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Nipaecoccus viridis
(spherical mealybug)

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Datasheet

Nipaecoccus viridis (spherical mealybug)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 December 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Nipaecoccus viridis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • spherical mealybug
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Nipaecoccus viridis (spherical mealybug); adult, slide mounted. Indonesia. (Slide mount & ID by Bert Lindsey. For S.B.C.)
TitleAdult
CaptionNipaecoccus viridis (spherical mealybug); adult, slide mounted. Indonesia. (Slide mount & ID by Bert Lindsey. For S.B.C.)
Copyright©Patrick Marquez/USDA APHIS PPQ/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Nipaecoccus viridis (spherical mealybug); adult, slide mounted. Indonesia. (Slide mount & ID by Bert Lindsey. For S.B.C.)
AdultNipaecoccus viridis (spherical mealybug); adult, slide mounted. Indonesia. (Slide mount & ID by Bert Lindsey. For S.B.C.)©Patrick Marquez/USDA APHIS PPQ/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Nipaecoccus viridis (spherical mealybug); adult. Found on Annona squamosa (sugar apple) in New Caledonia. (Specimen Contact - New Zealand Arthropod Collection)
TitleAdult
CaptionNipaecoccus viridis (spherical mealybug); adult. Found on Annona squamosa (sugar apple) in New Caledonia. (Specimen Contact - New Zealand Arthropod Collection)
Copyright©PaDIL/B.E. Rhode & T.K. Crosby/Landcare Research - CC BY 3.0 AU
Nipaecoccus viridis (spherical mealybug); adult. Found on Annona squamosa (sugar apple) in New Caledonia. (Specimen Contact - New Zealand Arthropod Collection)
AdultNipaecoccus viridis (spherical mealybug); adult. Found on Annona squamosa (sugar apple) in New Caledonia. (Specimen Contact - New Zealand Arthropod Collection)©PaDIL/B.E. Rhode & T.K. Crosby/Landcare Research - CC BY 3.0 AU
Nipaecoccus viridis (spherical mealybug); infestation, colonies of Nipaecoccus viridis feeding upon Ximenia americana (tallow wood,yellow plum or sea lemon). Boynton Beach, Palm Beach County, Florida, USA.
TitleInfestation
CaptionNipaecoccus viridis (spherical mealybug); infestation, colonies of Nipaecoccus viridis feeding upon Ximenia americana (tallow wood,yellow plum or sea lemon). Boynton Beach, Palm Beach County, Florida, USA.
Copyright© Andrew Derksen/USDA-APHIS/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Nipaecoccus viridis (spherical mealybug); infestation, colonies of Nipaecoccus viridis feeding upon Ximenia americana (tallow wood,yellow plum or sea lemon). Boynton Beach, Palm Beach County, Florida, USA.
InfestationNipaecoccus viridis (spherical mealybug); infestation, colonies of Nipaecoccus viridis feeding upon Ximenia americana (tallow wood,yellow plum or sea lemon). Boynton Beach, Palm Beach County, Florida, USA.© Andrew Derksen/USDA-APHIS/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Nipaecoccus viridis (Newstead)

Preferred Common Name

  • spherical mealybug

Other Scientific Names

  • Dactylopius perniciosus Newstead & Willcocks, 1910
  • Dactylopius vastator Maskell, 1895
  • Dactylopius viridis Newstead, 1894
  • Nipaecoccus vastator (Maskell) Ferris, 1950
  • Pseudococcus albizziae (Maskell) Kirkaldy, 1902
  • Pseudococcus filamentosus var. corymbatus Green, 1922
  • Pseudococcus perniciosus (Newstead & Willcocks) Newstead, 1920
  • Pseudococcus solitarius Brain, 1915
  • Pseudococcus vastator (Maskell) Kirkaldy, 1902
  • Pseudococcus viridis (Newstead) Fernald, 1903
  • Trionymus sericeus James, 1936

International Common Names

  • English: coffee mealybug; cotton mealybug; globular mealybug
  • Spanish: chinches harinosos

Local Common Names

  • Egypt: lebbeck mealybug
  • Germany: Wollaus, Albizzia-
  • Netherlands: Bolle wolluis
  • South Africa: karoo thorn mealybug; karoodoringwitluis

EPPO code

  • NIPAVA (Nipaecoccus vastator)
  • NIPAVI (Nipaecoccus viridis)
  • PSECAL (Pseudococcus albizziae)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Coccoidea
  •                                 Family: Pseudococcidae
  •                                     Genus: Nipaecoccus
  •                                         Species: Nipaecoccus viridis

