Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Agromyza frontella
(alfalfa blotch leafminer)

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Datasheet

Agromyza frontella (alfalfa blotch leafminer)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 March 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Agromyza frontella
  • Preferred Common Name
  • alfalfa blotch leafminer
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
A. frontella adult - 1, wing; 2, lateral view of head, male; 3, male postabdomen, less phallosome, lateral and ventral view (latter, a half-view in direction of arrow); 4,  mine in leaflet of alfalfa (scale refers to fig. 1 only).
TitleLine artwork of alfalfa blotch leafminer
CaptionA. frontella adult - 1, wing; 2, lateral view of head, male; 3, male postabdomen, less phallosome, lateral and ventral view (latter, a half-view in direction of arrow); 4, mine in leaflet of alfalfa (scale refers to fig. 1 only).
CopyrightUSDA
A. frontella adult - 1, wing; 2, lateral view of head, male; 3, male postabdomen, less phallosome, lateral and ventral view (latter, a half-view in direction of arrow); 4,  mine in leaflet of alfalfa (scale refers to fig. 1 only).
Line artwork of alfalfa blotch leafminerA. frontella adult - 1, wing; 2, lateral view of head, male; 3, male postabdomen, less phallosome, lateral and ventral view (latter, a half-view in direction of arrow); 4, mine in leaflet of alfalfa (scale refers to fig. 1 only).USDA

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Agromyza frontella Rondani

Preferred Common Name

  • alfalfa blotch leafminer

Other Scientific Names

  • Agromyza drepanura Hering
  • Domomyza frontella

International Common Names

  • English: miner, alfalfa blotch leaf
  • French: mineuse virgule de la luzerne

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Minierfliege, Luzerne-

EPPO code

  • AGMYFR (Agromyza frontella)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Diptera
  •                         Family: Agromyzidae
  •                             Genus: Agromyza
  •                                 Species: Agromyza frontella

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / internal feeding

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Adelphocoris lineolatus Predator Canada; Ontario Medicago sativa
Chrysocharis giraulti Predator/parasite Pupae Canada; Ontario Medicago sativa
Chrysocharis punctifacies Parasite Pupae Delaware; USA; Vermont Medicago sativa
Closterocerus cinctipennis Predator/parasite Larvae/Pupae
Cyrtogaster vulgaris Predator/parasite Pupae Canada; Ontario Medicago sativa
Dacnusa dryas Predator/parasite Larvae/Pupae Canada; Canada; Nova Scotia; Canada; Ontario; Delaware; Quebec; USA; Vermont Medicago sativa
Dapsilarthra balteata Parasite USA Medicago sativa
Diglyphus begini Predator/parasite Larvae Canada; Ontario Medicago sativa
Diglyphus intermedius Predator/parasite Larvae Canada; Ontario Medicago sativa
Diglyphus isaea Predator/parasite Larvae Canada; Canada; Ontario; USA Medicago sativa
Diglyphus pulchripes Predator/parasite Canada; Ontario Medicago sativa
Diglyphus websteri Parasite
Gastrancistrus affinis Parasite Sweden Medicago sativa
Halticoptera circulus Parasite USA Medicago sativa
Lygus lineolaris Predator Canada; Ontario Medicago sativa
Miscogaster hortensis Predator/parasite Canada; USA Medicago sativa
Miscogaster maculata Parasite Sweden; USA Medicago sativa
Nabis americoferus Predator Canada; Ontario Medicago sativa
Opius dureseaui Parasite USA Medicago sativa
Pnigalio maculipes Parasite Canada; Ontario Medicago sativa
Pnigalio soemius Parasite Sweden Medicago sativa falcata

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Growing medium accompanying plants pupae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves eggs; larvae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants eggs; larvae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Roots
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

References

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Alicandro AJ; Peters TM, 1983. Survival of alfalfa blotch leafminer, Agromyza frontella (Diptera: Agromyzidae), in field-curing of alfalfa. Canadian Entomologist, 115(1):89-91.

Carriere Y; McNeil JN, 1988. Observations on the mating behavior of the alfalfa blotch leafminer, Agromyza frontella (Rondani) (Diptera: Agromyzidae), and evidence of a female sex pheromone. Journal of Insect Behavior, 1(3):291-307.

CIvelek HS; DeemIng JC; Önder F, 2000. Some new records for Turkish leafminers (Diptera: Agromyzidae) fauna from Izmir province. Türkiye Entomoloji Dergisi, 24(1):17-26.

Coote LD; Ellis CR, 1986. Diglyphus intermedius (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), an indigenous parasite of the alfalfa blotch leafminer, Agromyza frontella (Diptera: Agromyzidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Ontario, 117:83-85.

