Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Alocasia cucullata
(Chinese taro)

Rojas-Sandoval J, 2019. Alocasia cucullata (Chinese taro). Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CABI. DOI:10.1079/ISC.37019438.20203482787

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Alocasia cucullata (Chinese taro)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 03 July 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Alocasia cucullata
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Chinese taro
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Alocasia cucullata is a clumping evergreen herbaceous plant that is grown as a food plant and as an ornamental in areas within and outside its native distribution range of tropical and temperate Asia. This species spreads by seed and vege...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Alocasia cucullata (Chinese taro); habit, showing leaves. Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Miami, Florida, USA. May 2007.
TitleHabit
CaptionAlocasia cucullata (Chinese taro); habit, showing leaves. Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Miami, Florida, USA. May 2007.
Copyright©David J. Stang/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Alocasia cucullata (Chinese taro); habit, showing leaves. Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Miami, Florida, USA. May 2007.
HabitAlocasia cucullata (Chinese taro); habit, showing leaves. Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Miami, Florida, USA. May 2007.©David J. Stang/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Alocasia cucullata (Chinese taro); habit, showing leaves. Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Miami, Florida, USA. May 2007.
TitleLeaves
CaptionAlocasia cucullata (Chinese taro); habit, showing leaves. Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Miami, Florida, USA. May 2007.
Copyright©David J. Stang/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Alocasia cucullata (Chinese taro); habit, showing leaves. Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Miami, Florida, USA. May 2007.
LeavesAlocasia cucullata (Chinese taro); habit, showing leaves. Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Miami, Florida, USA. May 2007.©David J. Stang/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Alocasia cucullata (Chinese taro); habit, showing leaves. Auckland Botanic Gardens, Manurewa, South Auckland, New Zealand. November 2017.
TitleHabit
CaptionAlocasia cucullata (Chinese taro); habit, showing leaves. Auckland Botanic Gardens, Manurewa, South Auckland, New Zealand. November 2017.
Copyright©Krzysztof Ziarnek (Kenraiz)/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Alocasia cucullata (Chinese taro); habit, showing leaves. Auckland Botanic Gardens, Manurewa, South Auckland, New Zealand. November 2017.
HabitAlocasia cucullata (Chinese taro); habit, showing leaves. Auckland Botanic Gardens, Manurewa, South Auckland, New Zealand. November 2017.©Krzysztof Ziarnek (Kenraiz)/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Alocasia cucullata (Chinese taro); habit, showing leaves. Auckland Botanic Gardens, Manurewa, South Auckland, New Zealand. November 2017. November 2017.
TitleHabit
CaptionAlocasia cucullata (Chinese taro); habit, showing leaves. Auckland Botanic Gardens, Manurewa, South Auckland, New Zealand. November 2017. November 2017.
Copyright©Krzysztof Ziarnek (Kenraiz)/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Alocasia cucullata (Chinese taro); habit, showing leaves. Auckland Botanic Gardens, Manurewa, South Auckland, New Zealand. November 2017. November 2017.
HabitAlocasia cucullata (Chinese taro); habit, showing leaves. Auckland Botanic Gardens, Manurewa, South Auckland, New Zealand. November 2017. November 2017.©Krzysztof Ziarnek (Kenraiz)/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Alocasia cucullata (Chinese taro); inflorescence. Fairy Lake Botanical Garden, Luohu District, Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, China. December 2007.
TitleInflorescence
CaptionAlocasia cucullata (Chinese taro); inflorescence. Fairy Lake Botanical Garden, Luohu District, Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, China. December 2007.
Copyright©阿橋 HQ/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Alocasia cucullata (Chinese taro); inflorescence. Fairy Lake Botanical Garden, Luohu District, Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, China. December 2007.
InflorescenceAlocasia cucullata (Chinese taro); inflorescence. Fairy Lake Botanical Garden, Luohu District, Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, China. December 2007.©阿橋 HQ/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Alocasia cucullata (Chinese taro); rhizomes, showing emerging leaves. Auckland Botanic Gardens, Manurewa, South Auckland, New Zealand. November 2017.
TitleRhizomes
CaptionAlocasia cucullata (Chinese taro); rhizomes, showing emerging leaves. Auckland Botanic Gardens, Manurewa, South Auckland, New Zealand. November 2017.
Copyright©Krzysztof Ziarnek (Kenraiz)/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Alocasia cucullata (Chinese taro); rhizomes, showing emerging leaves. Auckland Botanic Gardens, Manurewa, South Auckland, New Zealand. November 2017.
RhizomesAlocasia cucullata (Chinese taro); rhizomes, showing emerging leaves. Auckland Botanic Gardens, Manurewa, South Auckland, New Zealand. November 2017.©Krzysztof Ziarnek (Kenraiz)/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Alocasia cucullata (Chinese taro); rhizomes, showing emerging leaves. Auckland Botanic Gardens, New Zealand. November 2017.
TitleRhizomes
CaptionAlocasia cucullata (Chinese taro); rhizomes, showing emerging leaves. Auckland Botanic Gardens, New Zealand. November 2017.
Copyright©Krzysztof Ziarnek (Kenraiz)/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Alocasia cucullata (Chinese taro); rhizomes, showing emerging leaves. Auckland Botanic Gardens, New Zealand. November 2017.
RhizomesAlocasia cucullata (Chinese taro); rhizomes, showing emerging leaves. Auckland Botanic Gardens, New Zealand. November 2017.©Krzysztof Ziarnek (Kenraiz)/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Alocasia cucullata (Lour.) G.Don

