Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Orobanche
(broomrape)

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Datasheet

Orobanche (broomrape)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 02 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Orobanche
  • Preferred Common Name
  • broomrape
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Young Orobanche shoots and tubercles on roots of sunflower.
TitleShoots and tubercles
CaptionYoung Orobanche shoots and tubercles on roots of sunflower.
CopyrightD.M. Joel
Young Orobanche shoots and tubercles on roots of sunflower.
Shoots and tuberclesYoung Orobanche shoots and tubercles on roots of sunflower.D.M. Joel

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Orobanche

Preferred Common Name

  • broomrape

Other Scientific Names

  • Phelipaea C.A. Mayer
  • Phelipanche Pomel

International Common Names

  • Spanish: jopos
  • Russian: zarazikha
  • Arabic: halook

Local Common Names

  • Germany: sommerwurz

EPPO code

  • ORASS (Orobanche sp.)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Scrophulariales
  •                         Family: Orobanchaceae
  •                             Genus: Orobanche

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanWidespreadParker, 1994
ArmeniaWidespreadSaakyan, 1974
AzerbaijanWidespreadTeryokhin, 1988
ChinaWidespreadLiu and Li, 1988
-GansuWidespreadLiu and Li, 1988
-HebeiWidespreadLiu and Li, 1988
-JilinWidespreadLiu and Li, 1988
-Nei MengguWidespreadLiu and Li, 1988
-QinghaiWidespreadLiu and Li, 1988
-ShaanxiWidespreadLiu and Li, 1988
-ShandongPresentLiu and Li, 1988
-ShanxiWidespreadLiu and Li, 1988
-SichuanPresentLiu and Li, 1988
-TibetWidespreadLiu and Li, 1988
-XinjiangWidespreadLiu and Li, 1988
GazaWidespreadMusselman et al., 1989
IndiaPresentParker, 1994
-Andhra PradeshWidespreadParker, 1994
-BiharWidespreadTeryokhin, 1988
-GujaratWidespreadNarasimma Rao et al., 1976
-Madhya PradeshWidespreadTeryokhin, 1988
-West BengalWidespreadTeryokhin, 1988
IranPresentParker, 1994
IraqWidespreadSaadi-Gharib, 1973
IsraelWidespreadJoel et al., 1996
JordanWidespreadAbu-Irmeileh, 1994
KazakhstanWidespreadTeryokhin, 1988
KuwaitPresentBoulos and Al-Hasan, 1986
KyrgyzstanWidespreadTeryokhin, 1988
LebanonWidespreadSaghir et al., 1980
NepalWidespreadKhatri et al., 1991
PakistanWidespreadParker, 1994
Saudi ArabiaPresentParker, 1994
SyriaWidespreadSchnell et al., 1994
TajikistanWidespreadTeryokhin, 1988
TurkeyWidespreadBulbul, 1991
TurkmenistanWidespreadTeryokhin, 1988
UzbekistanWidespreadKabulov, 1981
YemenPresentParker, 1994

Africa

AlgeriaPresentParker, 1994
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentBorg, 1994
EgyptWidespreadAl-Menoufi, 1994
EthiopiaPresentParker, 1994
MoroccoWidespreadZemrag, 1994
MozambiquePresentBorg, 1994
NigerPresentParker, 1994
South AfricaPresentVisser, 1981
SudanWidespreadBabiker et al., 1994
TanzaniaPresentParker, 1994
TunisiaWidespreadKharrat and Halila, 1994
UgandaPresentParker, 1994
ZimbabwePresentBorg, 1994

North America

USARestricted distribution
-CaliforniaPresentMusselman, 1994
-GeorgiaPresentUSDA-ARS, 2003
-KentuckyPresentMusselman, 1994
-New JerseyPresent, few occurrencesEplee et al., 1994
-New YorkPresent, few occurrencesEplee et al., 1994
-North CarolinaPresentUSDA-ARS, 2003
-South CarolinaEradicatedEplee et al., 1994
-TexasPresentMusselman, 1994
-VirginiaPresent, few occurrencesEplee et al., 1994

