Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Rhizobium radiobacter
(crown gall)

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Datasheet

Rhizobium radiobacter (crown gall)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 March 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Rhizobium radiobacter
  • Preferred Common Name
  • crown gall
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •   Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •     Class: Alphaproteobacteria
  •       Order: Rhizobiales
  •         Family: Rhizobiaceae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Large natural gall at crown of walnut tree incited by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Smaller galls also present.
TitleSymptoms on walnut
CaptionLarge natural gall at crown of walnut tree incited by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Smaller galls also present.
CopyrightLarry W. Moore
Large natural gall at crown of walnut tree incited by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Smaller galls also present.
Symptoms on walnutLarge natural gall at crown of walnut tree incited by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Smaller galls also present.Larry W. Moore
Crown gall of Mazzard F12/1 rootstock.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionCrown gall of Mazzard F12/1 rootstock.
CopyrightAlan L. Jones
Crown gall of Mazzard F12/1 rootstock.
SymptomsCrown gall of Mazzard F12/1 rootstock.Alan L. Jones
Naturally occurring gall in graft union of flowering cherry caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.
TitleSymptoms on cherry
CaptionNaturally occurring gall in graft union of flowering cherry caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.
CopyrightLarry W. Moore
Naturally occurring gall in graft union of flowering cherry caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.
Symptoms on cherryNaturally occurring gall in graft union of flowering cherry caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.Larry W. Moore
Aggregate of natural bead-like aerial 'galls' on blackberry cane.
TitleSymptoms on blackberry
CaptionAggregate of natural bead-like aerial 'galls' on blackberry cane.
CopyrightLarry W. Moore
Aggregate of natural bead-like aerial 'galls' on blackberry cane.
Symptoms on blackberryAggregate of natural bead-like aerial 'galls' on blackberry cane.Larry W. Moore
Small natural gall at base of blueberry plant.
TitleSymptoms on blueberry
CaptionSmall natural gall at base of blueberry plant.
CopyrightLarry W. Moore
Small natural gall at base of blueberry plant.
Symptoms on blueberrySmall natural gall at base of blueberry plant.Larry W. Moore
Diverse natural gall formations on aerial stem of blueberry.
TitleSymptoms on blueberry
CaptionDiverse natural gall formations on aerial stem of blueberry.
CopyrightLarry W. Moore
Diverse natural gall formations on aerial stem of blueberry.
Symptoms on blueberryDiverse natural gall formations on aerial stem of blueberry.Larry W. Moore
Aerial gall on wild rose cane incited by an insect, Diplolepis rosae. Common name is 'Mossy' gall.
TitleMossy rose gall
CaptionAerial gall on wild rose cane incited by an insect, Diplolepis rosae. Common name is 'Mossy' gall.
CopyrightLarry W. Moore
Aerial gall on wild rose cane incited by an insect, Diplolepis rosae. Common name is 'Mossy' gall.
Mossy rose gallAerial gall on wild rose cane incited by an insect, Diplolepis rosae. Common name is 'Mossy' gall.Larry W. Moore
Crown galls on pear seedlings.
TitleSymptoms on pear
CaptionCrown galls on pear seedlings.
CopyrightM. Fawaz Azmeh/University of Damascus
Crown galls on pear seedlings.
Symptoms on pearCrown galls on pear seedlings.M. Fawaz Azmeh/University of Damascus
Biological control of crown gall (a) on Prunus seedlings with Agrobacterium radiobacter strain 84. Treated seedlings (b) were dipped into a solution of strain 84, then after 24 hours both sets of seedlings were inoculated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, the crown gall pathogen.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionBiological control of crown gall (a) on Prunus seedlings with Agrobacterium radiobacter strain 84. Treated seedlings (b) were dipped into a solution of strain 84, then after 24 hours both sets of seedlings were inoculated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, the crown gall pathogen.
CopyrightAlan L. Jones
Biological control of crown gall (a) on Prunus seedlings with Agrobacterium radiobacter strain 84. Treated seedlings (b) were dipped into a solution of strain 84, then after 24 hours both sets of seedlings were inoculated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, the crown gall pathogen.
SymptomsBiological control of crown gall (a) on Prunus seedlings with Agrobacterium radiobacter strain 84. Treated seedlings (b) were dipped into a solution of strain 84, then after 24 hours both sets of seedlings were inoculated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, the crown gall pathogen.Alan L. Jones