Preferred Common Name

  • Chinese taro

Other Scientific Names

  • Alocasia rugosa (Desf.) Schott
  • Arum cucullatum Lour.
  • Caladium colocasia Schott ex Wight
  • Caladium cucullatum (Lour.) Pers.
  • Caladium rugosum Desf.
  • Colocasia cochleata Miq.
  • Colocasia cucullata (Lour.) Schott
  • Colocasia rugosa (Desf.) Kunth
  • Panzhuyuia omeiensis Z.Y.Zhu

International Common Names

  • English: Buddha's hand; Chinese ape; dwarf elephant ear
  • Chinese: jian wei yu

Local Common Names

  • India: boga kachu; mukhi-kochu; panchamukhi kochu

Summary of Invasiveness

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Alocasia cucullata is a clumping evergreen herbaceous plant that is grown as a food plant and as an ornamental in areas within and outside its native distribution range of tropical and temperate Asia. This species spreads by seed and vegetatively by root suckers, rhizomes and corm fragments. It is listed as invasive in Cuba, Costa Rica, Hawaii, Fiji, the Cook Islands, Micronesia and French Polynesia. It is also listed in the Global Compendium of Weeds. A. cucullata is considered an invasive species with the potential to colonize and become naturalized in the understorey of rainforests and moist areas along streams and riverbanks.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Arales
  •                         Family: Araceae
  •                             Genus: Alocasia
  •                                 Species: Alocasia cucullata

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The Araceae is a family of monocotyledonous flowering plants comprising about 144 genera and more than 3,600 species distributed mostly in tropical areas in the New World, and also in Australia, Africa-Madagascar and Asia (Stevens, 2019). The genus Alocasia comprises over 113 species of humid and rainforest understorey plants in Southeast Asia, the Malesian region and Australia. Several Alocasia species, including the giant taro (Alocasia macrorrhizos) and Chinese taro (Alocasia cucullata), are not only important food plants but also cultivated as ornamentals (Nauheimer et al., 2012).

Description

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The following description is adapted from Flora of China (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2019).

Herbs, clumping, small to medium sized, somewhat robust, to 1 m, evergreen. Stems erect, hypogeal, basally much branched. Leaves many together; petiole weakly D-shaped in cross section, 25-30(-80) cm, sheath reaching to ca. 1/2 way, margins membranous; leaf blade broadly ovate-cordate, 10-40 × 7-28 cm, base shallowly cordate, apex acute; primary veins 4 on each side, radiating from petiole, arching, interprimary veins not forming a collective vein. Inflorescences rarely produced, usually solitary, sometimes paired, among leaf bases, subtended by membranous cataphylls; peduncle 20-30 cm. Spathe green, 9-15 cm; proximal spathe 4-8 × 2.5 cm; limb narrowly cymbiform, 5-10 × 3-5 cm. Spadix 8-14 cm; female zone cylindric, 1.5-2.5 cm × 7 mm; sterile zone 2-3 cm × 3 mm; male zone yellow, 3.4 cm × 8 mm; appendix yellowish, narrowly conic, 3.5 cm × 5 mm. Fruit a subglobose berry, 6-8 mm in diameter, ripening red.

