Invasive Species Compendium

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Agropyron mosaic virus
(Agropyron mosaic virus)

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Datasheet

Agropyron mosaic virus (Agropyron mosaic virus)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 26 April 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Documented Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Agropyron mosaic virus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Agropyron mosaic virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Group: "RNA viruses"
  •       Family: Potyviridae
  •         Genus: Rymovirus
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • AgMV has been reported in North America and Europe and is not considered a major pathogen on wheat, although it has pathogenic potential if present at high incidences (

  • Principal Source
  • Draft datasheet under review

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Agropyron mosaic virus; mosaic symptoms caused by AGMV in soft red winter wheat, cultivar 'Hopewell'.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionAgropyron mosaic virus; mosaic symptoms caused by AGMV in soft red winter wheat, cultivar 'Hopewell'.
Copyright©Brian Hodge/The Ohio State University, USA.
Agropyron mosaic virus; mosaic symptoms caused by AGMV in soft red winter wheat, cultivar 'Hopewell'.
SymptomsAgropyron mosaic virus; mosaic symptoms caused by AGMV in soft red winter wheat, cultivar 'Hopewell'.©Brian Hodge/The Ohio State University, USA.
Agropyron mosaic virus; leaves showing mild mosaic symptoms caused by AGMV in soft red winter wheat, cultivar 'Hopewell'.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionAgropyron mosaic virus; leaves showing mild mosaic symptoms caused by AGMV in soft red winter wheat, cultivar 'Hopewell'.
Copyright©Brian Hodge/The Ohio State University, USA.
Agropyron mosaic virus; leaves showing mild mosaic symptoms caused by AGMV in soft red winter wheat, cultivar 'Hopewell'.
SymptomsAgropyron mosaic virus; leaves showing mild mosaic symptoms caused by AGMV in soft red winter wheat, cultivar 'Hopewell'.©Brian Hodge/The Ohio State University, USA.
Agropyron mosaic virus; older leaf of a plant infected by AGMV showing yellowing towards the tip of the leaf.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionAgropyron mosaic virus; older leaf of a plant infected by AGMV showing yellowing towards the tip of the leaf.
Copyright©Brian Hodge/The Ohio State University, USA.
Agropyron mosaic virus; older leaf of a plant infected by AGMV showing yellowing towards the tip of the leaf.
SymptomsAgropyron mosaic virus; older leaf of a plant infected by AGMV showing yellowing towards the tip of the leaf.©Brian Hodge/The Ohio State University, USA.
Agropyron mosaic virus; leaves showing mild mosaic symptoms caused by AGMV infection.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionAgropyron mosaic virus; leaves showing mild mosaic symptoms caused by AGMV infection.
Copyright©Brian Hodge/The Ohio State University, USA.
Agropyron mosaic virus; leaves showing mild mosaic symptoms caused by AGMV infection.
SymptomsAgropyron mosaic virus; leaves showing mild mosaic symptoms caused by AGMV infection.©Brian Hodge/The Ohio State University, USA.
Agropyron mosaic virus; leaves showing mild streaking symptoms caused by AGMV infection.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionAgropyron mosaic virus; leaves showing mild streaking symptoms caused by AGMV infection.
Copyright©Brian Hodge/The Ohio State University, USA.
Agropyron mosaic virus; leaves showing mild streaking symptoms caused by AGMV infection.
SymptomsAgropyron mosaic virus; leaves showing mild streaking symptoms caused by AGMV infection.©Brian Hodge/The Ohio State University, USA.