Central America and Caribbean

CubaWidespreadLabrada, 1994

South America

ChilePresentKogan, 1994

Europe

AlbaniaPresentChater and Webb, 1972
AustriaPresentBorg, 1994
BelgiumPresentBorg, 1994
BulgariaWidespreadEncheva and Shindrova, 1994
CyprusWidespreadAmericanos, 1991
Czechoslovakia (former)Restricted distributionKropac, 1973
EstoniaPresentTeryokhin, 1988
FinlandPresentBorg, 1994
FrancePresentPerny, 1989
-CorsicaPresentChater and Webb, 1972
GermanyPresentBorg, 1994
GreeceWidespreadLolas, 1994
-CretePresentBorg, 1994
HungaryWidespreadSzoko, 1973
ItalyWidespreadPuzzilli, 1979
-SardiniaPresentChater and Webb, 1972
-SicilyPresentChater and Webb, 1972
MaltaWidespreadBorg, 1994
MoldovaWidespreadKlyueva et al., 1972
NetherlandsPresentBorg et al., 1994
PolandPresentChater and Webb, 1972
PortugalWidespreadParker, 1994
-AzoresPresentChater and Webb, 1972
-MadeiraPresentBorg, 1994
RomaniaWidespreadBorg, 1994
Russian FederationWidespreadTeryokhin, 1988
-Russia (Europe)WidespreadTeryokhin, 1988
-SiberiaWidespreadTeryokhin, 1988
SpainWidespreadGarcia-Torres et al., 1994
-Balearic IslandsPresentChater and Webb, 1972
SwedenRestricted distributionKraft, 1979
SwitzerlandPresentWurgler, 1973
UkraineWidespreadAlad'ina et al., 1989
Yugoslavia (former)WidespreadMijatovia & Stojanovic, 1973

Oceania

AustraliaRestricted distributionCarter and Cooke, 1994
New ZealandPresentJames and Frater, 1977

Growth Stages

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List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / wilting
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Roots / reduced root system
Whole plant / early senescence

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Fusarium oxysporum Pathogen
Phytomyza orobanchia Predator
Ulocladium atrum Pathogen

References

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Abu-Irmaileh BE, 1994. The Orobanche problem and management in Jordan. Biology and management of Orobanche. Proceedings of the third international workshop on Orobanche and related Striga research, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 8-12 November 1993 [edited by Pieterse, A.H.; Verkleij, J.A.C.; Borg, S.J. ter] Amsterdam, Netherlands; Royal Tropical Institute, 659-662

Alad'ina ZK, Kirichenko VV, Dolgova EM, 1989. Producing breeding material of sunflower resistant to broomrape. Selektsiya i Semenovodstvo (Kiev), No. 67:29-33; 7 ref

Al-Menoufi OA, 1994. The Orobanche problem in Egypt. Biology and management of Orobanche. Proceedings of the third international workshop on Orobanche and related Striga research, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 8-12 November 1993 [edited by Pieterse, A.H.; Verkleij, J.A.C.; Borg, S.J. ter] Amsterdam, Netherlands; Royal Tropical Institute, 663-671

Americanos PG, 1991. Control of Orobanche in celery. Technical Bulletin - Cyprus Agricultural Research Institute, No. 137:5 pp

Antonova TS, 1994. Biochemical aspects of the development of new virulent forms in the Moldavian population (race C) of Orobanche cumana Wallr. against the background of resistant sunflower cultivars. Biology and management of Orobanche. Proceedings of the third international workshop on Orobanche and related Striga research, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 8-12 November 1993 [edited by Pieterse, A.H.; Verkleij, J.A.C.; Borg, S.J. ter] Amsterdam, Netherlands; Royal Tropical Institute, 290-292

Babiker AGT, Mohamed ES, El-Mana ME, 1994. Orobanche problem and management in the Sudan. Biology and management of Orobanche. In: Pieterse AH, Verkleij JAC, Borg SJ ter, eds. Proceedings of the third international workshop on Orobanche and related Striga research, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 8-12 November 1993. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Royal Tropical Institute, 672-676

