Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Opogona sacchari
(banana moth)

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Datasheet

Opogona sacchari (banana moth)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Opogona sacchari
  • Preferred Common Name
  • banana moth
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • O. sacchari was originally described from specimens from Mauritius. It is a tineid moth with typically Old World tropical distribution, thus populations could establish in the tropical belt and in areas with a...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Opogona sacchari (banana moth); adult (museum set specimen)
TitleAdult
CaptionOpogona sacchari (banana moth); adult (museum set specimen)
Copyright©David Agassiz
Opogona sacchari (banana moth); adult (museum set specimen)
AdultOpogona sacchari (banana moth); adult (museum set specimen)©David Agassiz
Opogona sacchari (banana moth); adult (museum set specimen)
TitleAdult
CaptionOpogona sacchari (banana moth); adult (museum set specimen)
Copyright©David Agassiz
Opogona sacchari (banana moth); adult (museum set specimen)
AdultOpogona sacchari (banana moth); adult (museum set specimen)©David Agassiz

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Opogona sacchari Bojer

Preferred Common Name

  • banana moth

Other Scientific Names

  • Alucita sacchari Bojer
  • Gelechia ligniferalla Walker
  • Gelechia sanctaehelenae Walker
  • Hieroxestis ligniferella
  • Hieroxestis plumipes Butler
  • Hieroxestis sanctaehelenae Walker
  • Hieroxestis subcervinella Walker
  • Laverna plumipes Butler
  • Opogona sanctaehelenae Walker
  • Opogona subcervinella (Walker)
  • Tinea subcervinella Walker

International Common Names

  • English: sugarcane moth
  • Spanish: polilla del banano
  • French: teigne du bananier
  • Portuguese: traþa da banana

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: traça da banana; traça da bananeira
  • Germany: Motte, Bananen-
  • Hungary: bananmoly

EPPO code

  • OPOGSC (Opogona sacchari)

Summary of Invasiveness

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O. sacchari was originally described from specimens from Mauritius. It is a tineid moth with typically Old World tropical distribution, thus populations could establish in the tropical belt and in areas with a mediterranean climate, also in glasshouses throughout the world. O. sacchari attacks a number of ornamental plants and can be transported on different plant parts. Although not listed on alert lists such as IUCN and ISSG, this species has the potential to be invasive outside its natural distribution area through the transport of ornamental plants and/or because of global warming.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Tineidae
  •                             Genus: Opogona
  •                                 Species: Opogona sacchari

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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This species was originally described as Alucita sacchari by Bojer in 1856 from Mauritius. It has also been known as Tinea subcervinella or Opogona subcervinella. Other synonyms include Gelechia ligniferella and Gelechia sanctaehelenae, both from St. Helena, and Laverna plumipes from Rodriguez Island. It is currently placed in the genus Opogona as O. sacchari (Robinson and Tuck, 1997).

 

Description

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Larva

The larvae are dirty-white and somewhat transparent (so that the intestines can be seen). They have a bright reddish-brown head with one lateral ocellus at each side and clearly visible, brownish thoracic and abdominal plates. They are 21-26 mm long with a diameter of 3 mm. The presence of older larvae can be detected by characteristic masses of bore-meal and frass at the openings of boreholes.

Pupa

The pupae are brown, less than 10 mm long, and are formed in a cocoon, spun at the end of a mine, measuring 15 mm. As maturation approaches, the pupae work themselves partially out of the tissue to allow emergence of the adult. Two bent hooks, characteristic of the species, show at the end of the abdomen on the abandoned protruding pupal skin.

Adult

The adult is nocturnal, 11 mm long with a wingspan of 18-25 mm. It is bright yellowish-brown. The forewings may show longitudinal darker brown banding, and in the male a dark-brown spot towards the apex. The hindwings are paler and brighter (Süss, 1974; D'Aguilar and Martinez, 1982). At rest, the long antennae point forwards.
 