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Rhizobium radiobacter (Beijerinck & van Delden 1902) Young et al. 2001

Preferred Common Name

  • crown gall

Other Scientific Names

  • Agrobacterium radiobacter (Beijerinck & van Delden 1902) Conn 1942
  • Agrobacterium radiobacter subsp. tumefaciens (Smith & Townsend) De Ley et al. 1966
  • Agrobacterium sp. biovar 1
  • Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Smith & Townsend) Conn 1942
  • Agrobacterium tumefaciens biotype 1
  • Agrobacterium tumefaciens biovar 1
  • Bacillus ampelopsorae De Toni & Trevisan 1889
  • Bacillus radiobacter Beijerinck & van Delden 1902
  • Bacillus tumefaciens (Smith & Townsend) Holland 1920
  • Bacterium radiobacter (Beijerinck & van Delden) Löhnis 1904
  • Bacterium tumefaciens Smith & Townsend 1907
  • Phytomonas tumefaciens (Smith & Townsend) Bergey et al. 1923
  • Polymonas tumefaciens (Smith & Townsend) Lieske 1928
  • Pseudomonas radiobacter (Beij. & v. Deld.) Krasil'nikov 1949
  • Pseudomonas tumefaciens (Smith & Townsend) Duggar 1909
  • Rhizobium radiobacter (Beij. & v. Deld.) Pribram 1933

International Common Names

  • English: bacterial gall; bacterial stem gall; beet crown gall; burr knot; crown gall: beet; crown gall: Rosaceae; crown knot; gall; hairy root: apple; root gall; root knot; rosaceae crown gall
  • Spanish: agalla de la corona; agalla de la corona de los frutales; agalla del cuello
  • French: broussin de la vigne; galle du collet; tumeur du collet

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Mauke: Weinrebe; Wurzelkrebs: Obstgehoelze; Wurzelkrebs: Rosen; Wurzelkropf

EPPO code

  • AGRBTU (Agrobacterium tumefaciens)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •         Class: Alphaproteobacteria
  •             Order: Rhizobiales
  •                 Family: Rhizobiaceae
  •                     Genus: Rhizobium
  •                         Species: Rhizobium radiobacter

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
ChinaRestricted distributionMa & Wang, 1995; EPPO, 2014
-AnhuiPresent
-BeijingPresent
-HenanPresentBradbury, 1986
-HunanPresentDai and Gao, 1993
-JilinPresentSchmutzenhofer et al., 1996
-LiaoningPresentSchmutzenhofer et al., 1996
-Nei MengguPresentSchmutzenhofer et al., 1996
-ZhejiangPresentWang et al., 2013
IndiaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-Himachal PradeshPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-West BengalPresent
IndonesiaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-SumatraPresentSuharti, 1976
IranRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
IsraelWidespreadEPPO, 2014
JapanRestricted distributionOhta and Nishiyama, 1984; Sawada et al., 1990; EPPO, 2014
-HonshuPresent
-KyushuPresent
JordanPresent
Korea, DPRRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
Korea, Republic ofRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
LebanonRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
MalaysiaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-SabahPresentBradbury, 1986
PakistanPresent
Saudi ArabiaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
Sri LankaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
SyriaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
TaiwanPresentHsieh, 1980; Bradbury, 1986
TurkeyRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014

Africa

AlgeriaRestricted distributionBouzar et al., 1991; EPPO, 2014
EgyptRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
EthiopiaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
KenyaPresentIntroduced1995 Invasive IPPC-Secretariat, 2005; EPPO, 2014
LibyaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
MalawiPresentBradbury, 1986
MoroccoRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
MozambiqueRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
SeychellesRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
SomaliaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
South AfricaRestricted distributionLoubser, 1978; EPPO, 2014
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentBradbury, 1986
TanzaniaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
UgandaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
ZambiaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
ZimbabweRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014