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Nipaecoccus viridis was first described by Newstead (1894), as Dactylopius viridis, from material collected in India. For many years, the name Nipaecoccus vastator (Maskell) was commonly used for this mealybug. Ali (1970) synonymized vastator with viridis. Ben-Dov (1994) provides a complete, annotated list of the synonyms and names used for this species. Pseudococcus albizziae (Maskell) is a misidentification. There are many records of N. viridis under the name Pseudococcus filamentosus (Cockerell) but these are based on misidentifications (Williams and Watson, 1988).

Description

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Egg

Eggs are dark purple and laid by the female in a yellowish to white ovisac formed by wax threads.

Larva

Male and female larval instars are described and illustrated by Ghosh and Ghose (1989). Keys to 1st-instar larvae, 2nd- and 3rd-instar female larvae and adult females are provided by Ghose and Ghosh (1990), who also discuss the morphologies of different instars of both sexes.

Adult female

Ben-Dov (1994) lists numerous publications containing descriptions of the adult stage. The adult male and female stages have been re-described and illustrated several times, for example Williams and Watson (1988) for the adult female. Important characters in slide-mounted adult females are the conical to lanceolate setae on the dorsal abdominal segments being similar in size to the two cerarian setae on the anal lobes. There are numerous oral collar tubular ducts on the dorsum, and cerarii (at most eight pairs) are present on the abdomen only, each with two enlarged conical to lanceolate setae. A circulus is present, round to oval in shape, and the ostioles are represented by a poorly-developed posterior pair only.

Cilliers and Bedford (1978), Annecke and Moran (1982) and Hattingh et al. (1998) describe the appearance of live specimens of this mealybug, and provided illustrations. Adult females are about 4 mm long, the young ones covered in mealy white wax with short projecting filaments arranged around the margin. Ovipositing females become covered in abundant white waxy threads that form a smooth globular ovisac. The wax threads are very elastic and if the ovisac is grasped and pulled with the fingers, it can be drawn out for 150 mm or more. The body contents are purple and this can be observed when individuals are squashed.

Adult male

Adult males have well-developed legs, antennae and genitalia, one pair of simple wings and no mouthparts. They are very short-lived.

Distribution

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Comprehensive distribution records may be found in CIE (1983), and Ben-Dov (1994). Map no. 446, published by CIE (1983), includes additions for Mauritius and Jamaica, cited as Pseudococcus filamentosus. The identity of these mealybugs has not always been certain. However, the Natural History Museum (London, UK) collection now contains specimens of N. viridis collected from Mauritius.

The distribution map includes several further records based on specimens of N. viridis from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK).

N. viridis occurs in many parts of the tropics, and is particularly widespread in Africa and the Oriental Region. N. viridis was first found in Israel in 1984 (Bar-Zakay et al., 1987).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 30 Jun 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresent
AngolaPresent
BeninPresent
Burkina FasoPresent
ComorosPresent
Côte d'IvoirePresent
EgyptPresent
EritreaPresent
KenyaPresent
MadagascarPresent
MalawiPresent
MaliPresent
MauritiusPresent
NigerPresent
NigeriaPresent
RéunionPresent
RwandaPresent
SenegalPresent
SeychellesPresent
South AfricaPresent
SudanPresent
TanzaniaPresent
-Zanzibar IslandPresent
TogoPresent
UgandaPresent
ZambiaPresent
ZimbabwePresent

Asia

AfghanistanPresent
BangladeshPresent
BhutanPresent
CambodiaPresent
ChinaPresent
-HunanPresent
Hong KongPresent
IndiaPresent
-Andhra PradeshPresent
-AssamPresent
-BiharPresent
-DelhiPresent
-GoaPresent
-GujaratPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-KeralaPresent
-LakshadweepPresent
-Madhya PradeshPresent
-MaharashtraPresent
-OdishaPresent
-PunjabPresent
-RajasthanPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-TripuraPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
-West BengalPresent
IndonesiaPresent
-JavaPresent
IranPresent
IraqPresent
IsraelPresent
JapanPresent
-Ryukyu IslandsPresent
JordanPresent
LaosPresent
MalaysiaPresent
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent
MyanmarPresent
NepalPresent
OmanPresent
PakistanPresent
PhilippinesPresent
Saudi ArabiaPresent
SingaporePresent
Sri LankaPresent
TaiwanPresent
ThailandPresent
VietnamPresent