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced1995 Invasive Cheng and Yang, 1997; Yang and Cheng, 1997; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-BeijingPresentEPPO, 2014
-GuangdongPresentEPPO, 2014
-HebeiPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced1995 Invasive CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-ZhejiangPresentShen et al., 2008; EPPO, 2014
IsraelRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
JapanPresentIntroduced1986Yoshimatsu et al., 2004; EPPO, 2014
-HonshuPresentIntroducedYoshimatsu et al., 2004; EPPO, 2014
-KyushuPresentIntroducedYoshimatsu et al., 2004; EPPO, 2014
-Ryukyu ArchipelagoPresentIntroducedYoshimatsu et al., 2004; EPPO, 2014
-ShikokuPresentIntroducedYoshimatsu et al., 2004; EPPO, 2014
ThailandAbsent, unreliable recordEPPO, 2014

Africa

Cape VerdePresentNative Invasive Davis and Pena, 1990; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
MadagascarPresentNative Invasive Suss, 1974; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
MauritiusPresentNative Invasive Durrant, 1925; Suss, 1974; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
MoroccoPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
NigeriaPresentNative Invasive Davis and Pena, 1990; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
RéunionPresentNative Invasive Pointel, 1967; Suss, 1974; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
Saint HelenaPresentNative Invasive Durrant, 1925; Suss, 1974; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
SeychellesPresentNative Invasive Durrant, 1925; Suss, 1974; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
South AfricaPresentNative Invasive CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Durrant, 1925; Suss, 1974; Perez and Carnero, 1984; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014

North America

BermudaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
USARestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-FloridaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive Davis and Pena, 1990; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosPresentIntroduced Invasive Gibbs, 1991; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
Costa RicaAbsent, unreliable recordEPPO, 2014
GuadeloupePresent, few occurrencesEPPO, 2014
HondurasPresentIntroduced Invasive Davis and Pena, 1990; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014

South America

BrazilPresentIntroduced1970s Invasive Suplicy and Sampaio, 1982; Sampaio et al., 1983; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-Sao PauloPresentIntroduced Invasive Cintra, 1975b; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
PeruPresentIntroduced Invasive Davis and Pena, 1990; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
VenezuelaPresentIntroduced Invasive Davis and Pena, 1990; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014

Europe

BelgiumAbsent, intercepted onlyClercq and Luchene, 1977; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
CroatiaAbsent, unreliable recordEPPO, 2014
Czech RepublicEradicatedEPPO, 2014
DenmarkEradicated1980Anon., 1999; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
FinlandAbsent, intercepted onlyCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
FranceEradicatedD'Aguilar and Martinez, 1982; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
GermanyPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced Not invasive CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
GreeceEradicatedMourikis et al, 1981; Davis and Pena, 1990; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
HungaryEradicated1993Suss, 1974; Tusnadi et al., 1997; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
ItalyRestricted distributionIntroduced1970s Invasive Rotundo and Tremblay, 1982; Porcelli and Parenzan, 1993; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
NetherlandsRestricted distributionIntroducedNPPO of the Netherlands, 2013; Veenenbos, 1981; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
PolandPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced1992CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
PortugalRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive Davis and Pena, 1990; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-AzoresPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-MadeiraPresentIntroduced Invasive Durrant, 1925; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
Russian FederationPresentIntroducedIzhevskii, 1992
SpainRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
SwedenAbsent, intercepted onlyCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
SwitzerlandRestricted distributionIntroduced1980sCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
UKEradicated196*Moreton, 1974; Seymour et al., 1985; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-England and WalesEradicatedCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014

History of Introduction and Spread

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O. sacchari has rarely been recorded in Asia but was first seen in Japan in 1986 and then in 1999. It now seems to be established in the warmer regions of Japan namely Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu and the Ryukyu Islands. It seems to have been introduced with ornamental plants, Dracaena sp., and later established in the wild.

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Japan 1999 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes No Yoshimatsu et al. (2004) Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu and the Ryukyu Islands.

Risk of Introduction

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O. sacchari, originally on the EPPO A1 list (OEPP/EPPO, 1988), has been on the A2 list since its establishment in Italy. CPPC and NAPPO also regard it as a quarantine pest.

It has been accidentally introduced on many occasions in recent years (usually among imported bananas) into South America, Europe and Egypt.

The pest could acclimatize in more temperate regions on several ornamental plants, especially those of tropical origin. Trade in ornamental plants carries a serious risk to the distribution of this species.

O. sacchari is a troublesome greenhouse pest that should not be allowed to establish in new areas; fortunately, it can be controlled and has not yet established outdoors.
 

