Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Rhizobium rhizogenes



Rhizobium rhizogenes (gall)


  • Last modified
  • 27 March 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Rhizobium rhizogenes
  • Preferred Common Name
  • gall
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •   Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •     Class: Alphaproteobacteria
  •       Order: Rhizobiales
  •         Family: Rhizobiaceae
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Rhizobium rhizogenes (Riker et al. 1930) Young et al. 2001

Preferred Common Name

  • gall

Other Scientific Names

  • Agrobacterium biovar 2 (Riker et al., 1930) Conn 1942
  • Agrobacterium radiobacter Beijerinck & Van Delden 1902) Kerr et al., 1978
  • Agrobacterium rhizogenes (Riker et al. 1930) Conn 1942
  • Agrobacterium rhizogenes (Riker et al.) Conn 1942
  • Agrobacterium tumefaciens biotype 2
  • Agrobacterium tumefaciens biovar 2
  • Bacterium rhizogenes Riker et al. 1930
  • Erwinia rhizogenes (Riker et al. 1930) Dowson 1957
  • Phytomonas rhizogenes Riker et al. 1930

International Common Names

  • English: bacterial gall; bacterial stem gall; beet crown gall; burr knot; crown gall; crown gall: beet; crown gall: Rosaceae; crown knot; hairy root of apple; root gall; root knot; Rosaceae crown gall
  • Spanish: agalla de la corona; agalla de la corona de los frutales; agalla del cuello
  • French: broussin de la vigne; galle du collet; tumeur du collet

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Mauke: Weinrebe; Wurzelkrebs: Obstgehoelze; Wurzelkrebs: Rosen; Wurzelkropf

EPPO code

  • AGRBRH (Agrobacterium rhizogenes)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •         Class: Alphaproteobacteria
  •             Order: Rhizobiales
  •                 Family: Rhizobiaceae
  •                     Genus: Rhizobium
  •                         Species: Rhizobium rhizogenes

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


ChinaRestricted distributionMa et al., 1995
-HenanPresentBradbury, 1986
-HunanPresentDai and Gao, 1993
IndonesiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-SumatraPresentSuharti, 1976
JapanWidespreadOhta and Nishiyama, 1984; Sawada et al., 1990; EPPO, 2014
MalaysiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-SabahPresentBradbury, 1986
TaiwanPresentHsieh, 1980; Bradbury, 1986


AlgeriaRestricted distributionBouzar et al., 1991
MalawiPresentBradbury, 1986
South AfricaRestricted distributionLoubser, 1978
-Canary IslandsPresentBradbury, 1986

North America

CanadaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlbertaPresentBradbury, 1986; Utkhede, 1992
-British ColumbiaPresentBradbury, 1986; Utkhede and Smith, 1993
-ManitobaPresentBradbury, 1986
-OntarioPresentDhanvantari, 1983; Bradbury, 1986
-Prince Edward IslandPresentBradbury, 1986
-QuebecPresentBradbury, 1986
-SaskatchewanPresentBradbury, 1986
USARestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-CaliforniaPresentBradbury, 1986; EPPO, 2014
-ConnecticutPresentBradbury, 1986; EPPO, 2014
-District of ColumbiaPresentEPPO, 2014
-HawaiiPresentBradbury, 1986
-IdahoPresentBradbury, 1986; EPPO, 2014
-MarylandPresentBradbury, 1986; EPPO, 2014
-New YorkPresentBradbury, 1986; EPPO, 2014
-PennsylvaniaPresentBradbury, 1986; EPPO, 2014
-TexasPresentBradbury, 1986; EPPO, 2014

Central America and Caribbean

French West IndiesPresentBradbury, 1986

South America

BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-PernambucoPresentBradbury, 1986
-Sao PauloPresentBradbury, 1986
ColombiaRestricted distributionBradbury, 1986


BulgariaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
EstoniaWidespreadBradbury, 1986
FranceWidespreadEPPO, 2014
ItalyPresentEPPO, 2014
PortugalPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AzoresPresentBradbury, 1986
Russian FederationPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Central RussiaPresentBradbury, 1986
-SiberiaPresentBradbury, 1986
SpainPresentLopez et al., 2008
UkrainePresentBradbury, 1986


AustraliaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-New South WalesPresentBradbury, 1986
-QueenslandPresentBradbury, 1986
-South AustraliaPresentBradbury, 1986
-TasmaniaPresentBradbury, 1986
-VictoriaPresentBradbury, 1986; EPPO, 2014
-Western AustraliaPresentBradbury, 1986; EPPO, 2014

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Roots / galls along length
Roots / galls at junction with stem
Roots / hairy root
Stems / galls


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Anderson AR; Moore LW, 1979. Host specificity in the genus Agrobacterium. Phytopathology, 69(4):320-323

Arcelin R; Kushalappa AC, 1991. A survey of carrot diseases on muck soils in the southwestern part of Quebec. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 71(2):147-153

Bazzi C, 1983. Biological control of crown gall in Italy. in Proc. Int. Workshop on Crown Gall. Wadensville, Switzerland.