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Agropyron mosaic virus

Preferred Common Name

  • Agropyron mosaic virus

Other Scientific Names

  • Agropyron mosaic rymovirus
  • Agropyron repens mosaic virus
  • agropyron streak mosaic virus
  • couch grass streak mosaic virus
  • Marmor agropyri

International Common Names

  • English: Agropyron green mosaic virus; Agropyron yellow mosaic virus; Wheat virus 2

English acronym

  • AgMV

EPPO code

  • AGMV00

Subspecies

  • Agropyron mosaic mild isolate
  • Agropyron mosaic PV101 isolate
  • Agropyron mosaic PV75 severe isolate

Summary of Invasiveness

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AgMV has been reported in North America and Europe and is not considered a major pathogen on wheat, although it has pathogenic potential if present at high incidences (Slykhuis, 1962a). AgMV is transmitted by the widely-distributed eriophyid mite Abacarus hystrix and can be mechanically transmitted by rub-inoculation with infected plant sap experimentally. No clear evidence is available of AgMV increasing in distribution.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Group: "RNA viruses"
  •             Family: Potyviridae
  •                 Genus: Rymovirus
  •                     Species: Agropyron mosaic virus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Agropyron mosaic virus (AgMV) is a species in the genus Rymovirus, family Potyviridae. Members of the genus Rymovirus are transmitted by eriophyid mites, and other members of the genus include Ryegrass mosaic virus (RGMV) and Hordeum mosaic virus (HoMV). AgMV is most closely related to HoMV, with which their polyprotein amino acid sequences share 71.6% sequence identity (French and Stenger, 2005).

Description

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AgMV is a positive sense RNA virus in the genus Rymovirus, family Potyviridae with a genome of 9540 nucleotides (French and Stenger, 2005). The virion is a filamentous particle 717 nm in length and 15 nm in diameter (Bremer, 1964; Slykhuis and Bell, 1966; Slykhuis, 1973). The sedimentation coefficient of AgMV is 165 S (Staples and Brakke, 1963).

The nucleotide sequence contains one open reading frame that produces a single polyprotein that is post-translationally cleaved into several proteins (French and Stenger, 2005). It is assumed that like other closely related rymoviruses the polyprotein is cleaved into proteins P1, HC-Pro, P3, 6K1, CI, 6K2, VPg-NIa, NIb and the coat protein (French and Stenger, 2005).

AgMV strains differing in symptom severity and yield reduction have been reported, AgMV-mi (mild) and AgMV-s (severe; Slykhuis and Bell, 1966). Earlier studies defined these two strains based on differences in symptoms, with one exhibiting ‘green mosaic’ and the more severe strain exhibiting ‘yellow mosaic’ (Slykhuis, 1973; Staples and Brakke, 1963). Although the two strains can be differentiated by symptom severity, the genetic variation among strains or isolates of AgMV is unknown (Staples and Brakke, 1963; Slykhuis and Bell, 1966;). AgMV can survive in a variety of environments as long as one of its hosts and its vector, Abacarus hystrix, are present (Slykhuis and Bell, 1966; Slykhuis, 1969). AgMV is dependent on its vector or mechanical transmission to move from plant to plant.

Distribution

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The known distribution of AgMV includes the USA, Canada, Bulgaria, Hungary, Finland, Germany, and the UK. In the USA, it was first described in Virginia (as wheat virus 2; McKinney, 1937) and subsequently in South Dakota (as Agropyron streak mosaic virus; Slykhuis, 1952), Iowa (McKinney, 1953), Montana (Shepard, 1968); Colorado (Seifers, 1992), Oklahoma (Montana et al., 1994) and Ohio (Hodge et al., 2018). In Canada it has been described in southern Ontario, Quebec, Prince Edward Island and Saskatchewan (Slykhuis, 1962a). Bremer (1964) reported AgMV in Finland; Schumann (1969) reported AgMV in Germany; Catherall and Chamberlain (1975) reported AgMV in the UK (Wales); Gáborjányi (1991) reported AgMV in Hungary (reviewed by Mesterházy et al. (2002) in English); and Bakardjieva et al. (2004) reported AgMV in Bulgaria. Slykhuis (1962b) reported virus symptoms resembling those of AgMV in couch grass in New Zealand; however, this report was based on symptoms and host and AgMV was not confirmed. More recent reviews of experimentally confirmed viruses in New Zealand identified no further evidence of AgMV in New Zealand, thus the initial suggestion remains unconfirmed (Pearson et al., 2006; Guy, 2014).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Apr 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Europe

BulgariaPresent, Few occurrencesBakardjieva et al. (2004)
FinlandPresent, Few occurrencesBremer and Katri. (1964); Brunt et al. (1996)
GermanyPresent, Few occurrencesSchumann (1967)
HungaryPresent, Few occurrencesGáborjányi (1991)
United KingdomPresent, Few occurrencesCatherall and Chamberlain (1975)Detected in samples from Wales, Scotland and England.