Habitat

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In general O. sacchari is a scavenger in dried/harvested vegetable material. It prefers to attack plant tissue damaged through other causes and then spread to living healthy plant tissue (Heppner et al., 1987). In the wild, the abundance of the pest varies significantly with the amount of rainfall, infestation being markedly heavier in years with reduced rainfall than in those with abundant rainfall (Sampaio et al., 1983). In bananas it attacks the fruits, pseudostems, peduncles and 'cushions', being especially abundant in decaying pseudostems (Cintra, 1975).
 

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial-managed
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Protected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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O. sacchari is found mainly in the tropics on bananas, pineapples, bamboo, maize and sugarcane in the field and on various stored tubers. In glasshouses in European countries, it has been found infesting various tropical or subtropical ornamentals, including mainly Cactaceae, Dracaena, Strelitzia and Yucca, but also occasionally Alpinia, Begonia, Bougainvillea, Bromeliaceae, Chamaedorea and other palms, Cordyline, Dieffenbachia, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Ficus, Gloxinia, Heliconia, Hippeastrum, Maranta, Philodendron, Sansevieria and Saintpaulia, and also Capsicum and aubergines. In import inspections, it is mainly Dracaena and Yucca which have been found to be infested.

The larvae are scavengers of dried/harvested vegetable material. This species may attack stored tubers (Gibbs, 1991) and feed occasionally on living plant material when adjacent to dried vegetable matter.
 

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
AlpiniaZingiberaceaeOther
Ananas comosus (pineapple)BromeliaceaeMain
Bambusa (bamboo)PoaceaeMain
BegoniaBegoniaceaeOther
Bougainvillea spectabilis (Bougainvilla)NyctaginaceaeOther
BromeliaceaeBromeliaceaeOther
Cactaceae (cacti)CactaceaeOther
Capsicum (peppers)SolanaceaeOther
ChamaedoreaArecaceaeOther
Chamaedorea elegans (parlour palm)ArecaceaeOther
CordylineAgavaceaeOther
Dieffenbachia (dumbcanes)AraceaeOther
Dioscorea (yam)DioscoreaceaeOther
DracaenaAgavaceaeMain
Euphorbia pulcherrima (poinsettia)EuphorbiaceaeOther
FicusMoraceaeOther
HeliconiaHeliconiaceaeOther
HippeastrumLiliaceaeOther
Maranta (arrowroot)MarantaceaeOther
Musa (banana)MusaceaeMain
PhilodendronAraceaeOther
Polyphagous (polyphagous)Main
Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane)PoaceaeMain
Saintpaulia (african violet)GesneriaceaeOther
Sansevieria (snake plant)AgavaceaeOther
Sinningia speciosa (gloxinia)GesneriaceaeOther
Solanum melongena (aubergine)SolanaceaeOther
StrelitziaStrelitziaceaeMain
YuccaAgavaceaeMain
Zea mays (maize)PoaceaeMain

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Post-harvest, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

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The early stages of larval tunnelling in woody or fleshy stems are practically undetectable. At a later stage, fleshy plants (cacti) may be completely hollowed out. In woody plants such as Dracaena and Yucca the larvae live on dead and living portions of the cortex and pith, and infested tissues may feel soft. Leaves wilt because the caterpillars destroy the xylem, and, in an advanced stage, leaves may fall and the plant may collapse. In Chamaedorea palms, the larvae typically feed at the base of the plant where the aerial roots enter the soil (Heppner et al., 1987).
 

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Inflorescence / frass visible
Inflorescence / internal feeding
Leaves / frass visible
Leaves / internal feeding
Leaves / shredding
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Stems / internal feeding
Stems / visible frass
Vegetative organs / frass visible
Vegetative organs / internal feeding
Whole plant / frass visible
Whole plant / internal feeding

Biology and Ecology

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At 15°C, the life cycle of O. sacchari lasts ca 3 months: the eggs hatch in 12 days; larval development requires 50 days; the pupal stage lasts 20 days; and the adult lives for 6 days (Veenenbos, 1981). This period may be considerably reduced under warmer conditions, allowing up to eight generations per year (Giannotti et al., 1977; Heppner et al., 1987). At 25°C and 10% RH, the pre-oviposition period was 2.7 days, the oviposition period lasted 5.9 days; and 81.65 eggs were laid per female. The larval and pupal stages lasted 24.19 and 11.24 days, respectively. The complete life cycle from egg to adult took 37.91 days (Bergmann et al., 1995).

The female lays eggs in crevices in plant tissue, in groups of about five eggs, 50-200 in total, by means of a long ovipositor. The larvae, which burrow in the plant tissue, are extremely mobile and avoid light. They are very voracious.