North America

BermudaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
CanadaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-AlbertaPresentBradbury, 1986; Utkhede, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-British ColumbiaPresentBradbury, 1986; Utkhede and Smith, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-ManitobaPresentBradbury, 1986; EPPO, 2014
-New BrunswickPresentEPPO, 2014
-OntarioPresentDhanvantari, 1983; Bradbury, 1986; EPPO, 2014
-Prince Edward IslandPresentBradbury, 1986; EPPO, 2014
-QuebecPresentBradbury, 1986; EPPO, 2014
-SaskatchewanPresentBradbury, 1986; EPPO, 2014
MexicoWidespreadEPPO, 2014
USAWidespreadEPPO, 2014
-FloridaPresent
-HawaiiPresentBradbury, 1986; EPPO, 2014
-MississippiPresent
-MissouriPresent
-MontanaPresent
-New MexicoPresent
-New YorkPresent
-OregonPresent

Central America and Caribbean

CubaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
French West IndiesPresentBradbury, 1986
GuadeloupeRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
JamaicaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
Puerto RicoRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
SabaPresent

South America

ArgentinaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
BoliviaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
BrazilRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-CearaPresent
-Minas GeraisPresent
-PernambucoPresentBradbury, 1986
-Sao PauloPresentBradbury, 1986
ChileRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
ColombiaRestricted distributionBradbury, 1986; EPPO, 2014
French GuianaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
GuyanaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
PeruRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
UruguayRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
VenezuelaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014

Europe

AustriaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
BelgiumRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
BulgariaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
CyprusWidespreadEPPO, 2014
Czech RepublicRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
Czechoslovakia (former)Restricted distributionEPPO, 2014
DenmarkRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
EstoniaWidespreadBradbury, 1986; EPPO, 2014
FinlandRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
Former USSRPresent
FranceRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
GermanyWidespreadEPPO, 2014
GreeceRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
HungaryRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
ItalyRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-SardiniaPresent
MoldovaPresent
NetherlandsRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
NorwayRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
PolandRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
PortugalPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AzoresPresentBradbury, 1986
RomaniaRestricted distributionIvascu and Cindea, 2011; Ivascu et al., 2011; EPPO, 2014
Russian FederationRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-Central RussiaPresentBradbury, 1986
-Eastern SiberiaPresentEPPO, 2014
-Russia (Europe)PresentEPPO, 2014
-SiberiaPresentBradbury, 1986
-Western SiberiaPresentEPPO, 2014
SerbiaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
SpainRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
SwedenRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
SwitzerlandWidespreadEPPO, 2014
UKWidespreadEPPO, 2014
UkrainePresentBradbury, 1986; EPPO, 2014

Oceania

AustraliaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-New South WalesPresentBradbury, 1986; EPPO, 2014
-QueenslandPresentBradbury, 1986; EPPO, 2014
-South AustraliaPresentBradbury, 1986; EPPO, 2014
-TasmaniaPresentBradbury, 1986
-VictoriaPresentBradbury, 1986; EPPO, 2014
-Western AustraliaPresentBradbury, 1986; EPPO, 2014
New ZealandRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / reduced size
Roots / galls along length
Roots / galls at junction with stem
Roots / hairy root
Roots / reduced root system
Stems / galls
Stems / odour
Stems / stunting or rosetting
Whole plant / dwarfing
Whole plant / uprooted or toppled

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Pseudomonas fluorescens Antagonist

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Soil, sand and gravel Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Growing medium accompanying plants Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Roots Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Leaves
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

References

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Anderson AR; Moore LW, 1979. Host specificity in the genus Agrobacterium. Phytopathology, 69(4):320-323

Arcelin R; Kushalappa AC, 1991. A survey of carrot diseases on muck soils in the southwestern part of Quebec. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 71(2):147-153

Bazzi C, 1983. Biological control of crown gall in Italy. in Proc. Int. Workshop on Crown Gall. Wadensville, Switzerland.

Bazzi C; Mazzucchi U; Boschieri S, 1980. Biological control trial against bacterial tumour of apple in Alto Adige. Informatore Fitopatologico, 30(6):3-6

Belanger C; Canfield ML; Moore LW; Dion P, 1995. Genetic analysis of nonpathogenic Agrobacterium tumefaciens mutants arising in crown gall tumors. Journal of Bacteriology, 177(13):3752-3757

Binns AN; Costantino P, 1998. The Agrobacterium oncogenes. In: Spaink, Kondorosi, Hooykaas, eds. The Rhizobiaceae: Molecular Biology of Model Plant-Associated Bacteria. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publications, 251-266.