Borg SJ ter, 1994. General aspects of taxonomy, distribution and ecology: state of the art after the third international workshop on Orobanche. Biology and management of Orobanche. Proceedings of the third international workshop on Orobanche and related Striga research, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 8-12 November 1993 [edited by Pieterse, A.H.; Verkleij, J.A.C.; Borg, S.J. ter] Amsterdam, Netherlands; Royal Tropical Institute, 710-718

Borg SJ ter, ed. , 1986. Proceedings of a Workshop on Biology and Control of Orobanche. Wageningen, Netherlands: LH/VPO

Borg SJ ter, Naber H, Bezemer TM, Zaitoun FMF, 1994. Orobanche minor in the Netherlands: an agricultural problem became an endangered species. Biology and management of Orobanche. Proceedings of the third international workshop on Orobanche and related Striga research, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 8-12 November 1993 [edited by Pieterse, A.H.; Verkleij, J.A.C.; Borg, S.J. ter] Amsterdam, Netherlands; Royal Tropical Institute, 614-618

Boulos L, Al-Hasan R, 1986. Ten species new to the flora of Kuwait and Bahrain. Arab Gulf Journal of Scientific Research, 4(2):437-447

Bulbul A, Salihoglu M, Sari C, Aydin A, 1991. Determination of broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.) races of sunflower in the Thrace region of Turkey. Helia, 14(15):21-26

Carter RJ, Cooke DA, 1994. Broomrape (Orobanche spp.) in Australia. Biology and management of Orobanche. Proceedings of the third international workshop on Orobanche and related Striga research, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 8-12 November 1993 [edited by Pieterse, A.H.; Verkleij, J.A.C.; Borg, S.J. ter] Amsterdam, Netherlands; Royal Tropical Institute, 586-590

Chater AO, Webb DA, 1972. 2. Orobanche. In: Tutin TG, Heywood VH, Burgess NA, Morre DM, Valentine, DH, Walters SM, Webb DM, eds. Flora Europaea 3. Diapensiaceae to Myoporaceae. Cambridge, UK: University Press, 286-293

Cubero JI, 1991. Breeding for resistance to Orobanche species: a review. Progress in Orobanche research. In: Weymann K, Musselman LJ, eds. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Orobanche Research, Obermarchtal, Germany, 19-22 August 1989. Tubingen, Germany: Eberhard Karls Universitat, 257-277

Cubero JI, 1994. Breeding work in Spain for Orobanche resistance in faba bean and sunflower. Biology and management of Orobanche. In: Pieterse AH, Verkleij JAC, Borg SJ ter, eds. Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Orobanche and related Striga research, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 8-12 November 1993 Amsterdam, Netherlands: Royal Tropical Institute, 465-473

Encheva V, Shindrova P, 1994. Broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.) a hindrance to sunflower production in Bulgaria. Biology and management of Orobanche. Proceedings of the third international workshop on Orobanche and related Striga research, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 8-12 November 1993 [edited by Pieterse, A.H.; Verkleij, J.A.C.; Borg, S.J. ter] Amsterdam, Netherlands; Royal Tropical Institute, 619-622

Eplee RE, Fay CL, Norris R, 1994. Orobanche infestations in the USA. Biology and management of Orobanche. In: Pieterse AH, Verkleij JAC, Borg SJ ter, eds. Proceedings of the third international workshop on Orobanche and related Striga research, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 8-12 November 1993. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Royal Tropical Institute, 611-613

Feinbrun-Dothan N, 1978. Flora Palaestina. Vol.3. Jerusalem, Israel: The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities

Foy CL, Jain R, Jacobsohn R, 1989. Recent approaches for chemical control of broomrape (Orobanche spp.). Reviews of Weed Science, 4:123-152