North America

CanadaPresentBrunt et al. (1996)
-OntarioPresent, WidespreadSlykhuis (1962)
-Prince Edward IslandPresent, Few occurrencesSlykhuis (1962)
-QuebecPresent, Few occurrencesSlykhuis (1962)
-SaskatchewanPresent, Few occurrencesSlykhuis (1962)
United StatesPresentBrunt et al. (1996)
-ColoradoPresent, Few occurrencesSeifers (1992)Loveland, Colorado
-IowaPresent, Few occurrencesMcKINNEY (1953)
-MontanaPresent, Few occurrencesShepard (1968)
-OhioPresentHodge et al. (2018)
-OklahomaPresent, Few occurrencesMontana et al. (1994)
-South DakotaPresent, Few occurrencesSlykhuis (1952)
-VirginiaPresent, Few occurrencesMcKinney (1937)

Oceania

New ZealandAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)Slykhuis (1962a)

History of Introduction and Spread

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AgMV was first described in 1937, then as ‘wheat virus 2’, isolated from Elymus repens, commonly known as quackgrass or couch grass, collected in Arlington, Virginia, USA (McKinney, 1937). For the next several decades it was described in other parts of the USA as well as in Canada and Europe. Although detection locations have increased over time, there is no clear evidence of movement or an increase in distribution of the virus.

Risk of Introduction

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Although AgMV is pathogenic to wheat, it has not typically been considered a major pathogen, and its currently reported distribution is probably incomplete. Its major weedy plant host, quackgrass (Elymus repens), has worldwide distribution. Its known vector is the cereal rust mite, Abacarus hystrix (Slykhuis, 1969). A. hystrix is reportedly widespread in North American and Eurasia (Frost and Ridland, 1996) and is also found in Egypt, South Africa (Meyer, 1989), Australia (Frost et al., 1990) and New Zealand (Guy, 1993). There are no reports of A. hystrix in South America or Asia. Parts of North America and Europe where AgMV has not yet been reported may already have AgMV as both the vector and plant host(s) are present. Transport of virus and/or vector such as through live plant trade to global locations where one or both are not already present poses risk of introduction. Assessment of introduction risk is confounded by distribution data that are probably not comprehensive. Based on the absence of AgMV reports, Africa, Australia or New Zealand may be at highest risk of introduction due to the presence of vector mites, while South America, Africa and Asia may be at risk of establishment of introduced virus only if vector populations are also established. Most AgMV isolates described have mild green mosaic symptoms and limited pathogenicity on wheat, but a few isolates causing stronger yellow mosaic symptoms are more pathogenic to wheat (McKinney, 1944; Slykhuis, 1962a; Slykhuis, 1973).

Hosts/Species Affected

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AgMV host range is restricted to a number of species of Poaceae, which includes a number of important crops including wheat, rye and barley (Slykhuis and Bell, 1966). Staples and Brakke (1963) suggested that green and yellow mosaic AgMV strains may differ in their host range, as the yellow strain infected Aegilops cylindrica [A. caudata], A. triuncialis and A. triaristata [A. neglecta] while the green strain did not in a small number of inoculations. Bremer (1964) demonstrated that AgMV can produce local lesions on Chenopodium quinoa similar to Brome mosaic virus. Additional host range studies by Schumann (1969) indicate that AgMV can infect a wide range of Poaeceae spp. that are primarily weedy grass species.