Coote LD; Ellis CR, 1986. Parasites of the alfalfa blotch leafminer, Agromyza frontella (Diptera: Agromyzidae), near Guelph, Ontario. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Ontario, 117:21-27.

Daley PF; McNeil JN, 1987. Canopy photosynthesis and dry matter partitioning of alfalfa infested by the alfalfa blotch leafminer (Agromyza frontella (Rondani)). Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 67(2):433-443.

Drea JJ Jr; Hendrickson RM Jr, 1986. Analysis of a successful classical biological control project: the alfalfa blotch leafminer (Diptera: Agromyzidae) in the northeastern United States. Environmental Entomology, 15(3):448-455

Drea JJ; Jeandel D; Gruber F, 1982. Parasites of agromyzid leafminers (Diptera: Agromyzidae) on lucerne in Europe. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 75(3):297-310.

Drolet J; McNeil JN, 1984. Performance of the alfalfa blotch leafminer, Agromyza frontella (Diptera: Agromyzidae), on four alfalfa varieties. Canadian Entomologist, 116(6):795-800.

Dureseau L Jr; Jeandel D, 1977. Alfalfa blotch leafminer (Diptera: Agromyzidae). Laboratory studies of biology in Europe. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 79(2):259-265.

Guppy JC, 1981. Bionomics of the alfalfa blotch leafminer, Agromyza frontella (Diptera: Agromyzidae), in eastern Ontario. Canadian Entomologist, 113(7):593-600.

Guppy JC, 1986. Bionomics of the damsel bug, Nabis americoferus Carayon (Hemiptera: Nabidae), a predator of the alfalfa blotch leafminer (Diptera: Agromyzidae). Canadian Entomologist, 118(8):745-751.

Guppy JC; Meloche F, 1989. Note on Cyrtogaster vulgaris Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a secondary parasite of the alfalfa blotch leafminer (Diptera: Agromyzidae), with descriptions of the immature stages. Canadian Entomologist, 121(11):929-932.

Guppy JC; Meloche F; Harcourt DG, 1988. Seasonal development, behaviour, and host synchrony of Dacnusa dryas (Nixon) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitizing the alfalfa blotch leafminer, Agromyza frontella (Rondani) (Diptera: Agromyzidae). Canadian Entomologist, 120(2):145-152

Harcourt DG, 1983. A sequential decision plan for management of the alfalfa blotch leafminer, Agromyza frontella (Diptera; Agromyzidae). Canadian Entomologist, 115(11):1513-1518.

Harcourt DG; Guppy JC; Drolet J; McNeil JN, 1987. Population dynamics of alfalfa bloch leafminer, Agromyza frontella (Diptera: Agromyzidae), in eastern Ontario: analysis of numerical change during the colonization phase. Environmental Entomology, 16(1):145-153.

Harcourt DG; Guppy JC; Ellis CR, 1986. Establishment and spread of Dacnusa dryas (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), an exotic parasite of the alfalfa blotch leafminer in Ontario. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Ontario, 117:29-33.

Harcourt DG; Guppy JC; Meloche F, 1988. Population dynamics of the alfalfa blotch leafminer, Agromyza frontella (Diptera: Agromyzidae), in eastern Ontario: impact of the exotic parasite Dacnusa dryas (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Environmental Entomology, 17(2):337-343.

Hendrickson RM Jr; Barth SE, 1978. Notes on the biology of Diglyphus intermedius (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a parasite of the alfalfa blotch leafminer, Agromyza frontella (Diptera: Agromyzidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 80(2):210-215.

Hendrickson RM Jr; Barth SE, 1979. Effectiveness of native parasites against Agromyza frontella (Rondani) (Diptera: Agromyzidae), an introduced pest of alfalfa. Journal of the New York Entomological Society, 87(1):85-90.

Hendrickson RM Jr; Day WH, 1986. Yield losses caused by alfalfa blotch leafminer (Diptera: Agromyzidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 79(4):988-992.

Hendrickson RM Jr; Plummer JA, 1983. Biological control of alfalfa blotch leafminer (Diptera: Agromyzidae) in Delaware. Journal of Economic Entomology, 76(4):757-761.

Hering M. 1930, Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Okologie und Systematik blattminierender Insekten. Zeitschrift für Angewandte Entomologie, 17:431-471.

Jovanovic M; Dimic N, 1980. A contribution to the knowledge of leaf-miners of clover and lucerne. Zastita Bilja, 31(1):59-67.