Bazzi C; Mazzucchi U; Boschieri S, 1980. Biological control trial against bacterial tumour of apple in Alto Adige. Informatore Fitopatologico, 30(6):3-6

Belanger C; Canfield ML; Moore LW; Dion P, 1995. Genetic analysis of nonpathogenic Agrobacterium tumefaciens mutants arising in crown gall tumors. Journal of Bacteriology, 177(13):3752-3757

Bishop AL; Burr TJ; Mittak VL; Katz BH, 1989. A monoclonal antibody specific to Agrobacterium tumefaciens biovar 3 and its utilization for indexing grapevine propagation material. Phytopathology, 79(9):995-998

Bouzar H; Daouzli N; Krimi Z; Alim A; Khemici E, 1991. Crown gall incidence in plant nurseries of Algeria, characteristics of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains, and biological control of strains sensitive and resistant to agroxin 84. Agronomie, 11(10):901-908; 41 ref.

Bouzar H; Jones JB; Hodge NC, 1993. Differential characterization of Agrobacterium species using carbon-source utilization patterns and fatty acid profiles. Phytopathology, 83(7):733-739

Bouzar H; Moore LW, 1987. Complementary methodologies to identify specific Agrobacterium strains. Appl. Environ. Microbiol, 53:2660-2665.

Bouzar H; Moore LW, 1987. Isolation of different Agrobacterium biovars from a natural oak savanna and tallgrass prairie. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 53(4):717-721

Bradbury JF, 1986. Guide to Plant Pathogenic Bacteria. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Brisbane PG; Kerr A, 1983. Selective media for three biovars of Agrobacterium. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 54(3):425-431

Buchholz WG; Thomashow MF, 1984. Comparison of T-DNA oncogene complements of Agrobacterium tumefaciens tumor-inducing plasmids with limited and wide host ranges. Journal of Bacteriology, 160(1):319-326

Buchholz WG; Thomashow MF, 1984. Host range encoded by the Agrobacterium tumefaciens tumor-inducing plasmid pTiAg63 can be expanded by modification of its T-DNA oncogene complement. Journal of Bacteriology, 160(1):327-332

Burr TJ; Katz BH, 1983. Isolation of Agrobacterium tumefaciens biovar 3 from grapevine galls and sap, and from vineyard soil. Phytopathology, 73(2):163-165

Burr TJ; Norelli JL; Katz BH; Bishop AL, 1990. Use of Ti plasmid DNA probes for determining tumorigenicity of Agrobacterium strains. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 56(6):1782-1785

Canfield M; Lu S; Bouzar H; Hodge C; Jones J; Moore LW, 1993. Diversity of Agrobacterium isolates from Rubus species with crown gall. in 6th Intern. Congr. Plant Path. Montreal, Canada: Nat. Res. Council, Ottawa, Canada.

Canfield ML; Kawalek MD; Moore LW, 1990. Colony hybridization with Ti plasmid probes to Agrobacterium isolates from apple rootstock tumors. Phytopathology, 1001.

Canfield ML; Moore LW, 1991. Isolation and characterization of opine-utilizing strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and fluorescent strains of Pseudomonas spp. from rootstocks of Malus. Phytopathology, 81(4):440-443

Canfield ML; Moore LW, 1992. Control of crown gall in apple (Malus) rootstocks using Copac E and Terramycin. Phytopathology, 1153.

Canfield ML; Putnam ML; White T; Moore LW, 1995. Isolation of Agrobacterium tumefaciens from blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum). Phytopathology, 1194.