North America

BahamasPresent
MexicoPresent
United StatesPresent, Localized
-FloridaPresentIntroduced
-HawaiiPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresent
-Northern TerritoryPresent
-QueenslandPresent
Christmas IslandPresent
GuamPresent
KiribatiPresent
New CaledoniaPresent
Northern Mariana IslandsPresent
Papua New GuineaPresent
Solomon IslandsPresent
TuvaluPresent

Risk of Introduction

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N. viridis poses an important phytosanitary risk. Individuals often settle in cryptic places on plant material, such as under sepals of citrus fruits, and can easily be distributed on exported plants or plant products (Hattingh et al., 1998).

Hosts/Species Affected

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Ben-Dov (1994) listed all recorded host plants of N. viridis. It is a rather polyphagous species, feeding on plants in 18 families, many of which are trees, and including crops such as citrus and coffee. Apparently, bhant (Clerodendrum infortunatum) is the original wild food-plant of the pest in West Bengal, India (Ghosh and Ghosh, 1985).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Abrus precatorius (rosary pea)FabaceaeUnknown
Acacia karroo (sweet thorn)FabaceaeWild host
    Acacia modestaFabaceaeUnknown
    Acacia nilotica (gum arabic tree)FabaceaeUnknown
    Acalypha (Copperleaf)EuphorbiaceaeUnknown
    Acanthus ilicifoliusAcanthaceaeUnknown
    Albizia lebbeck (Indian siris)FabaceaeUnknown
      Alcea rosea (Hollyhock)MalvaceaeUnknown
      Alhagi maurorum (camelthorn)FabaceaeOther
        AnnonaAnnonaceaeUnknown
        Annona muricata (soursop)AnnonaceaeUnknown
        Annona reticulata (bullock's heart)AnnonaceaeUnknown
        Arachis hypogaea (groundnut)FabaceaeUnknown
        Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit)MoraceaeUnknown
        Artocarpus integer (champedak)MoraceaeUnknown
        AsparagusLiliaceaeUnknown
        Asparagus officinalis (asparagus)LiliaceaeUnknown
          Averrhoa carambola (carambola)OxalidaceaeUnknown
          BreyniaEuphorbiaceaeUnknown
          CajanusFabaceaeUnknown
            Camellia sinensis (tea)TheaceaeUnknown
            Campsis grandifloraBignoniaceaeUnknown
            Casuarina (beefwood)CasuarinaceaeUnknown
            Casuarina equisetifolia (casuarina)CasuarinaceaeUnknown
            Cestrum nocturnum (night jessamine)SolanaceaeOther
              Cicer arietinum (chickpea)FabaceaeUnknown
              CitrusRutaceaeMain
              Citrus aurantiifolia (lime)RutaceaeUnknown
              Citrus aurantium (sour orange)RutaceaeUnknown
              Citrus limon (lemon)RutaceaeUnknown
              Citrus limonia (mandarin lime)RutaceaeUnknown
              Citrus maxima (pummelo)RutaceaeUnknown
              Citrus medica (citron)RutaceaeUnknown
              Citrus reticulata (mandarin)RutaceaeUnknown
              Citrus sinensis (navel orange)RutaceaeUnknown
              Citrus x paradisi (grapefruit)RutaceaeUnknown
              Clerodendrum infortunatumLamiaceaeWild host
              Clerodendrum villosumUnknown
              Cocos nucifera (coconut)ArecaceaeUnknown
              Coffea (coffee)RubiaceaeMain
              Coffea arabica (arabica coffee)RubiaceaeUnknown
              Coffea liberica (Liberian coffee tree)RubiaceaeUnknown
              Corchorus capsularis (white jute)TiliaceaeUnknown
              Cuscuta exaltataUnknown
              Datura stramonium (jimsonweed)SolanaceaeUnknown
              Desmodium (tick clovers)FabaceaeUnknown
              Eriobotrya japonica (loquat)RosaceaeUnknown
                Erythrina variegata (Indian coral tree)FabaceaeUnknown
                Euphorbia hirta (garden spurge)EuphorbiaceaeUnknown
                  Ficus benghalensis (banyan)MoraceaeUnknown
                  Ficus carica (common fig)MoraceaeUnknown
                    Flacourtia inermisUnknown
                    Gardenia jasminoides (cape jasmine)RubiaceaeOther
                      Glochidion rubrumEuphorbiaceaeUnknown
                      Glycine max (soyabean)FabaceaeUnknown
                      Gossypium (cotton)MalvaceaeMain
                      Gossypium herbaceum (short staple cotton)MalvaceaeUnknown
                      Gossypium hirsutum (Bourbon cotton)MalvaceaeUnknown
                      Grevillea robusta (silky oak)ProteaceaeUnknown
                        Hibiscus (rosemallows)MalvaceaeOther
                          Hibiscus manihot (bele)MalvaceaeUnknown
                            Hygrophila spinosaUnknown
                            IxoraRubiaceaeUnknown
                            Jacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda)BignoniaceaeUnknown
                              Jatropha curcas (jatropha)EuphorbiaceaeUnknown