Bishop AL; Burr TJ; Mittak VL; Katz BH, 1989. A monoclonal antibody specific to Agrobacterium tumefaciens biovar 3 and its utilization for indexing grapevine propagation material. Phytopathology, 79(9):995-998

Bouzar H; Daouzli N; Krimi Z; Alim A; Khemici E, 1991. Crown gall incidence in plant nurseries of Algeria, characteristics of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains, and biological control of strains sensitive and resistant to agroxin 84. Agronomie, 11(10):901-908; 41 ref.

Bouzar H; Jones JB; Hodge NC, 1993. Differential characterization of Agrobacterium species using carbon-source utilization patterns and fatty acid profiles. Phytopathology, 83(7):733-739

Bouzar H; Moore LW, 1987. Complementary methodologies to identify specific Agrobacterium strains. Appl. Environ. Microbiol, 53:2660-2665.

Bouzar H; Moore LW, 1987. Isolation of different Agrobacterium biovars from a natural oak savanna and tallgrass prairie. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 53(4):717-721

Bradbury JF, 1986. Guide to Plant Pathogenic Bacteria. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Brisbane PG; Kerr A, 1983. Selective media for three biovars of Agrobacterium. J. Appl. Bacteriol., 32:348-351.

Buchholz WG; Thomashow MF, 1984. Comparison of T-DNA oncogene complements of Agrobacterium tumefaciens tumor-inducing plasmids with limited and wide host ranges. Journal of Bacteriology, 160(1):319-326

Buchholz WG; Thomashow MF, 1984. Host range encoded by the Agrobacterium tumefaciens tumor-inducing plasmid pTiAg63 can be expanded by modification of its T-DNA oncogene complement. Journal of Bacteriology, 160(1):327-332

Burr TJ; Katz BH, 1983. Isolation of Agrobacterium tumefaciens biovar 3 from grapevine galls and sap, and from vineyard soil. Phytopathology, 73(2):163-165

Burr TJ; Norelli JL; Katz BH; Bishop AL, 1990. Use of Ti plasmid DNA probes for determining tumorigenicity of Agrobacterium strains. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 56(6):1782-1785

Canfield M; Lu S; Bouzar H; Hodge C; Jones J; Moore LW, 1993. Diversity of Agrobacterium isolates from Rubus species with crown gall. in 6th Intern. Congr. Plant Path. Montreal, Canada: Nat. Res. Council, Ottawa, Canada.

Canfield ML; Kawalek MD; Moore LW, 1990. Colony hybridization with Ti plasmid probes to Agrobacterium isolates from apple rootstock tumors. Phytopathology, 1001.

Canfield ML; Moore LW, 1991. Isolation and characterization of opine-utilizing strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and fluorescent strains of Pseudomonas spp. from rootstocks of Malus. Phytopathology, 81(4):440-443

Canfield ML; Moore LW, 1992. Control of crown gall in apple (Malus) rootstocks using Copac E and Terramycin. Phytopathology, 1153.

Canfield ML; Putnam ML; White T; Moore LW, 1995. Isolation of Agrobacterium tumefaciens from blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum). Phytopathology, 1194.

Cleene M de; Ley Jde, 1976. The host range of crown gall. Botanical Review, 42(No. 4):389-466

Close TJ; Tait RC; Kado CI, 1985. Regulation of Ti plasmid virulence genes by a chromosomal locus of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Journal of Bacteriology, 164(2):774-781

Cooksey DA, 1986. Galls of Gypsophila paniculata caused by Erwinia herbicola. Plant Disease, 70(5):464-468

Cooksey DA; Moore LW, 1980. Biological control of crown gall with fungal and bacterial antagonists. Phytopathology, 70(6):506-509

Dai LY; Gao BD, 1993. A survey on the diseases of nai plum in Hunan. Journal of Hunan Agricultural College, 19(5):456-459

Dhanvantari BN, 1983. Etiology of grape crown gall in Ontario. Canadian Journal of Botany, 61(10):2641-2646

Dhanvantari BN; Johnson PW; Dirks VA, 1975. The role of nematodes in crown gall infection of peach in southwestern Ontario. Plant Disease Reporter, 59(2):109-112

Dong LC; Sun CW; Thies KL; Luthe DS; Graves CH Jr, 1992. Use of polymerase chain reaction to detect pathogenic strains of Agrobacterium. Phytopathology, 82(4):434-439

D'Souza-Ault MR; Cooley MB; Kado CI, 1993. Analysis of the Ros repressor of Agrobacterium virC and virD operons: molecular intercommunication between plasmid and chromosomal genes. Journal of Bacteriology, 175(11):3486-3490

El-Sherif AG; Elwakil MA, 1991. Interaction between Meloidogyne incognita and Agrobacterium tumefaciens or Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici on tomato. Journal of Nematology, 23(2):239-242; 14 ref.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Garfinkel DJ; Simpson RB; Ream LW; White FF; Gordon MP; Nester EW, 1981. Genetic analysis of crown gall: fine structure map of the T-DNA by site-directed mutagenesis. Cell, 27:143-153.