Cleene M de; Ley Jde, 1976. The host range of crown gall. Botanical Review, 42(No. 4):389-466

Close TJ; Tait RC; Kado CI, 1985. Regulation of Ti plasmid virulence genes by a chromosomal locus of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Journal of Bacteriology, 164(2):774-781

Cooksey DA, 1986. Galls of Gypsophila paniculata caused by Erwinia herbicola. Plant Disease, 70(5):464-468

Cooksey DA; Moore LW, 1980. Biological control of crown gall with fungal and bacterial antagonists. Phytopathology, 70(6):506-509

Dai LY; Gao BD, 1993. A survey on the diseases of nai plum in Hunan. Journal of Hunan Agricultural College, 19(5):456-459

Dhanvantari BN, 1983. Etiology of grape crown gall in Ontario. Canadian Journal of Botany, 61(10):2641-2646

Dhanvantari BN; Johnson PW; Dirks VA, 1975. The role of nematodes in crown gall infection of peach in southwestern Ontario. Plant Disease Reporter, 59(2):109-112

Dong LC; Sun CW; Thies KL; Luthe DS; Graves CH Jr, 1992. Use of polymerase chain reaction to detect pathogenic strains of Agrobacterium. Phytopathology, 82(4):434-439

D'Souza-Ault MR; Cooley MB; Kado CI, 1993. Analysis of the Ros repressor of Agrobacterium virC and virD operons: molecular intercommunication between plasmid and chromosomal genes. Journal of Bacteriology, 175(11):3486-3490

El-Sherif AG; Elwakil MA, 1991. Interaction between Meloidogyne incognita and Agrobacterium tumefaciens or Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici on tomato. Journal of Nematology, 23(2):239-242; 14 ref.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.

Garfinkel DJ; Simpson RB; Ream LW; White FF; Gordon MP; Nester EW, 1981. Genetic analysis of crown gall: fine structure map of the T-DNA by site-directed mutagenesis. Cell, 27:143-153.

Goodman RN; Grimm R; Frank M, 1993. The influence of grape rootstocks on the crown gall infection process and on tumor development. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 44(1):22-26

Grimm R, 1987. Control of crown gall in Swiss apple nurseries. Bulletin OEPP, 17(2):269-272

Guiltinan MJ; Chang C, 1993. Biotechnological approaches for the improvement of pelargoniums. Proceedings of the Third International Geranium Conference, Odense, Denmark, 31 August to 4 September 1992., 61-64; 9 ref.

Handelsman J; Raffel SJ; Sequeira L, 1990. Monoclonal antibodies against Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58. Current Microbiology, 21(3):181-185

Holmes B, 1988. Taxonomy of Agrobacterium. Acta Horticulturae, No. 225:47-52

Holmes B; Roberts P, 1981. The classification, identification and nomenclature of Agrobacteria, incorporating revised descriptions for each of Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Smith & Townsend) Conn 1942, Agrobacterium rhizogenes (Riker et al.) Conn 1942, and Agrobacterium rubi (Hildebrand) Starr & Weiss 1943. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 50(3):443-467

Hsieh H-J, 1980. Survey of diseases of woody plants in Taiwan (3). Quarterly Journal of Chinese Forestry, 13(3):129-139

Htay K; Kerr A, 1974. Biological control of crown gall: seed and root inoculation. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 37(4):525-530

Huang MLW; Cangelosi GA; Halperin W; Nester EW, 1990. A chromosomal Agrobacterium tumefaciens gene required for effective plant signal transduction. Journal of Bacteriology, 172(4):1814-1822

Jifeng Y; Xuemei X; Peimin C; Junmei G, 1990. Control of grape crown gall disease with HLB-2 strain of Agrobacterium radiobacter. Chinese J. Biolog. Sci, 6:35-37.

Jones DA; Kerr A, 1989. Agrobacterium radiobacter strain K1026, a genetically engineered derivative of strain K84, for biological control of crown gall. Plant Disease, 73(1):15-18

Kado CI, 1991. Molecular mechanisms of crown gall tumorigenesis. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 10(1):1-32

Kaul VK; Chhabra HK; Ajmer Singh; Grewal SS, 1993. Response of peach root stocks to root knot nematode and bacterial complex. Plant Disease Research, 8(2):102-109

Keane PJ; Kerr A; New PG, 1970. Crown gall of stone fruit II. Identification and nomenclature of Agrobacterium isolates. Australian Journal of Biological Science, 23:585-595.

Kerr A, 1969. Crown gall of stone fruit I. isolations of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and related species. Aust. J. biol. Sci, 22:111-116.

Kerr A, 1992. The genus Agrobacterium. In: Balows A, Trüper HG, Dworkin M, Harder W, Schleifer K-H, eds. The Prokaryotes - a Handbook on the Biology of Bacteria, 2nd Edition. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 2214-2235.

Kerr A; Brisbane PG, 1983. Agrobacterium in Plant Bacterial Diseases. In: Fahy PCaP GJ, ed. A Diagnostic Guide. New York, USA: Academic Press, 27-43.