The experimentally demonstrated host range of AgMV includes: Agropyron repens [Elymus repens], A. elongatum [E. elongatus], A. inerme [E. spicatus], A. intermedium [E. hispidus], A. junceum [E. farctus], A. pertenue [E. tauri], A. trachycaulum [E. trachycaulus], Aegilops cylindrica [Aegilops caudata], A. squarrosa [A. triuncialis], A. triuncialis, A. triaristata [A. neglecta], Hordeum vulgare, Lolium multiflorum, Triticum aestivum, T. durum, T. monococcum, T. vulgare [T. aestivum], Festuca rubra, Elymus canadensis and E. virginicus. Tested species that were not infected include: Avena sativa, Hordeum jubatum, Panicum miliaceum, Setaria italica, Sorghum vulgare [S. bicolor], Zea mays, Agropyron cilliare [Elymus ciliaris], A. cristatum, A. dasystachyum, A. desertorum, A. trachycaulum [E. trachycaulus], A. trichophorum [E. hispidus], Bromus inermis, Phalaris arundinacea, Phleum arundinacea, P. pretense or Poa pratensis (Slykhuis, 1952; Staples and Brakke, 1963; Slykhuis and Bell, 1966; Shepard, 1968; Slykhuis, 1973). Bremer (1964) showed that AgMV could also infect Bromus japonicus, Hordeum murinum and Secale cereale.

Slykhuis (1962a) reported that A. repens [E. repens] and T. aestivum were the hosts most commonly found to be naturally infected with AgMV. It was hypothesized that A. repens acts as a virus reservoir for the spread of AgMV to wheat. However, A. repens appeared to be less susceptible to infection in mechanical inoculation compared to wheat (Slykhuis, 1962a). Under experimental mechanical inoculation, infection rates for wheat were around 100% regardless of variety; however, infection rates for A. repens, A. elongatum [E. elongatus] and A. intermedium [E. hispidus] were approximately 50% (Slykhuis, 1962a). Most other hosts of AgMV showed an infection rate around 10% (Slykhuis and Bell, 1966).

Symptoms

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AgMV typically produces a mild to severe mottle with marked contrast between light and green areas early after infection which then gradually turns into very light streaks on the leaves. In wheat, mottling symptoms appear 5-19 days after inoculation, depending on temperature (Slykhuis, 1962a; Staples and Brakke, 1963). Moderate stunting is a common symptom in infected hosts. The two strains of AgMV can be differentiated on the basis of their symptoms in wheat. AgMV-mi is reported to produce a very light green mosaic in wheat with little stunting and yield reduction, whereas AgMV-s is reported to produce severe chlorosis, stunting and yield reduction in wheat (Slykhuis, 1962a).

For either strain, mild to no symptoms are observed on rye (Secale cereale)or on barley (Hordeum vulgare) though they are susceptible to infection (Slykhuis and Bell, 1966; Seifers, 1992).

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / discoloration
Growing point / dwarfing; stunting
Inflorescence / dwarfing; stunting
Inflorescence / mosaic
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal patterns

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
D - Continental/Microthermal climate Preferred Continental/Microthermal climate (Average temp. of coldest month < 0°C, mean warmest month > 10°C)
Ds - Continental climate with dry summer Preferred Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)
Dw - Continental climate with dry winter Preferred Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters)
Df - Continental climate, wet all year Preferred Continental climate, wet all year (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year)

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 15
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 15 30

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Vector Transmission (Biotic)

Members of the genus Rymovirus, including AgMV, are transmitted by eriophyid mites. AgMV has been reported to be transmitted by the wheat rust mite Abacarus hystrix but was not experimentally transmitted by Aculus mckenziei or Aceria tulipae (Slykhuis, 1969; Slykhuis, 1973). Non-mite arthropods tested including aphid species Rhopalosiphum padi, Macrosiphum avenae [Sitobion avenae], M. dirhodum [Metoplophium dirhodum] and Myzus persicae did not transmit AgMV from wheat to wheat (Bremer, 1964). AgMV transmission by A. hystrix is inefficient (Slykhuis, 1969) but this transmission is considered to be the main mode of natural dispersal of the virus as no other vectors have been identified. AgMV is experimentally transmissible by rub-inoculation of infected plant sap (Slykhuis, 1973).