Plant Type

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Annual
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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Alocasia cucullata is native to tropical and temperate Asia. It can be found cultivated and naturalized in Japan, Singapore, Malaysia, Costa Rica, Honduras, Cuba, Colombia, Ecuador and on many islands in the Pacific region (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2019; USDA-ARS, 2019). 

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 03 Jul 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Asia

BangladeshPresentNative
ChinaPresentNative
-FujianPresentNative
-GuangdongPresentNative
-GuangxiPresentNative
-GuizhouPresentNative
-HainanPresentNative
-SichuanPresentNative
-YunnanPresentNative
Hong KongPresentNative
IndiaPresentNativeCultivated
-AssamPresentCultivated
-MeghalayaPresentNative
-West BengalPresentNative
JapanPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated
-Bonin IslandsPresentIntroducedOgasawara-shoto
-Ryukyu IslandsPresentIntroducedNansei-shoto
LaosPresentNative
MalaysiaPresentIntroducedCultivated
MyanmarPresentNativeCultivated
NepalPresentNative
SingaporePresentIntroducedCultivated
Sri LankaPresentNativeCultivated
TaiwanPresentNative
ThailandPresentNativeCultivated
VietnamPresentNative

North America

Costa RicaPresentIntroducedInvasive
CubaPresentIntroducedInvasive
HondurasPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated
United StatesPresentIntroduced
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasive

Oceania

Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentIntroduced
-KosraePresentIntroduced
-PohnpeiPresentIntroducedInvasive
FijiPresentIntroducedInvasive
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
GuamPresentIntroduced
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroduced
NauruPresentIntroduced
New CaledoniaPresentIntroduced
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroduced
PalauPresentIntroduced

South America

ColombiaPresentIntroduced
EcuadorPresentIntroducedCultivated

Habitat

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Alocasia cucullata can be found growing in the shady understorey of moist and humid forests, lowland forests, rainforests, along streams and river banks, in disturbed fields, forest gaps and in secondary forests. In China, it grows at elevations below 2000 m (Nauheimer et al., 2012; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2019). In Costa Rica and Hawaii it has naturalized in the understorey of humid forests (Grayum, 2003; PIER, 2019).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for A. cucullata is 2n = 28 (Ankei, 1987).

Reproductive Biology

Alocasia cucullata is a hermaphroditic species with protogynous inflorescences. Like other Alocasia species, it is pollinated by drosophilid flies of the genus Colocasiomyia that use the spadices as breeding sites (Ivancic et al., 2005; Sultana et al., 2006). The flies are attracted by a strong, peculiar fragrance emitted by the inflorescences during their blooming sequences. Although little is known about the specificity of Alocasia pollinators or hybridization in nature, morphologically polymorphic species or species ‘complexes’ have been suspected as involving hybridization (Hay, 1998). In Japan where A. cucullata is considered an alien species, a study showed that the flies Colocasiomyia alocasiae and C. xenalocasiae (Diptera: Drosophilidae), previously known to be specific pollinators of the native species A. odora were also pollinating A. cucullata (Miyake and Yafuso, 2005).

Physiology and Phenology

Although inflorescences are rarely produced, flowering has been observed in May in China (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2019).

Longevity

Alocasia cucullata is a perennial herb but in some areas it grows as an annual (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2019).

Associations

Inflorescences of several aroid species in the genera Alocasia, Colocasia and Homalomena provide breeding sites for host-specific flies of the genus Colocasiomyia (Diptera: Drosophilidae) and, in return, plants are pollinated by the flies (Miyake and Yafuso, 2005; Nauheimer et al., 2012).