Goodman RN; Grimm R; Frank M, 1993. The influence of grape rootstocks on the crown gall infection process and on tumor development. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 44(1):22-26

Grimm R, 1987. Control of crown gall in Swiss apple nurseries. Bulletin OEPP, 17(2):269-272

Guiltinan MJ; Chang C, 1993. Biotechnological approaches for the improvement of pelargoniums. Proceedings of the Third International Geranium Conference, Odense, Denmark, 31 August to 4 September 1992., 61-64; 9 ref.

Haas JH; Moore LW; Ream W; Manulis S, 1995. Universal PCR primers for detection of phytopathogenic Agrobacterium strains. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 61(8):2879-2884; 52 ref.

Handelsman J; Raffel SJ; Sequeira L, 1990. Monoclonal antibodies against Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58. Current Microbiology, 21(3):181-185

Holmes B, 1988. Taxonomy of Agrobacterium. Acta Horticulturae, No. 225:47-52

Holmes B; Roberts P, 1981. The classification, identification and nomenclature of Agrobacteria, incorporating revised descriptions for each of Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Smith & Townsend) Conn 1942, Agrobacterium rhizogenes (Riker et al.) Conn 1942, and Agrobacterium rubi (Hildebrand) Starr & Weiss 1943. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 50(3):443-467

Hsieh H-J, 1980. Survey of diseases of woody plants in Taiwan (3). Quarterly Journal of Chinese Forestry, 13(3):129-139

Htay K; Kerr A, 1974. Biological control of crown gall: seed and root inoculation. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 37(4):525-530

Huang MLW; Cangelosi GA; Halperin W; Nester EW, 1990. A chromosomal Agrobacterium tumefaciens gene required for effective plant signal transduction. Journal of Bacteriology, 172(4):1814-1822

IPPC-Secretariat, 2005. Identification of risks and management of invasive alien species using the IPPC framework. Proceedings of the workshop on invasive alien species and the International Plant Protection Convention, 22-26 September 2003. xii + 301 pp.

Ivascu A; Cindea M, 2011. Bacterial cancer of horse chestnut. Lucrari Stiintifice - Universitatea de Stiinte Agronomice si Medicina Veterinara Bucuresti. Seria B, Horticultura, No.55:685-687. http://horticulturejournal.usamv.ro/pdf/11.%20Lucrari%20stiintifice,%20Seria%20B,%20Horticultura,%20Vol%20LV,%202011%20(CD-ROM).pdf

Ivascu A; Gradinariu G; Cîndea M; Uberti M, 2011. Mulberry tree bacterial cancer. Lucrari Stiintifice, Universitatea de Stiinte Agricole Si Medicina Veterinara "Ion Ionescu de la Brad" Iasi, Seria Horticultura, 54(2):453-456.

Janse JD, 2010. Diagnostic methods for phytopathogenic bacteria of stone fruits and nuts in COST 873. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin [EPPO Conference on Diagnostics by the Food and Environment Research Agency (Fera), York, UK, 10-15 May 2009.], 40(1):68-85. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/epp

Jifeng Y; Xuemei X; Peimin C; Junmei G, 1990. Control of grape crown gall disease with HLB-2 strain of Agrobacterium radiobacter. Chinese J. Biolog. Sci, 6:35-37.

Jones DA; Kerr A, 1989. Agrobacterium radiobacter strain K1026, a genetically engineered derivative of strain K84, for biological control of crown gall. Plant Disease, 73(1):15-18

Kado CI, 1991. Molecular mechanisms of crown gall tumorigenesis. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 10(1):1-32

Kaul VK; Chhabra HK; Ajmer Singh; Grewal SS, 1993. Response of peach root stocks to root knot nematode and bacterial complex. Plant Disease Research, 8(2):102-109

Keane PJ; Kerr A; New PG, 1970. Crown gall of stone fruit II. Identification and nomenclature of Agrobacterium isolates. Australian Journal of Biological Science, 23:585-595.