Garcia-Torres L, 1994. Progress in Orobanche control, an overview. Biology and management of Orobanche. Proceedings of the third international workshop on Orobanche and related Striga research, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 8-12 November 1993 [edited by Pieterse, A.H.; Verkleij, J.A.C.; Borg, S.J. ter] Amsterdam, Netherlands; Royal Tropical Institute, 390-399

Garcia-Torres L, Castejon-Munoz M, Lopez-Granados F, 1994. The problem of Orobanche and its management in Spain. Biology and management of Orobanche. Proceedings of the third international workshop on Orobanche and related Striga research, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 8-12 November 1993 [edited by Pieterse, A.H.; Verkleij, J.A.C.; Borg, S.J. ter] Amsterdam, Netherlands; Royal Tropical Institute, 623-627

Girling DJ, Greathead DJ, Mohyuddin AI, Sankaran T, 1979. The potential for biological control in the suppression of parasitic weeds. Biocontrol News and Information, sample issue:7-16

Horváth Z, 1987. Investigations on Phytomyza orobanchia Kalt. (Dipt.: Agromyzidae), a possible biocontrol agent of Orobanche spp. (Orobanchaceae) in Hungary. Proceedings of the 4th international symposium on parasitic flowering plants., 403-410

Jacobsohn R, 1984. Broomrape avoidance and control: agronomic problems and available methods. In: Borg SJ ter, ed. Proceedings of a Workshop on Biology and Control of Orobanche. Wageningen, Netherlands: LH/VPO, 18-24

Jacobsohn R, Greenberger A, Katan J, Levi M, Alon H, 1980. Control of Egyptian broomrape (Orobanche pgyptiaca) and other weeds by means of solar heating of the soil by polyethylene mulching. Weed Science, 28(3):312-316

Jacobsohn R, Marcus R, 1988. Quantitative determination of broomrape (Orobanche spp.) seeds in vetch seeds. Weed Research, UK, 28(3):159-162

James RW, Frater KC, 1977. The control of broomrape (Orobanche minor) in flue-cured tobacco. New Zealand Tobacco Growers Journal, October:10, 11, 13

Joel DM, 1988. The role of plants in preconditioning of Orobanche seeds. Phytoparasitica, 16:374

Joel DM, Kleifeld Y, Losner-Goshen D, Herzlinger G, Gressel J, 1995. Transgenic crops against parasites. Nature (London), 374(6519):220-221

Joel DM, Peled T, Kleifeld Y, Golan S, Graph S, Levanon U, 1990. The use of flax as a catch crop for Orobanche spp. Phytoparasitica, 18:244

Joel DM, Portnoy V, Tzuri G, Greenberg R, Katzir N, 1996. Molecular markers for the identification of Orobanche species. In: Moreno MT, Cubero JI, Berner D, Joel DM, Musselman LJ, Parker C, eds. Advances in Parasitic Plant Research. Cordoba, Spain: Junta de Andalucia, 151-160

Joel DM, Steffens JC, Matthews DE, 1995. Germination of Weedy Root Parasites. In: Kigel J, Galili G, eds. Seed Development and Germination. New York, USA: Marcel Dekker, Inc., 567-598

Kabulov DT, 1981. Orobanche and yield. Handbook of Plant Protection. Samarkand

Kharrat M, Halila MH, 1994. Orobanche species on faba bean (Vicia faba L.) in Tunisia: problems and management. Biology and management of Orobanche. Proceedings of the third international workshop on Orobanche and related Striga research, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 8-12 November 1993 [edited by Pieterse, A.H.; Verkleij, J.A.C.; Borg, S.J. ter] Amsterdam, Netherlands; Royal Tropical Institute, 639-643

Khatri GB, Jha PK, Agrawal VP, Jacobsohn R, 1991. Distribution, host range and phenology of Orobanche spp. in Nepal. Progress in Orobanche research. Proceedings of the international workshop on Orobanche research, Obermarchtal, Germany, 19-22 August 1989 [edited by Wegmann, K.; Musselman, K.J.] Tubingen, Germany; Eberhard-Karls-Universitat, 18-24