Environmental Requirements

Alocasia cucullata prefers moist tropical and subtropical climates. It is adapted to grow in shaded areas (e.g. the forest understorey) but can also grow in full sun (Useful Tropical Plants, 2019; PIER, 2019; National Parks Board, 2019). While the species tolerates waterlogged soils, it should not be grown submerged in water (National Parks Board, 2019).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
30 30

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 12 28

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall1000>2500mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Bimodal
Summer
Uniform
Winter

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Pantoea agglomerans Pathogen Plants|Leaves not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Bacterial spot disease caused by Pantoea agglomerans has been observed in A. cucullata grown in gardens in Brazil (Romeiro et al., 2007); diseased plants showed distinct necrotic spots on the leaf lamina and margins.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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In cultivation fruits are rarely produced. Within its native distribution range, seeds of A. cucullata are dispersed by birds. It also spreads vegetatively by suckers, corm fragments and rhizomes. Small corm or root fragments in the soil are enough to give rise to new plants. This species often reaches new localities through the movement of soil by humans (Staples et al., 2003; Miyake and Yafuso, 2005; Nauheimer et al. 2012; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2019).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Botanical gardens and zoosCultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2019)
Crop productionCorms consumed by humans Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2019)
DisturbanceOften in forest gaps, disturbed moist areas Yes Yes Nauheimer et al. (2012)
Escape from confinement or garden escapeEscaped or persistent after cultivation Yes Yes Grayum (2003)
Garden waste disposalCultivated as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2019)
HorticultureCultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2019)
Internet salesPlants sold online Yes Yes
Medicinal useUsed in traditional Asian medicine Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2019)
Nursery tradeCultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2019)
Ornamental purposesCultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2019)
People foragingCorms consumed by humans Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2019)

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesCultivated as an ornamental and as a food plant Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2019)
MailPlants sold online Yes Yes
Soil, sand and gravelRoot segments and rhizomes in soil moved by humans Yes Yes PIER (2019)

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Positive and negative

Environmental Impact

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Alocasia cucullata is listed as invasive in Cuba, Costa Rica, Hawaii, Fiji, the Cook Islands, Micronesia and French Polynesia, and has the potential to displace native species. It has become naturalized in the understorey of rainforests and moist areas along stream and river banks (Grayum, 2003Chacón and Saborío, 2012Oviedo Prieto and González-Oliva, 2015PIER, 2019).

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Reduced native biodiversity
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Poisoning
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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Alocasia cucullata is used as a food plant and as an ornamental. The corms are eaten as a root vegetable. All parts of the plant contain calcium oxalate crystals. This substance is toxic to humans and animals when fresh, but can easily be broken down either by cooking the plant or by fully drying it. The plant is safe to eat in either of these states (Useful Tropical Plants, 2019). In China, all parts of the plant are are used externally for treating viper bites, abscesses, rheumatism and arthritis (Boyce, 2008). It is often grown in Buddhist temples and in front of residential houses in Laos and Thailand because it is believed to bring good fortune (Useful Tropical Plants, 2019; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2019; National Parks Board, 2019).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Amenity

Human food and beverage

  • Root crop

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • garden plant
  • Potted plant

References

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Ankei T, 1987. Morphology and chromosome numbers of Araceae in Iriomote Island. Biological Magazine (Okinawa), 25, 1-11.

Boyce, P. C., 2008. A review of Alocasia (Araceae: Colocasieae) for Thailand including a novel species and new species records from South-West Thailand. Thai Forest Bulletin (Botany), (No.36), 1-17.

Chacón, E., Saborío, G., 2012. Interamerican network of information on invasive species, Costa Rica. (Red Interamericana de Información de Especies Invasoras, Costa Rica). In: Red Interamericana de Información de Especies Invasoras, Costa Rica . San José, Costa Rica: Asociación para la Conservación y el Estudio de la Biodiversidad.http://invasoras.acebio.org

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2019. Flora of China. In: Flora of China St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Grayum MH, 2003. Araceae. Manual of Plants of Costa Rica, Volume II: Gymnosperms and Monocotyledons (Agavaceae-Musaceae). pp. 59-200. (Araceae. Manual de plantas de Costa Rica. Vol. II. Gimnospermas y monocotiledóneas (Agavaceae–Musaceae) ). In: Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden , 92 [ed. by Hammel BE, Grayum MH, Herrera C , Zamora N]. 1-694.

Hay, A., 1998. The genus Alocasia (Araceae-Colocasieae) in West Malesia and Sulawesi. Gardens' Bulletin (Singapore), 50(2), 221-334.

