyza orobanchia has been used for biological control of Orobanche spp. and was effective in the former Soviet Union for decades, using special rearing and inundative release techniques. However, this became less effective due to the spread of hyperparasites (see Kroschel and Klein, 1999, for a detailed review).
Alternatives to now banned soil fumigation methods, including metam-sodium and dazomet may provide good control but methods of use are critical and best results are normally achieved with soil coverage by plastic (see Parker and Riches, 1993). Recommended doses of these compounds are usually very high and costly but much lower doses have been reported by Chalakov (1998) to be effective in Bulgaria, perhaps resulting from a germination-stimulatory effect and death by suicidal germination.
The sulfonylurea herbicides chlorsulfuron, rimsulfuron and triasulfuron have shown some selectivity against both O. aegyptiaca and O. ramosa in tomato, but application methods are critical, preferably through drip irrigation (e.g. Kleifeld et al., 1996; Vouzounis and Americanos, 1998; Goldwasser et al., 2001) and no simple recommendations are possible. Glyphosate at low doses post-emergence has likewise shown some selectivity in both tomato and tobacco but the margin of safety is too small for reliability.
The use of transgenic crops engineered with target-site herbicide resistance is one of the most promising solutions for Orobanche infestation in many crops. Using glyphosate on transgenic oilseed rape, and chlorsulfuron and asulam on tobacco, complete control of O. aegyptiaca has been achieved without affecting the crop or its yield (Joel et al., 1995b; Nandula et al., 1999).
ReferencesTop of page
Aksoy E, Arslan ZF, Öztürk N, 2013. Phelipanche aegyptiaca (Pers.) Pomel: a new record as a parasitic weed on apricot root in Turkey. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 8(29):4001-4006. http://www.academicjournals.org/article/article1380881275_Aksoy%20et%20al.pdf
Babaei, S., Alizadeh, H., Jahansouz, M. R., Mashhadi, H. R., Moeini, M. M., 2010. Management of Phelipanche aegyptiaca Pomel. using trap crops in rotation with tomato (Solanum lycopersicom L.). Australian Journal of Crop Science, 4(6), 437-442. http://www.cropj.com/babaei_4_6_2010_437_442.pdf
Beck-Mennagetta G, 1930. Orobanchaceae. In: Engler HGA, ed. Das Pflanzenreich, 96(IV-261):1-275.
Chalakov H, 1998. Present situation and prospects for solving the tobacco broomrape problem in Bulgaria. In: Wegmann K, Musselman LJ, Joel DM, eds. Current Problems of Orobanche Research. Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Orobanche, Albena, 1998, 401-403.
Chater AO, Webb DA, 1972. 2. Orobanche. In: Tutin TG, Heywood VH, Burgess NA, Morre DM, Valentine, DH, Walters SM, Webb DM, eds. Flora Europaea 3. Diapensiaceae to Myoporaceae. Cambridge, UK: University Press, 286-293.
Dor E, Aly R, Hershenhorn J, 2014. Pomegranate (Punica granatum) as host of the broomrapes Phelipanche aegyptiaca and Orobanche crenata in Israel. Plant Disease, 98(6):859. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis
Eizenberg, H., Goldwasser, Y., Golan, S., Plakhine, D., Hershenhorn, J., 2004. Egyptian broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca) control in tomato with sulfonylurea herbicides - greenhouse studies. Weed Technology, 18(3), 490-496. doi: 10.1614/WT-03-023R3
Goldwasser Y, Eisenberg H, Herschenhorn J, Plakhine D, Blumenfeld T, Buxbaum H, Golan S, Kleifeld K, 2001. Control of Orobanche aegyptiaca and O. ramosa in potato. Crop Protection, 20:403-410.
Jacobsohn R, 1984. Broomrape avoidance and control: agronomic problems and available methods. In: Borg SJ ter, ed. Proceedings of a Workshop on Biology and Control of Orobanche. Wageningen, Netherlands: LH/VPO, 18-24.
Jacobsohn R, Greenberger A, Katan J, Levi M, Alon H, 1980. Control of Egyptian broomrape (Orobanche pgyptiaca) and other weeds by means of solar heating of the soil by polyethylene mulching. Weed Science, 28(3):312-316
Joel DM, Peled T, Kleifeld Y, Golan S, Graph S, Levanon U, 1990. The use of flax as a catch crop for Orobanche spp. Phytoparasitica, 18:244.
Joel DM, Steffens JC, Matthews DE, 1995. Germination of Weedy Root Parasites. In: Kigel J, Galili G, eds. Seed Development and Germination. New York, USA: Marcel Dekker, Inc., 567-598.
Kleifeld Y, Goldwasser Y, Herzlinger G, Plakhine D, Golan S, Chilf T, 1996. Selective control of Orobanch aegyptiaca in tomato with sulfonylurea herbicides. In: Moreno MT, Cubero JI, Berner D, Joel DM, Musselman LJ, Parker C, eds. Advances in Parasitic Plant Research. Cordoba, Spain: Junta de Andalucia, 707-715.
Kroschel J, Klein O, 1999. Biological control of Orobanche spp. with Phytomyza orobanchia Kalt., a review. In: Kroschel J, Abderabihi M, Betz H. eds. Advances in Parasitic Weed Control at On-farm Level, Volume II. Wekersheim, Germany: Margraf Verlag, 135-159.
Mohamed-Ahmed AG, Drennan DSH, 1994. Factors effecting establishment of Orobanche spp. on legumes. Biology and management of Orobanche. Proceedings of the third international workshop on Orobanche and related Striga research, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 8-12 November 1993 [edited by Pieterse, A.H.; Verkleij, J.A.C.; Borg, S.J. ter] Amsterdam, Netherlands; Royal Tropical Institute, 312-319
Morozov, I. V., Foy, C. L., Westwood, J. H., 2000. Small broomrape (Orobanche minor) and egyptian broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca) parasitization of red clover (Trifolium pratense). Weed Technology, 14(2), 312-320. doi: 10.1614/0890-037X(2000)014[0312:SBOMAE]2.0.CO;2
Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff MG, et al. , 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96.