Seedborne Aspects

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Transmission

No data are available on seed transmissibility of AgMV.

Incidence

Where measured, infection incidence is low (Slykhuis 1962a).

Effect on Seed Quality

No data on AgMV effects on seed quality are reported.

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Abacarus hystrixSlykhuis, 1969. Mite

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative

Impact: Economic

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Most AgMV identified from field plants has mild symptoms (McKinney, 1937; Slykhuis, 1962a; Bremer, 1964). However, isolates with more severe or virulent phenotypes were isolated in the USA and Canada (McKinney, 1944; Slykhuis 1962a; Slykhuis, 1973). The AgMV-severe strain has been reported to cause up to 88% yield reduction in wheat in Canada under field conditions when the incidence of infection is 100% whereas AgMV-mild causes less severe reduction in yield with a maximum of 32% reduction in yield (Slykhuis, 1962a). Yield losses were reported to be more severe under early infections during the 3-leaf stage of wheat than late infections (Slykhuis, 1962a). Despite the high potential for yield loss caused by AgMV, natural infection rates, where measured, are very low (Slykhuis, 1962a). Reports of natural infections of AgMV are associated with grassy weeds or volunteer wheat, not from samples collected within cultivated wheat fields (Slykhuis, 1962a; Seifers, 1992; Hodge et al., 2018). Thus it is not expected that AgMV currently causes significant economic losses, although it has potential to do so if incidence becomes high.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Has a broad native range
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Damages animal/plant products
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field

Diagnosis

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AgMV usually causes a mild green or yellow mosaic that cannot be reliably distinguished from those induced by other mosaic viruses without further testing. Host range and vector differences can be used to differentiate AgMV from other viruses, serological tests (Slykhuis and Bell, 1966) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests can also differentiate AgMV (Hodge et al., 2018). Sequence data from deep sequencing analyses can also be used to identify AgMV. The complete sequence of ND402, a US isolate of AgMV is reported as GenBank accession no. NC_005903.1 (French and Stenger, 2005). Three near-complete AgMV genome sequences from Ohio, USA, are also reported (GenBank accession nos. MF621331-MF621333; Hodge et al., 2018), as are partial sequences from USA and Germany (GenBank accession nos. U30615, Salm et al., 1996; AJ889240, Shi et al., 2016, unpublished).

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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AgMV infection is not distinguishable from other mosaic-causing viruses on the basis of symptoms alone, although it can be distinguished by sequence-based or serological diagnostic tests, host range and vector transmission. Viruses that cause similar mosaic symptoms in wheat and other grasses include Brome mosaic virus (BMV), Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), and Hordeum mosaic virus (HoMV). BMV is distinguishable by diagnostic tests and by its much broader host range in the family Poaceae including maize (Zea mays), which is not infected by AgMV (see Slykhuis, 1973). In addition to serological or amplification-based assays, AgMV can be distinguished from WSMV and HoMV by its transmissibility to E. repens but not to Avena sativa (Slykhuis and Bell, 1966). It is also not transmitted by Aceria tulipae, the vector for WSMV (Slykhuis, 1969).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Prevention

Although AgMV is pathogenic on wheat, it is not considered a major threat due to low incidences reported. Thus, there are no current management or prevention recommendations specific to AgMV. Slykhuis (1962a) reported that AgMV infections in wheat fields were near diseased couchgrass, which would indicate that removing hosts near planted wheat such as couchgrass or volunteer wheat would help prevent future infections.

Biological Control

Infection of plants with a mild isolate is reportedly effective at preventing subsequent infection of more severe AgMV isolates (Slykhuis and Bell, 1966).