Kleifeld Y, Goldwasser Y, Herzlinger G, Plakhine D, Golan S, Chilf T, 1996. Selective control of Orobanch aegyptiaca in tomato with sulfonylurea herbicides. In: Moreno MT, Cubero JI, Berner D, Joel DM, Musselman LJ, Parker C, eds. Advances in Parasitic Plant Research. Cordoba, Spain: Junta de Andalucia, 707-715

Klyueva MP, Pamukchi GV, Ursaki GP, 1972. The distribution of sunflower and branched broomrape in Moldavia and their degree of infestation by Phytomyza. Sbornik 'Zashchita Rastenii', 54-59

Kogan M, 1994. Orobanche in Chile: a research report. Biology and management of Orobanche. In: Pieterse AH, Verkleij JAC, Borg SJ ter, eds. Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Orobanche and related Striga research, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 8-12 November 1993. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Royal Tropical Institute, 599-603

Kraft J, 1979. The genus Orobanche in Sweden. Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 73(1):27-37

Kropac Z, 1973. Weedy Orobanche spp. of Czechoslovakia and the range of their parasitism. Symposium on Parasitic Weeds, Malta, 35-43

Labrada R, 1994. Occurrence and control of Orobanche ramosa L. in Cuba. Biology and management of Orobanche. In: Pieterse AH, Verkleij JAC, Borg SJ ter, eds. Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Orobanche and related Striga research, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 8-12 November 1993. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Royal Tropical Institute, 604-610

Linke KH, Schneibel C, Saxena MC, Sauerborn J, 1992. Fungi occurring on Orobanche spp. and their preliminary evaluation for Orobanche control. Tropical Pest Management, 38:127-130

Liu L, Li X, 1988. The geographical distribution of sunflower diseases in China. Plant Pathology, 37(4):470-474

Lolas PC, 1994. Herbicides for control of broomrape (Orobanche ramosa L.) in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.). Weed Research (Oxford), 34(3):205-209

Mijatovic K, Stojanovic D, 1973. Distribution of Orobanche spp. on the agricultural crops in Yugoslavia. Symposium on Parasitic Weeds, Malta, 28-34

Moreno MT, Cubero JI, Berner D, Joel DM, Musselman LJ, Parker C, eds. , 1996. Advances in Parasitic Plant Research. Cordoba, Spain: Junta de Andalucia

Musselman LJ, 1980. The biology of Striga, Orobanche and other root-parasitic weeds. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 18:463-489

Musselman LJ, 1986. Taxonomy of Orobanche. Biology and control of Orobanche [edited by Borg, S.J. ter] Wageningen, Netherlands; Landbouwhogeschool, 2-10

Musselman LJ, 1994. Taxonomy and spread of Orobanche. Biology and management of Orobanche. Proceedings of the third international workshop on Orobanche and related Striga research, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 8-12 November 1993 [edited by Pieterse, A.H.; Verkleij, J.A.C.; Borg, S.J. ter] Amsterdam, Netherlands; Royal Tropical Institute, 27-35

Musselman LJ, Aggour M, Abu-Sbaieh H, 1989. Survey of parasitic weed problems in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Tropical Pest Management, 35(1):30-33

Narasimma Rao CL, Joshi HA, 1976. Weed flora of Anand. Andhra Agricultural Journal, 28(1-2):24-31

Parker C, 1994. The present state of the Orobanche problem. Biology and management of Orobanche. In: Pieterse AH, Verkleij JAC, Borg SJ ter, eds. Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Orobanche and related Striga research, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 8-12 November 1993. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Royal Tropical Institute, 17-26

Parker C, Riches CR, 1993. Parasitic Weeds of the World: Biology and Control. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Perny A, 1989. Branched broomrape, a new weed of rape. Bulletin CETIOM, No. 103:17

Pieterse AH, Verkleij JAC, Borg SJ ter, eds. , 1994. Biology and management of Orobanche. Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on Orobanche and Related Striga Research, Amsterdam, Netherlands: KIT