Panchenko VP, 1974. [Micro-organisms in the control of Egyptian broomrape parasitising water melons.] Mikologia I Fitopathalogya, 8:122-125 (in Russian).
Rae SJ, 2001. Family 178. Orobanchaceae. In: Grierson AJC, Long DG, Springate LS, eds. Flora of Bhutan. Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh and Royal Government of Bhutan, 2(3):1330-1334.
Vagelas I, Gravanis F, 2014. Phelipanche nana (Reut.) Sojak parasitism on lentil (Lens culinaris) and parasitism of P. aegyptiaca on Carduus marianus in Thessalia region, Greece. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 47(16):1956-1962. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/gapp20
Acharya B D, 2012. Assessment of different non-host crops as trap crop for reducing Orobanche aegyptiaca Pers. seed bank. Ecoprint: An International Journal of Ecology. 31-38. http://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ECO/article/view/9851/8045
Acharya B D, Khattri G B, Chettri M K, Srivastava S C, 2002. Effect of Brassica campestris var. toria as a catch crop on Orobanche aegyptiaca seed bank. Crop Protection. 21 (7), 533-537. DOI:10.1016/S0261-2194(01)00137-5
Aksoy E, Arslan Z F, Öztürk N, 2013. Phelipanche aegyptiaca (Pers.) Pomel: a new record as a parasitic weed on apricot root in Turkey. African Journal of Agricultural Research. 8 (29), 4001-4006. http://www.academicjournals.org/article/article1380881275_Aksoy%20et%20al.pdf
Babaei S, Alizadeh H, Jahansouz M R, Mashhadi H R, Moeini M M, 2010. Management of Phelipanche aegyptiaca Pomel. using trap crops in rotation with tomato (Solanum lycopersicom L.). Australian Journal of Crop Science. 4 (6), 437-442. http://www.cropj.com/babaei_4_6_2010_437_442.pdf
CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Chai A L, Li P L, Guo W T, Li B J, Aisimutuola P, 2018. First report of Fusarium acuminatum wilt in the broomrape parasite of processing tomato in China. Plant Disease. 102 (3), 676-677. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-08-17-1244-PDN
Chater AO, Webb DA, 1972. Orobanche. In: Flora Europaea 3. Diapensiaceae to Myoporaceae, [ed. by Tutin TG, Heywood VH, Burgess NA, Morre DM, Valentine DH, Walters SM, Webb DM]. Cambridge, UK: University Press. 286-293.
Dor E, Aly R, Hershenhorn J, 2014. Pomegranate (Punica granatum) as host of the broomrapes Phelipanche aegyptiaca and Orobanche crenata in Israel. Plant Disease. 98 (6), 859. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-10-13-1058-PDN
Eizenberg H, Goldwasser Y, Golan S, Plakhine D, Hershenhorn J, 2004a. Egyptian broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca) control in tomato with sulfonylurea herbicides - greenhouse studies. Weed Technology. 18 (3), 490-496. DOI:10.1614/WT-03-023R3
Eizenberg H, Plakhine D, Hershenhorn J, Kleifeld Y, Rubin B, 2004. Variation in responses of sunflower cultivars to the parasitic weed broomrape. Plant Disease. 88 (5), 479-484. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2004.88.5.479
Goldwasser Y, Eizenberg H, Hershenhorn J, Plakhine D, Blumenfeld T, Buxbaum H, Golan S, Kleifeld Y, 2001. Control of Orobanche aegyptiaca and O. ramosa in potato. Crop Protection. 20 (5), 403-410. DOI:10.1016/S0261-2194(00)00162-9
Jacobsohn R, Greenberger A, Katan J, Levi M, Alon H, 1980. Control of Egyptian broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca) and other weeds by means of solar heating of the soil by polyethylene mulching. Weed Science. 28 (3), 312-316.
Lati R, Aly R, Eizenberg H, Lande T, 2013. First report of the parasitic plant Phelipanche aegyptiaca infecting kenaf in Israel. Plant Disease. 97 (5), 695. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-10-12-1001-PDN
Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 6 (Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.
Rae SJ, 2001. Family 178. Orobanchaceae. In: Flora of Bhutan, 2 (3) [ed. by Grierson AJC, Long DG, Springate LS]. Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh and Royal Government of Bhutan. 1330-1334.
Sharma P, Rai P K, Siddiqui S A, Chauhan J S, 2011. First report of Fusarium wilt in the broomrape parasite growing on Brassica spp. in India. Plant Disease. 95 (1), 75. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-07-10-0546
Teimoury M, Karimmojeni H, Ehtemam M H, Mehri H R, 2012. First report of Orobanche aegyptiaca parasitism on sesame in Iran. Plant Disease. 96 (8), 1232. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-01-12-0068-PDN
Vagelas I, Gravanis F, 2014. Phelipanche nana (Reut.) Sojak parasitism on lentil (Lens culinaris) and parasitism of P. aegyptiaca on Carduus marianus in Thessalia region, Greece. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection. 47 (16), 1956-1962. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/gapp20 DOI:10.1080/03235408.2013.862944
Zhang XueKun, Yao ZhaoQun, Zhao SiFeng, Xie HuiQin, Yang Mei, 2013. Rhizopus Stem Rot of Orobanche aegyptiaca caused by Rhizopus oryzae in China. Journal of Phytopathology. 161 (10), 745-748. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1439-0434 DOI:10.1111/jph.12124
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