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Although AgMV has been described since 1937 and is known to be pathogenic on wheat in North America, it does not receive much attention as it is generally found at low incidence and is not considered to be a high-risk or high-impact pathogen. Reports of AgMV indicating its distribution are sporadic and rare, suggesting its low incidence and that its full established range is probably not reported. Seed transmission and potential introduction risks are not known. The impact on yield of crops other than wheat (barley, rye, etc.) has not been studied for AgMV, and it may have impacts on forage crops with economic or societal impacts that have not been reported. There is no information available regarding the ecological impact of AgMV.

References

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Bakardjieva, N., Krasteva, C., Habekuss, A., Rabenstein, F., 2004. Detection of cereal viruses and study of aphid population in Bulgaria. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 10(2), 161-164.

Bremer, Katri., 1964. Agropyron mosaic virus in Finland. Annales Agriculturae Fenniae, 3(4), 324-333.

Catherall, P. L., Chamberlain, J. A., 1975. Occurrence of Agropyron mosaic virus in Britain. Plant Pathology, 24(3), 155-157. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3059.1975.tb01883.x

French, R., Stenger, D. C., 2005. Genome sequences of Agropyron mosaic virus and Hordeum mosaic virus support reciprocal monophyly of the genera Potyvirus and Rymovirus in the family Potyviridae. Archives of Virology, 150(2), 299-312. doi: 10.1007/s00705-004-0396-6

Frost, W. E., Eagling, D. R., Manson, D. C. M., 1990. Abacarus hystrix (Nalepa) (Acarina: Eriophyidae) newly recorded in Australia. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society, 29(3), 182.

Frost, W. E., Ridland, P. M., 1996. Grasses. In: Eriophyid mites-their biology, natural enemies and control, [ed. by Lindquist, E. E., Sabelis, M. W., Bruin, J.]. Netherlands: Elsevier Science B. V. . 619-629.

Gáborjányi, R., 1991. Agropyron mosaic virus and ryegrass mosaic virus: two new cereal pathogens in Hungary. (Két új gabonapatogén vírus Magyarországon: a tarackbúza mozaik vírus (AgMV) és az angolperje mozaik vírus (RyMV)). Növénytermelés, 40, 219–225.

Guy, P. L., 1993. First record of ryegrass mosaic virus and its mite vector Abacarus hystrix (Nal.) in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 36(3), 377-379.

Guy, P. L., 2014. Viruses of New Zealand pasture grasses and legumes: a review. Crop & Pasture Science, 65(9), 841-853. http://www.publish.csiro.au/nid/40.htm

Hodge, B. A., Paul, P. A., Stewart, L. R., 2018. Agropyron mosaic virus detected in Ohio wheat (Triticum aestivum). Plant Disease, 102(2), 463-464. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis doi: 10.1094/PDIS-08-17-1223-PDN

McKINNEY, H. H. , 1944. Descriptions and revisions of several species of viruses in the genera Marmor, Fractilinea, and Galla. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, 34(10), 322-329 pp.

McKINNEY, H. H., 1953. Virus diseases of cereal crops. In: Plant Diseases. Yearbook for Agriculture, United States Department of Agriculture . 350-60.

McKinney, HH, 1937. Mosaic diseases of wheat and related cereals. In: U. S. Department of Agriculture Circular , (No. 442) . 1-23.

Mesterházy, Á., Gáborjányi, R., Papp, M., Fónad, P., 2002. Multiple virus infection of wheat in South Hungary. Cereal Research Communications, 30(3/4), 329-334.

Meyer, M. K. P. S., 1989. African Eriophyoidea: the genus Abacarus Keifer, 1966 (Acari: Eriophyidae). Phytophylactica, 21(4), 421-423.