Ivancic, A., Roupsard, O., Garcia, J. Q., Lebot, V., Pochyla, V., Okpul, T., 2005. Thermogenic flowering of the giant taro (Alocasia macrorrhizos, Araceae). Canadian Journal of Botany, 83(6), 647-655. doi: 10.1139/b05-040

Miyake, T., Yafuso, M., 2005. Pollination of Alocasia cucullata (Araceae) by two Colocasiomyia flies known to be specific pollinators for Alocasia odora. Plant Species Biology, 20(3), 201-208. doi: 10.1111/j.1442-1984.2005.00139.x

National Parks Board, 2019. Flora & Fauna Web. Singapore: National Parks Board.https://www.nparks.gov.sg/florafaunaweb

Nauheimer, L., Boyce, P. C., Renner, S. S., 2012. Giant taro and its relatives: a phylogeny of the large genus Alocasia (Araceae) sheds light on Miocene floristic exchange in the Malesian region. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 63(1), 43-51. doi: 10.1016/j.ympev.2011.12.011

Oviedo Prieto, R., González-Oliva, L., 2015. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2015. (Lista nacional de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2015). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 9(Special Issue No. 2), 1-88. http://repositorio.geotech.cu/jspui/bitstream/1234/1476/4/Lista%20nacional%20de%20plantas%20invasoras%20de%20Cuba-2015.pdf

PIER, 2019. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii.http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Romeiro, R. S., Macagnan, D., Mendonça, H. L., Rodrigues Neto, J., 2007. Bacterial spot of Chinese taro (Alocasia cucullata) in Brazil induced by Pantoea agglomerans. Plant Pathology, 56(6), 1038. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3059.2007.01631.x

Staples, G. W., Imada, C. T., Herbst, D. R., 2003. New Hawaiian plant records for 2001. In: Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2001-2002. Part 2: Notes [ed. by Evenhuis, N. L., Eldredge, L. G.]. 7-21.

Stevens, P. F., 2019. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14. In: Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14 . St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Sultana, F., Hu YaoGuang, Toda, M. J., Takenaka, K., Yafuso, M., 2006. Phylogeny and classification of Colocasiomyia (Diptera, Drosophilidae), and its evolution of pollination mutualism with aroid plants. Systematic Entomology, 31(4), 684-702. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3113.2006.00344.x

USDA-ARS, 2019. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

Useful Tropical Plants, 2019. Useful tropical plants database. In: Useful tropical plants database : K Fern.http://tropical.theferns.info/

Distribution References

CABI, 2020. CABI Distribution Database: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Chacón E, Saborío G, 2012. Interamerican network of information on invasive species, Costa Rica. (Red Interamericana de Información de Especies Invasoras, Costa Rica.). In: Red Interamericana de Información de Especies Invasoras, Costa Rica. San José, Costa Rica: Asociación para la Conservación y el Estudio de la Biodiversidad. http://invasoras.acebio.org

Chong K Y, Tan H T W, Corlett R T, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp. https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/app/uploads/2017/04/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2019. Flora of China. In: Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Florence J, Chevillotte H, Ollier C, Meyer J-Y, 2013. Nadeaud botanical database of the Herbarium of French Polynesia. (Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP))., https://nadeaud.ilm.pf/

Govaerts R, 2019. World Checklist of Arecaceae. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

Herrera K, Lorence D H, Flynn T, Balick M J, 2010. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia with Local Names and Uses. Allertonia. 1-192. https://www.jstor.org/stable/23193787

Hong Kong Herbarium, 2018. Hong Kong Plant Database. Kowloon, Hong Kong, China: Hong Kong Herbarium. https://www.herbarium.gov.hk/home.aspx

India Biodiversity Portal, 2019. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. In: Online Portal of India Biodiversity. http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

Jørgensen P M, León-Yánez S, 1999. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador. 1182 pp.

Lorence D H, Flynn T, 2010. Checklist of the plants of Kosrae. In: Checklist of the plants of Kosrae. Lawai, Hawaii, USA: National Tropical Botanical Garden. 26 pp.

Oviedo Prieto R, González-Oliva L, 2015. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2015. (Lista nacional de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2015). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 9 (Special Issue No. 2), 1-88. http://repositorio.geotech.cu/jspui/bitstream/1234/1476/4/Lista%20nacional%20de%20plantas%20invasoras%20de%20Cuba-2015.pdf

PIER, 2019. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Tobar-Vargas A, Gavio B, Fernández JL, 2013. New records of plants for San Andres and Old Providence islands (International Biosphere Reserve Seaflower), Caribbean Colombia. Check List. 9 (6), 1361-1366.

USDA-ARS, 2019. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

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25/11/2019 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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