In banana, the fruiting head is normally infested (Suplicy and Sampaio, 1982), but in ornamental plants the larvae mostly burrow in the stem (woody or fleshy plants such as cacti, Dracaena) or sometimes leaves and petioles (Begonia, Saintpaulia). Seedlings may be severely attacked (D'Aguilar and Martinez, 1982).

As a tropical pest, O. sacchari cannot apparently survive outdoor conditions in winter over most of the European and Mediterranean region. Its presence in the Atlantic Islands of Portugal [Madeira] and Spain [Canary Islands] suggests that it might survive in parts of the Iberian peninsula and North Africa. Billen (1987) has reviewed the taxonomy, biology, distribution and control of O. sacchari and refers to the existence of several species with similar biology in Africa, possibly to be regarded as members of the same complex.
 

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
A - Tropical/Megathermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki Pathogen Larvae
Steinernema feltiae Parasite

Notes on Natural Enemies

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There are no known natural enemies of O. sacchari. A successful establishment of the nematodes Steinernema feltiae, Heterorhabditis bacterophora and H. heliothidis in greenhouses was reported from Italy in the eradication of larvae of O. sacchari infesting potato and bamboo palms (Chamaedorea elegans) (Pena et al., 1990).
 

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal (non-biotic)

O. sacchari can disperse itself by flight within glasshouses or over short distances in the field.

Seedborne Spread

Larvae may be transported through seedlings.

Agricultural Practices

The transport of infested banana fruits, pseudostems and peduncles may contribute to the dispersal of O. sacchari.

Movement in Trade

O. sacchari is liable to be carried in propagation material of host plants, for example, cuttings of Dracaena. Although there is some risk of the pest being present in imported banana fruits, there is very little chance that this pathway could lead to establishment in greenhouses.
 

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Breeding and propagation Yes
Crop production Yes
Horticulture Yes
Nursery trade Yes
Ornamental purposes Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Aircraft Yes
Plants or parts of plants Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes eggs; larvae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx eggs; larvae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Leaves adults; eggs; larvae; nymphs; pupae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches adults; eggs; larvae; nymphs; pupae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Wood Packaging

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Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Loose wood packing material
Non-wood
Processed or treated wood
Solid wood packing material with bark
Solid wood packing material without bark

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Negative
Environment (generally) Negative

Impact

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O. sacchari is a serious pest of bananas in the Canary Islands and Brazil (Sampaio et al., 1983). Though widespread in Africa, its impact is relatively minor there because bananas are not a major export crop. It has been recorded in Morocco (CABI/EPPO, 1999) and could be a threat to the increasing production of bananas under polythene in Morocco and Spain.

Elsewhere, it presents a risk principally for woody or perennial ornamentals grown in glasshouses, and could not survive outdoors. It may also cause damage among tubers and roots.
 

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
Impact outcomes
  • Host damage
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field

Diagnosis

Top of page Larval infestations in the early stages are practically undetectable. At a later stage fleshy plants may be completely hollowed out. In woody plants infested tissues may feel soft. At a later stage frass may be detected on the infected plant tissues or beneath the plants. Dead leaves lie underneath the plants.

Detection and Inspection

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On ornamental plants, O. sacchari is difficult to intercept at importation inspections, additional post-entry inspections are recommended.

On Strelitzia species, the larvae fed on the collar and roots of the plants (Porcelli and Parenzan, 1993).
 

Prevention and Control

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Environmental manipulation techniques offer a suitable alternative for quarantine procedures.

Thermal control experiments were carried out exposing Dracaena fragrans stems to 44°C. Exposure of 45 minutes had no effect on propagation and 60 minutes had no permanent damage to foliage. Mortality of insects was related to thermal exposure. Few larvae survived 15 minutes of exposure and no larvae survived 30 minutes (Hansen et al., 1997).

Inundation techniques were discussed by Cheek (1994) for propagation material.

Eradication in greenhouses by chemical treatment and sanitation has proved possible in several northern European countries, but not in Italy, where the pest is established in greenhouses. The adult moths can be controlled by fogging with permethrin. The aim is to kill all adults before they can lay eggs. When an affected greenhouse is cleared and replanted, the soil should be steamed (or removed) to eliminate any residual pupae. Billen (1987) has reviewed the chemical control methods tried out in greenhouses in various European countries. Gianotti et al. (1977) suggests that chemical control measures might be most effective if applied between 20.00 and 24.00h.