Kerr A; Panagopoulos CG, 1977. Biotypes of Agrobacterium radiobacter var. tumefaciens and their biological control. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 90(2):172-179

Kersters K; De Ley J, 1984. Genus III. Agrobacterium Conn 1942, 359AL. In: Krieg NR, Holt JG, eds. Bergeys Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Vol. 1. Baltimore, USA: Williams &Wilkins, 244-254.

Kersters K; Deley J; Sneath PHA; Sackin M, 1973. Numerical taxonomic analysis of Agrobacterium. J. Gen. Microbiol, 78:227-239.

LEHOCZKY J, 1968. Spread of Agrobacterium tumefaciens in the vessels of the grapevine, after natural infection. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 63:239-46.

Lelliott RA, 1971. A survey of crown gall in rootstocks beds of apple, cherry, plum and quince in England. Plant Pathol, 20:59-63.

Loper JE; Kado CI, 1979. Host range conferred by the virulence-specifying plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Journal of Bacteriology, 139(2):591-596

Lopez MM; Cambra M; Aramburu JM; Bolinches J, 1987. Problems of detecting phytopathogenic bacteria by ELISA. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 17(1):113-117

Lopez MM; Palacio-Bielsa A; Gonzalez-Abolafio R; Santiago R; Salcedo CI; Penyalver R, 2008. Tumorigenic Agrobacterium rhizogenes (biovar 2) isolated from grapevine in Spain. Plant Pathology, 57(2):367.

Loubser JT, 1978. Identification of Agrobacterium tumefaciens biotype 3 on grapevine in South Africa. Plant Disease Reporter, 62(8):730-731

Ma DeQin; Wang HuiMin, 1995. A review: biological control of crown gall (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) in fruit crops. China Fruits, No. 2:42-44

Miller HN, 1975. Leaf, stem, crown and root galls induced in chrysanthemum by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Phytopathology, 65(7):805-811

Miller HN; Miller JW; Crane GL, 1975. Relative susceptibility of chrysanthemum cultivars to Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Plant Disease Reporter, 59(7):576-581

Mirow H, 1985. Experiments on the control of crown gall on woody plants in the nursery. Deutsche Baumschule, 37(7):300-301

Misic PD; Pavlovic VZ; Todorovic RR; Mirkovic MA, 1990. Evaluation of vineyard peach as a peach rootstock. Fruit Varieties Journal, 44(2):99-102; 9 ref.

Moore LW, 1980. Controlling crown gall with biological antagonists. American Nurseryman, 151:40, 42, 44.

Moore LW; Allen J, 1986. Controlled heating of root-pruned dormant Prunus spp. seedlings before transplanting to prevent crown gall. Plant Disease, 70(6):532-536

Moore LW; Chilton WS; Canfield ML, 1997. Diversity of opines and opine-catabolizing bacteria isolated from naturally occurring crown gall tumors. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 63(1):201-207; 51 ref.

Moore LW; Cooksey DC, 1981. Biology of Agrobacterium tumefaciens: Plant Interactions. In: Giles K, ed. The Biology of Rhizobiaceae, Supplement to International Review of Cytology, Supplement 13. NY, USA: Academic Press, 15-46.

Moore LW; Kado CI; Bouzar H, 1988. Agrobacterium. In: Schaad NW, ed. Laboratory Guide for Identification of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria. Minneapolis, USA: Am. Phtopath. Soc., 16-36.

Moura RMde; Moura AMde, 1989. Root-knot on guava: a severe disease in Pernambuco State, Brazil. Nematologia Brasileira, 13:13-19; [^italic~Paper presented at the 13th Brazilian Congress of Nematology, held at Maceio^acute~, AL, Brazil, on 20-24 Feb. 1989.^roman~]; 8 ref.

Nesme X; Beneddra T; Collin E, 1990. Importance of crown gall in hybrids of Populus tremula L. P. alba L. in forest tree nursery. Agronomie, 10(7):581-588

New PB; Kerr A, 1971. A selective medium for Agrobacterium radiobacter biotype 2. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 34:233-236.

Ohta K; Nishiyama K, 1984. Studies on the crown gall diseases of flower crops I. Occurrence of the disease and the characterization of the causal bacterium. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 50(2):197-204

Ophel K; Nicholas PR; Magarey PA; Bass AW, 1990. Hot water treatment of dormant grape cuttings reduces crown gall incidence in a field nursery. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 41(4):325-329

Pinkerton JN; Canfield ML; Ivors KL; Moore LW, 1996. Effect of soil solarization and cover crops on populations of selected soilborne plant pathogens. Phytopathology (Abst.).