                              LeucaenaFabaceaeUnknown
                                Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena)FabaceaeUnknown
                                Leucas asperaUnknown
                                Luffa aegyptiaca (loofah)CucurbitaceaeUnknown
                                Mangifera indica (mango)AnacardiaceaeUnknown
                                Morus (mulberrytree)MoraceaeUnknown
                                Morus alba (mora)MoraceaeOther
                                Morus nigra (black mulberry)MoraceaeUnknown
                                  Nerium oleander (oleander)ApocynaceaeUnknown
                                  Nyctanthes arbor-tristis (tree of sadness)VerbenaceaeUnknown
                                  Ocimum tenuiflorum (holy basil)LamiaceaeUnknown
                                  OdontadeniaUnknown
                                  Parthenium hysterophorus (parthenium weed)AsteraceaeUnknown
                                    Peristrophe bicalyculataUnknown
                                    Persea americana (avocado)LauraceaeMain
                                      Phyllanthus emblica (Indian gooseberry)EuphorbiaceaeUnknown
                                      Phyllanthus niruri (seed-under-the-leaf)EuphorbiaceaeUnknown
                                        Pinus (pines)PinaceaeUnknown
                                        Plumeria rubra (red frangipani)ApocynaceaeUnknown
                                        Portulaca grandiflora (Rose moss)PortulacaceaeUnknown
                                        Psidium guajava (guava)MyrtaceaeUnknown
                                        Pterospermum acerifoliumUnknown
                                        Punica granatum (pomegranate)PunicaceaeUnknown
                                          Sanchezia nobilisAcanthaceaeUnknown
                                          SidaMalvaceaeUnknown
                                          Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)SolanaceaeUnknown
                                          Solanum tuberosum (potato)SolanaceaeUnknown
                                          Spathodea campanulata (African tulip tree)BignoniaceaeUnknown
                                            Streblus asperMoraceaeUnknown
                                            TamarindusFabaceaeUnknown
                                            Tamarindus indica (tamarind)FabaceaeUnknown
                                            Tamarix (tamarisk)TamaricaceaeUnknown
                                              Tephrosia (hoary-pea)FabaceaeUnknown
                                              Thespesia populnea (portia tree)MalvaceaeUnknown
                                              Vigna radiata (mung bean)FabaceaeUnknown
                                              Vitex negundoLamiaceaeUnknown
                                              Vitis vinifera (grapevine)VitaceaeUnknown
                                              ZiziphusRhamnaceaeUnknown
                                              Ziziphus jujuba (common jujube)RhamnaceaeUnknown
                                              Ziziphus mauritiana (jujube)RhamnaceaeUnknown
                                              Ziziphus spina-christi (Christ's thorn jujube)RhamnaceaeUnknown

                                                Growth Stages

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                                                Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

                                                Symptoms

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                                                Cilliers and Bedford (1978) and Hattingh et al. (1998) described and illustrated the effect of this mealybug on citrus in South Africa. Feeding on young twigs causes bulbous outgrowths, and heavy infestations may severely stunt the growth of young trees. Occasionally, this mealybug becomes so abundant on citrus that the branches and leaves become covered with white cottony threads (Annecke and Moran, 1982). Also, the leaves and other parts of the tree become shining wet with honeydew. Citrus fruits infested with N. viridis may develop lumpy outgrowths or raised shoulders near the stem end. Such swellings are already present on fruit from the size of a pea, and they enlarge with the growth of the fruit. Frequently, fruits turn yellow and then partly black around the stem end, finally dropping off the tree. Late infestations on large green fruits result in congregations of young mealybugs in clumps over the face of the fruit. Each colony produces a raised spot which turns yellow. When maturing fruit is infested, such feeding areas become excessively yellow.