Sex pheromones are being studied in Italy (Rotundo and Tremblay, 1982) and Brazil (Ioneda et al., 1983).

Yam tubers (White Lisbon) were treated in Barbados by dipping the tubers in a solution of carbaryl or by covering the tubers by lime and/or ash (Gibbs, 1991).

Banana fields in Brazil were dusted with several combinations of insecticides. The dusting method was significantly better than the spray method (Pigatti et al., 1982). There seems no significant amount of residue present in the skin or flesh of bananas using the dusting method (Guindani et al., 1978). 

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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The taxonomy of Opogona species requires clarification. The genus belongs to the Hieroxestinae. According to Robinson and Nielsen (1993), there are about 270 known species but this number could rise to 300, with many undescribed species held in museums, most belonging to the genus Opogona. This means that the species currently identified as O. sacchari belongs to a species complex for which correct identifications do not yet exist. It is possible that several unnamed species could be introduced at this stage.

References

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Anon., 1999. Report. Research Centre for Plant Protection, Denmark.

Bergmann EC, Cassia Romanholi R de, Potenza MR, Lamonica Imenes S de, Zorzenon FJ, Netto SMR, 1995. Aspects of biology and behaviour of Opogona sacchari (Bojer, 1856) (Lepidoptera: Tineidae) under laboratory conditions. Revista de Agricultura (Piracicaba), 70(1):41-52

Billen W, 1987. Information on the banana shoot borer (Opogona sacchari Bojer, 1856) (Lepidoptera: Tineidae). Gesunde Pflanzen, 39(11):458-465

CABI, EPPO, 1999. Opogona sacchari. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, June. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, Map 594.

CABI/EPPO, 1998. Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith IM, Charles LMF). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, xviii + 768 pp.

Cheek S, 1994. Assessing the potential use of biological control agents in the UK against plant pests of quarantine concern. In: British Crop Protection Council, eds. Proceedings - Brighton Crop Protection Conference, Pests and Diseases, 1994. Bracknell, UK: BCPC Publications, vol. 1, 175-182.

Cheng GF, Yang JK, 1997. Plant Protection, 23(1):33-35.

Cintra AF, 1975. Opogona sp., a new pest of banana crops in Sao Paulo. Biologico, 41(8):223-231

Cintra AF, 1975. The banana pest now has a name! Biologico, 41(12):364.

Clercq R De, Luchene I Van, 1977. Verbondsnieuws voor de Belgische Sierteelt, 21(15):499-501.

D'Aguilar J, Martinez M, 1982. Opogona sacchari (Bojer) present on glasshouse crops in France (Lep. Tineidae). Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique de France, 87(1/2):28-30

Davis DR, Pena JE, 1990. Biology and morphology of the banana moth, Opogona sacchari (Bojer), and its introduction into Florida (Lepidoptera: Tineidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 92(4):593-618

Durrant JH, 1925. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine lxi, 12-13.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization, 1988. EPPO data sheets on quarantine organisms Opogona sacchari (Bojer) Lepidoptera: Tineidae. EPPO Bulletin, 18(3):513-516

Giannotti O, Oliveira BS Jr, Toneda T, Fell D, 1977. General observations on the development and sexual behaviour of the moth Opogona sacchari (Bojer, 1856) in the laboratory. Arquivos do Instituto Biologico, 44(4):209-212

Gibbs IH, 1991. The sugar cane stalk borer (Opogona sacchari Bojer) - a pest of stored yams in Barbados. Proceeding of the Ninth Annual Conference of the Barbados Society of Technologists in Agriculture, Rockley Resort, Barbados, West Indies, 13 & 15 November 1991 Christ Church, Barbados; Barbados Society of Technologists in Agriculture, 20-23

Guindani CMA, Ferreira M da Silva, Pigati P, Pigatti A, 1978. Determination of residues of carbaryl, propoxur and fenthion in banana fruits treated to control Opogona sacchari. Ciencia e Cultura, 30:363-364

Hansen JD, Sharp JL, Pena JE, 1997. Thermal treatments to control banana moth (Opogona sacchari) in tropical foliage ornamental plants. Agroameriica, No. INAUG:XVI-XX (es), XXI-XXIV (en); 18 ref.

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22/11/2007 Updated by:

Koen Maes, Consultant, Belgium

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