Psallidas PG, 1988. Large-scale application of biological control of crown gall in Greece. Bulletin OEPP, 18(1):61-66

Pu XA; Goodman RN, 1993. Effects of fumigation and biological control on infection of indexed crown gall free grape plants. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 44(3):241-249

Raio A; Zoina A; Moore LW, 1997. The effect of solar heating of soil on natural and inoculated agrobacteria. Plant Pathology, 46(3):320-328; 30 ref.

Roy M; Sasser M, 1983. A medium selective for Agrobacterium tumefaciens biotype 3. Phytopatholgy, 73:810.

Russo RA, 1979. Plant Galls of the California Region., Pacific Grove. California, USA: Boxwood Press.

Ryder M, 1991. Biological control of crown gall using Agrobacterium strains K84 and K1026. Bulletin SROP, 14(8):96

Ryder MH; Jones DA, 1991. Biological control of crown gall using Agrobacterium strains K84 and K1026. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology, 18:571-579.

Sawada H; Ieki H; Oyaizu H; Matsumoto S, 1993. Proposal for rejection of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and revised descriptions for the genus Agrobacterium and for Agrobacterium radiobacter and Agrobacterium rhizogenes. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 43(4):694-702

Sawada H; Ieki H; Takikawa Y, 1990. Identification of grapevine crown gall bacteria isolated in Japan. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 56(2):199-206

Schroth MN; McCain AH; Foott JH; Huisman OC, 1988. Reduction in yield and vigor of grapevine caused by crown gall disease. Plant Disease, 72(3):241-246

Schroth MN; Weinhold AR; McCain AH; Hildebrand DC; Ross N, 1971. Biology and control of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Hilgardia, 40:537-552.

Stachel SE; Nester EW, 1986. The genetic and transcriptional organization of the vir region of the A6 Ti plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. EMBO J, 5:1445-1454.

Starkey RL, 1931. Some influences of the development of higher plants upon the microorganisms in the soil. IV. Influences of proximity to roots on abundance and activity of microorganisms. Soil Sci, 32:367-393.

Stockwell VO; Kawalek MD; Moore LW; Loper JE, 1996. Transfer of pAgK84 from the biocontrol agent Agrobacterium radiobacter K84 to A. tumefaciens under field conditions. Phytopathology, 86(1):31-37; 42 ref.

Stockwell VO; Moore LW; Loper JE, 1993. Fate of Agrobacterium radiobacter K84 in the environment. Appl. Environ. Microbiol, 59:2112-2120

Suharti M, 1976. Root gall disease of Paulownia kawakamii in Riau, Sumatra. Laporan, Lembaga Penelitian Hutan, Indonesia.

Tawfik p; Riad FW; El-Eraky S, 1983. Field spread of crown gall and root-knot nematode infection to peach rootstocks in Wady-el-Mollake, Ismplia. Agricultural Research Review, 61(2):193-201

Thomashow MF; Panagopoulos CG; Gordon MP; Nester EW, 1980. Host range of Agrobacterium tumefaciens is determined by the Ti plasmid. Nature, UK, 283(5749):794-796

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Utkhede RS, 1992. Biological control of soilborne pathogens of fruit trees and grapevines. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 14(1):100-105

Utkhede RS; Smith EM, 1990. Effect of fumigants and Agrobacterium radiobacter strain 84 in controlling crown gall of apple seedlings. Journal of Phytopathology, 128(4):265-270

Utkhede RS; Smith EM, 1993. Evaluation of biological and chemical treatments for control of crown gall on young apple trees in the Kootenay valley of British Columbia. Journal of Phytopathology, 137(4):265-271; 22 ref.

Vicedo B; Penalver R; Asins MJ; Lopez MM, 1993. Biological control of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, colonization, and pAgK84 transfer with Agrobacterium radiobacter K84 and the Tra- mutant strain K1026. Appl. Environ. Microbiol, 59:309-315.

Vrain TC; Copeman RJ, 1987. Interactions between Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Pratylenchus penetrans in the roots of two red raspberry cultivars. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 9(3):236-240

Wample RL; Bary A; Burr TJ, 1991. Heat tolerance of dormant Vitis vinifera cuttings. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 42(1):67-72

Willems A; Collins MD, 1993. Phylogenetic analysis of rhizobia and agrobacteria based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 43:305-313.

Yang DC; Yang DC; Choi KT, 1991. Isolation and identification of Agrobacterium spp. using carrot disc and transformation of Nicotiana glauca by selected strains. Journal of the Korean Society of Tobacco Science, 13(1):43-52

Zeidan M; Czosnek H, 1994. Acquisition and transmission of Agrobacterium by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, 7(6):792-798

Distribution Maps

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