Press MC, Graves JD, 1995. Parasitic Plants. London, Glasgow: Chapman and Hall

Putt ED, 1978. Sunflower: History and present world status. In: Carter JF, ed. Sunflower Science and Technology. Madison., USA: Am Soc Agron, 19:4-29

Puzzilli M, 1979. Orobanche spp. in Umbria with particular information about Orobanche hederp Duby. Annali Istituto Sperimentale per il Tabacco, 5:57-64

Ramaiah KV, 1987. Control of Striga and Orobanche species a review. Proceedings of the 4th international symposium on parasitic flowering plants Marburg, German Federal Republic, 637-664

Ransom JK, Musselman LJ, Worsham AD, Parker C, eds. , 1991. Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Parasitic Weeds. Nairobi, Kenya: CIMMYT

Saadi-Gharib M, 1973. Ecological and economical aspects of the broomrapes (Orobanche spp.) in northern Iraq. Symposium on Parasitic Weeds, Malta, 44-47

Saakyan RI, 1974. The distribution of broomrape in the tobacco plantations of the Shamshadinskii Region. Izvestiya Sel'skokhozyaistvennykh Nauk, Armyanskaya SSR, 17(7):85-87

Saghir AR, Kurban M, Budayr B, 1980. Studies on the control of Orobanche in Lebanon. Tropical Pest Management, 26(1):51-55

Sauerborn J, 1991. The economic importance of the phytoparasites Orobanche and Striga. In: Ransom JK, Musselman LJ, Worsham AD, Parker C, eds. Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium of Parasitic Weeds, Nairobi, Kenya, 24-30 June 1991. Nairobi, Kenya: CIMMYT (International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center), 137-143

Schnell H, Sauerborn J, Linke KH, 1994. Crop rotation in Syria and its impact on Orobanche crenata seed bank. Biology and management of Orobanche. Proceedings of the third international workshop on Orobanche and related Striga research, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 8-12 November 1993 [edited by Pieterse, A.H.; Verkleij, J.A.C.; Borg, S.J. ter] Amsterdam, Netherlands; Royal Tropical Institute, 644-651

Szoko G, 1973. Investigations on the effect of Orobanche cumana on sunflower. Acta Phytopathologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 8(3/4):375-380

Teryokhin ES, 1988. Reproductive Biology of Weed Broomrapes. Leningrad: Leningrad "Nauka"

Teryokhin ES, 1996. Weed Broomrapes. Germany: Aufsteig Verlag. (in press)

Timko MP, Flore CS, Riopel JL, 1989. Control of the germination and early development in parasitic angiosperms. In: Teylorson RB, ed. Recent Advances in the Development and Germination of Seeds. New York, USA: Plenum Press, 225-240

USDA-ARS, 2003. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

Visser J, 1981. South African parasitic flowering plants. South African parasitic flowering plants. Juta and Co. PO Box 123, Kenwyn 7790 South Africa, [xii] + 177 pp

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Wegman K, Musselman LJ, eds. , 1991. Progress in Orobanche Research. Tubingen, Germany: Eberhard Klaus Universitat

Wurgler W, 1973. Studies on hemp broomrape (Orobanche ramosa L.) in Switzerland. Symposium on Parasitic Weeds, Malta, 218-223

Zazzerini A, della Torre G, Tosi L, 1981. Broomrape of tobacco: epidemiology and control. Informatore Fitopatologico, 31:15-23

Zemrag A, 1994. Orobanche problem and management in Morocco. Biology and management of Orobanche. Proceedings of the third international workshop on Orobanche and related Striga research, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 8-12 November 1993 [edited by Pieterse, A.H.; Verkleij, J.A.C.; Borg, S.J. ter] Amsterdam, Netherlands; Royal Tropical Institute, 635-638

Zhao S, Yan M, 1983. The occurrence, distribution and control of a species of Orobanche coerulescens Steph. parasitic on sunflower. Acta Phytophylacica Sinica, 10:251-256

Distribution Maps

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