                                                Ghosh and Ghosh (1985) reported that the artificial infestation of cotton, citrus, jute, jack fruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) and bhant (Clerodendrum infortunatum) with N. viridis resulted, in general, in arrestment of linear growth of the stems and petioles and great reduction and crumpling of the leaves. Histological changes in infested laminae included abnormal dimensions in different cells and an increase in the size and density of stomata.

                                                List of Symptoms/Signs

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                                                SignLife StagesType
                                                Fruit / abnormal shape
                                                Fruit / external feeding
                                                Fruit / honeydew or sooty mould
                                                Fruit / premature drop
                                                Fruit / reduced size
                                                Growing point / distortion
                                                Growing point / external feeding
                                                Inflorescence / honeydew or sooty mould
                                                Leaves / abnormal forms
                                                Leaves / external feeding
                                                Leaves / fungal growth
                                                Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
                                                Stems / external feeding
                                                Stems / honeydew or sooty mould
                                                Stems / stunting or rosetting
                                                Whole plant / distortion; rosetting

                                                Biology and Ecology

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                                                In a review by Sharaf and Meyerdirk (1987), the biology, ecology, geographic distribution and natural enemies of N. viridis are described.

                                                In Iraq, populations of N. viridis reached peaks in May and October (Jarjes et al., 1989). There were significant positive correlations between population density and temperature, and negative correlations with relative humidity. Females of N. viridis each laid 90-138 eggs, and the egg and nymphal stages lasted 10-13 and 31-43 days, respectively. Overwintering took place as eggs, nymphs and adults.

                                                In citrus orchards at Rustenburg, South Africa, there are three generations of N. viridis per year (Cilliers and Bedford, 1978). The September-October generation of mature females lays eggs that hatch during October-November. The crawlers migrate and settle mainly in protected areas, under the sepals of the fruitlets when they are pea-sized or larger. This second generation matures in November and lays eggs which hatch during December. The third generation of females matures in about March-April.

                                                Natural enemies

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                                                Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
                                                Alamella flava Parasite Arthropods|Nymphs
                                                Anagyrus aegyptiacus Parasite Arthropods|Nymphs
                                                Anagyrus aurantifrons Parasite Arthropods|Nymphs
                                                Anagyrus dactylopii Parasite Arthropods|Nymphs Guam; Saipan Leucaena
                                                Anagyrus indicus Parasite Arthropods|Nymphs
                                                Anagyrus kamali Parasite
                                                Anagyrus pseudococci Parasite Arthropods|Nymphs
                                                Chrysoperla mutata Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
                                                Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Predator
                                                Delphastus pusillus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Saipan Leucaena
                                                Eublemma costimacula Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
                                                Euryischomyia washingtoni
                                                Gyranusoidea munda Parasite
                                                Leptomastix dactylopii Parasite
                                                Leptomastix phenacocci Parasite Egypt shade trees
                                                Nephus ryuguus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
                                                Pyroderces philogeorgia Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
                                                Timberlakia signata Parasite Israel Citrus

                                                Notes on Natural Enemies

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                                                Noyes and Hayat (1994) provide information on encyrtid parasitoids. Sharaf and Meyerdirk (1987) describe the natural enemies and biological control of N. viridis. Bartlett (1978) also discusses biological control.

                                                Alamella flava and Anagyrus near A. gunturiensis [A. mirzai] have been reared from N. viridis collected on coffee at Karnataka, India (Chacko and Singh, 1980). Euryischomyia alami [E. washingtoni] has also been reported from Karnataka, India (Shafee, 1970).

                                                The gregarious encyrtid parasitoid Anagyrus agraensis oviposits in nymphs in all three immature instars and in adult females of N. viridis (Nechols and Kikuchi, 1985).

                                                In Iraq, peaks of activity by predators and parasites of N. viridis occurred between 15 May and 15 June for Exochomus nigripennis, Dicrodiplosis sp., Anagyrus pseudococci and Marietta picta (a hyperparasitoid), and in September-October for Nephus bipunctatus, Chrysopa sp., Dicrodiplosis sp., A. pseudococci and M. picta (El-Haidari et al., 1974).

                                                In the laboratory in Iraq, the predator Chrysopa mutata [Chrysoperla mutata], fed on N. viridis (Abid et al., 1985).