Letendre M; Guibord MO; Harcourt DG; Guppy JC, 1991. Note on the distribution and importance of Dacnusa dryas, a parasite introduced in Quebec against the alfalfa blotch leafminer, Agromyza frontella. Phytoprotection, 72(1):33-35.

Lundgren JG; Steffey KL; Wiedenmann RN, 2003. The distribution and prevalence of the alfalfa blotch leafminer (Diptera: Agromyzidae) in Illinois. Great Lakes Entomologist, 36(1/2):54-60.

MacCollom GB; Baumann GL; Gilroy NL; Welch JG, 1982. Alfalfa blotch leafminer, Agromyza frontella (Diptera: Agromyzidae), effects on alfalfa in Vermont. Canadian Entomologist, 114(8):673-680.

MacLean PS; Byers RA, 1983. Ovipositional preferences of the alfalfa blotch leafminer (Diptera: Agromyzidae) among some simple and glandular-haired Medicago species. Environmental Entomology, 12(4):1083-1086.

McNeil JN; Quiring DT, 1983. Evidence of an oviposition-deterring pheromone in the alfalfa blotch leafminer, Agromyza frontella (Rondani) (Diptera: Agromyzidae). Environmental Entomology, 12(3):990-992.

Mellors WK; Helgesen RG, 1980. Life table analysis for the alfalfa blotch leafminer, Agromyza frontella in central New York. Environmental Entomology, 9(6):738-742.

Mellors WK; Helgesen RG, 1983. Fall development and potential diapause in pupae of the alfalfa blotch leafminer, Agromyza frontella (Diptera: Agromyzidae). Environmental Entomology, 12(4):1138-1148.

Plummer JA; Byers RA, 1981. Seasonal abundance and parasites of the alfalfa blotch leafminer, Agromyza frontella, in central Pennsylvania. Environmental Entomology, 10(1):105-110.

Richard C; Guibord MO, 1980. Relationship of alfalfa blotch leafminer with spring black stem. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 60(1):265-266.

Sawyer AJ; Fick GW, 1987. Potential for injury to alfalfa by alfalfa blotch leafminer (Diptera: Agromyzidae): simulations with a plant model. Environmental Entomology, 16(3):575-585.

Spencer KA, 1972. Agromyzidae (Diptera) of economic importance. Agromyzidae (Diptera) of economic importance. The Hague, The, Dr. W. Junk B.V. Netherlands, xi + 418 pp.

Spencer KA, 1972. Diptera: Agromyzidae. Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects. London, UK: Royal Entomological Society of London.

Spencer KA, 1976. Contribution to the knowledge of the fauna of Afghanistan. Agromyzidae, Diptera. Casopis Moravskeho Musea v Brne, Vedy Prirodni, 61:171-173.

Spencer KA, 1976. The Agromyzidae (Diptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark. Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica, 5:1-606.

Spencer KA, 1987. Agromyzidae. In: McAlpine JF, ed. Manual of Nearctic Diptera-2. Monograph of the Biosystematic Research Centre. Ottawa, Canada: Agriculture Canada, 869-879.

Spencer KA, 1990. Host specialization in the world Agromyzidae (Diptera). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 444 pp.

Spencer KA; Steyskal GC, 1986. Manual of the Agromyzidae (Diptera) of the United States. Agriculture Handbook, USDA, No. 638:vi + 478pp.

Steyskal GC, 1972. The taxonomy of the alfalfa blotch-miner, Agromyza frontella (Rondani). Cooperative Economic Insect Report, 22:134-137.

Suzuki M; Thompson LS, 1981. Effects of alfalfa blotch leafminer on chemical components of alfalfa. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 61(3):595-600.

Therrien P; McNeil J, 1985. Effects of removing the plant canopy on pupal survival and adult emergence of the alfalfa blotch leafminer, Agromyza frontella (Diptera: Agromyzidae). Canadian Entomologist, 117(2):167-170.

Thompson LS, 1981. Field evaluation of insecticides for control of the alfalfa blotch leafminer and its effect on alfalfa yield in Prince Edward Island. Journal of Economic Entomology, 74(3):363-365.

Vegiard S; Quiring DT; McNeil JN, 1985. Development and reproductive performance of Agromyza frontella (Rondani) (Diptera: Agromyzidae) on an alternate host, Medicago lupulina L. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 78(1):14-19.

Venette RC; Hutchison WD; Burkness EC; Sheaffer CC, 2004. Evaluation of experimental populations and glandular-haired varieties of alfalfa for alfalfa blotch leafminer (Diptera: Agromyzidae) feeding injury. Great Lakes Entomologist, 37(3/4):188-195.

Distribution Maps

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