Kerr A, 1969. Crown gall of stone fruit I. isolations of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and related species. Aust. J. biol. Sci, 22:111-116.

Kerr A, 1992. The genus Agrobacterium. In: Balows A, Trüper HG, Dworkin M, Harder W, Schleifer K-H, eds. The Prokaryotes - a Handbook on the Biology of Bacteria, 2nd Edition. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 2214-2235.

Kerr A; Brisbane PG, 1983. Agrobacterium, in Plant Bacterial Diseases. In: Fahy PCaP, GJ, ed. A Diagnostic Guide. New York, USA: Academic Press, 27-43.

Kerr A; Panagopoulos CG, 1977. Biotypes of Agrobacterium radiobacter var. tumefaciens and their biological control. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 90(2):172-179

Kersters K; De Ley J, 1984. Genus III. Agrobacterium Conn 1942, 359AL. In: Krieg NR, Holt JG, eds. Bergeys Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Vol. 1. Baltimore, USA: Williams &Wilkins, 244-254.

Kersters K; Deley J; Sneath PHA; Sackin M, 1973. Numerical taxonomic analysis of Agrobacterium. J. Gen. Microbiol, 78:227-239.

LEHOCZKY J, 1968. Spread of Agrobacterium tumefaciens in the vessels of the grapevine, after natural infection. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 63:239-46.

Lelliott RA, 1971. A survey of crown gall in rootstocks beds of apple, cherry, plum and quince in England. Plant Pathol, 20:59-63.

Loper JE; Kado CI, 1979. Host range conferred by the virulence-specifying plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Journal of Bacteriology, 139(2):591-596

Lopez MM; Cambra M; Aramburu JM; Bolinches J, 1987. Problems of detecting phytopathogenic bacteria by ELISA. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 17(1):113-117

Loubser JT, 1978. Identification of Agrobacterium tumefaciens biotype 3 on grapevine in South Africa. Plant Disease Reporter, 62(8):730-731

Ma DeQin; Wang HuiMin, 1995. A review: biological control of crown gall (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) in fruit crops. China Fruits, No. 2:42-44

Miller HN, 1975. Leaf, stem, crown and root galls induced in chrysanthemum by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Phytopathology, 65(7):805-811

Miller HN; Miller JW; Crane GL, 1975. Relative susceptibility of chrysanthemum cultivars to Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Plant Disease Reporter, 59(7):576-581

Mirow H, 1985. Experiments on the control of crown gall on woody plants in the nursery. Deutsche Baumschule, 37(7):300-301

Misic PD; Pavlovic VZ; Todorovic RR; Mirkovic MA, 1990. Evaluation of vineyard peach as a peach rootstock. Fruit Varieties Journal, 44(2):99-102; 9 ref.

Moore LW, 1980. Controlling crown gall with biological antagonists. American Nurseryman, 151:40, 42, 44.

Moore LW; Allen J, 1986. Controlled heating of root-pruned dormant Prunus spp. seedlings before transplanting to prevent crown gall. Plant Disease, 70(6):532-536

Moore LW; Chilton WS; Canfield ML, 1997. Diversity of opines and opine-catabolizing bacteria isolated from naturally occurring crown gall tumors. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 63(1):201-207; 51 ref.

Moore LW; Cooksey DC, 1981. Biology of Agrobacterium tumefaciens: Plant Interactions. In: Giles K, ed. The Biology of Rhizobiaceae, Supplement to International Review of Cytology, Supplement 13. NY, USA: Academic Press, 15-46.

Moore LW; Kado CI; Bouzar H, 1988. Agrobacterium. In: Schaad NW, ed. Laboratory Guide for Identification of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria. Minneapolis, USA: Am. Phtopath. Soc., 16-36.

Moura RMde; Moura AMde, 1989. Root-knot on guava: a severe disease in Pernambuco State, Brazil. Nematologia Brasileira, 13:13-19; [^italic~Paper presented at the 13th Brazilian Congress of Nematology, held at Maceio^acute~, AL, Brazil, on 20-24 Feb. 1989.^roman~]; 8 ref.

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