Montana, J. R., Jacobs, J. L., Hunger, R. M., Sherwood, J. L., 1994. First reports of agropyron mosaic virus in wheat and mixed infection with wheat streak mosaic virus in Oklahoma. Plant Disease, 78(4), 432. doi: 10.1094/PD-78-0432D

Pearson, M. N., Clover, G. R. G., Guy, P. L., Fletcher, J. D., Beever, R. E., 2006. A review of the plant virus, viroid and mollicute records for New Zealand. Australasian Plant Pathology, 35(2), 217-252. doi: 10.1071/AP06016

Salm, S. N., Rey, M. E. C., Robertson, N. L., French, R., Rabenstein, F., Schubert, J., 1996. Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequencing of the partial genomes of agropyron and hordeum mosaic viruses, two members of the Rymovirus genus in the taxonomic family Potyviridae. Archives of Virology, 141(11), 2115-2127. doi: 10.1007/BF01718219

Schumann, K., 1969. (Nachweis des Queckenmosaikvirus (agropyron mosaic virus) in der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik). Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 3(2), 83-88.

Seifers, D. L., 1992. Partial characterization of a Colorado isolate of agropyron mosaic virus. Plant Disease, 76(6), 564-569. doi: 10.1094/PD-76-0564

Shepard, J. F., 1968. Occurrence of Agropyron mosaic virus in Montana. Plant Disease Reporter, 52(2), 139-141.

Slykhuis, J. T. , 1952. Virus diseases of cereal crops in South Dakota. Technical Bulletin. South Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station, 11, 28 pp.

Slykhuis, J. T. , 1962. Agropyron mosaic as a disease of Wheat in Canada. Canadian Journal of Botany, 40(11), 1439-1447 pp. doi: 10.1139/b62-138

Slykhuis, J. T. , 1962. An international survey for virus diseases of Grasses. Plant Protection Bulletin, F.A.O, 10(1), 1-16 pp.

Slykhuis, J. T., 1969. Transmission of Agropyron mosaic virus by the eriophyid mite, Abacarus hystrix. Phytopathology, 59(1), 29-32.

Slykhuis, J. T., 1973. Agropyron mosaic virus. In: CMI/AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses , (No. 118) . Wellesbourne, UK: Association of Applied Biologists.http://www.dpvweb.net/dpv/showdpv.php?dpvno=118

Slykhuis, J. T., Bell, W., 1966. Differentiation of Agropyron mosaic, Wheat streak mosaic, and a hitherto unrecognized Hordeum mosaic virus in Canada. Canadian Journal of Botany, 44(9), 1191-1208. doi: 10.1139/b66-131

Staples, R., Brakke, M., 1963. Relation of Agropyron repens mosaic and Wheat streak mosaic viruses. Phytopathology, 53(8), 969-972.

Szunics, L., Pocsai, E., Szunics, L., Vida, G., 2000. Viral diseases on cereals in central Hungary. Acta Agronomica Hungarica, 48(3), 237-250. doi: 10.1556/AAgr.48.2000.3.3

UK, Commonwealth Mycological Institute, 1973. CMI/AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses. In: CMI/AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses , (Set 7) Kew, UK: Commonwealth Mycological Institute.Nos. 111-125.

Distribution References

Anon, 1996. Viruses of plants. Descriptions and lists from the VIDE database. [ed. by Brunt A A, Crabtree K, Dallwitz M J, Gibbs A J, Watson L]. Wallingford, UK: CAB INTERNATIONAL. 1484 pp.

Bakardjieva N, Krasteva C, Habekuss A, Rabenstein F, 2004. Detection of cereal viruses and study of aphid population in Bulgaria. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science. 10 (2), 161-164.

Bremer, Katri, 1964. Agropyron mosaic virus in Finland. Annales Agriculturae Fenniae. 3 (4), 324-333.

Catherall P L, Chamberlain J A, 1975. Occurrence of Agropyron mosaic virus in Britain. Plant Pathology. 24 (3), 155-157. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3059.1975.tb01883.x

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Contributors

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29/02/20 Original text:

Lucy Stewart, USDA-ARS, Selby Hall, Wooster, Ohio, USA

Brian Hodge, Ohio State University, Selby Hall, Wooster, Ohio, USA

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