                                                Additional information on natural enemies can be found in Williams and Watson (1988), including the predators Cryptolaemus sp. and Diadiplosis sp. Other reported predators include Cryptolaemus montrouzieri, Exochomus flavipes, Gitonides perspicax [Domomyza perspicax], Leucopis alticeps and Sympherobius sp. (Cilliers and Bedford, 1978) and Diadiplosis koebelei (Gagne and Stein, 1982).

                                                However, there is no evidence that these predators are significant control agents in the field.

                                                Impact

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                                                Mani and Thontadarya (1987) reported that N. viridis caused up to 5% damage in two vineyards in Bangalore, India. In Hawaii, N. viridis was long considered the most destructive mealybug species (Bartlett, 1978).

                                                Losses in citrus orchards are due firstly to fruit drop caused by large infestations of mealybugs. In South Africa, half or more of the navel crop can be lost in this way (Cilliers and Bedford, 1978). Secondly, fruits with lumpy outgrowths or raised shoulders near the stem end, caused by N. viridis feeding, have to be culled in the packhouse (Hattingh et al. 1998).

                                                Detection and Inspection

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                                                Citrus fruits have to be inspected by looking under the sepals for hidden individual mealybugs or light infestations, as the mealybugs favour such cryptic feeding sites. Both ends of navel oranges must be examined as mealybugs tend to settle in the navel cavity, as well as under the sepals (Cilliers and Bedford, 1978).

                                                Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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                                                Many mealybugs are very similar to each other in overall appearance, and are thus difficult to identify. In South Africa, N. viridis can be distinguished from other mealybugs on citrus by means of the key provided by Hattingh et al. (1998). Diagnostic features are the purple body contents of all stages and the eggs; and the globular, finely woven, smooth-surfaced ovisac, the threads of which can be drawn out extensively. The appearance in life can give an initial impression of a margarodid (for example, Icerya sp.) rather than a mealybug.

                                                Prevention and Control

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                                                Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

                                                Introduction

                                                Control measures in Israel are described by Bar-Zakay et al. (1987).

                                                Cultural Control

                                                Studies in India showed that bagging of pomegranate fruits was effective as a physical measure for controlling the lycaenid Virachola isocrates [Deudorix isocrates], but could not be recommended as it resulted in increased infestation of the fruits by N. viridis (Shevale, 1994).

                                                Chemical Control

                                                In Egypt, life table studies indicate that N. viridis should be controlled on lemon trees by means of insecticide application(s) during the first half of July, instead of the traditional control operations in spring, summer and autumn (Sharaf, 1996). Chemical control methods are also described by Sharaf and Meyerdirk (1987).

                                                Biological Control

                                                Studies by Meyerdirk et al. (1988) showed that Anagyrus agraensis, which was released into the Jordan River Valley from Guam, greatly reduced infestations of N. viridis in areas where A. agraensis was abundant. Bartlett (1978) also discusses biological control of N. viridis.

                                                Nechols and Seibert (1985) found that survivorship of N. viridis in northern Guam was significantly higher on Leucaena leucocephala tended by the ant Technomyrmex albipes than when T. albipes was excluded. The presence of T. albipes decreased the percentage of N. viridis parasitized by the encyrtid Anagyrus agraensis and the mortality attributable to host killing by A. agraensis and predation by other arthropods.

                                                In South Africa, this mealybug is considered to be well controlled by natural enemies. Outbreaks generally result from chemical disruption of such natural enemies (Hattingh et al. 1998).

                                                References

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                                                Abdul-Rassoul MS, 2014. Host plants of the mealybug Nipaecoccus viridis (Newstead, 1894) (Homoptera, Pseudococcidae) in Iraq with detection of new hosts. Advances in Bio Research, 5(4):3-6. http://soeagra.com/abr/abrdec2014/2.pdf

                                                Abdul-Rassoul MS, 2015. Host plants of the mealybug Nipaecoccus viridis (Newstead, 1894) (Homoptera, pseudococcidae) in Iraq with detection of new hosts. Advances in Bio Research, 6(2):23-26. http://soeagra.com/abr/abrmarch2015/4.pdf

                                                Abid MK; Al-Rubep JK; Hussien AK, 1985. Biological studies on the predator Chrysopa mutata McLachlan (Chrysopidae Neuroptera) in Iraq. Journal of Agriculture and Water Resources Research, 4(1):153-160

                                                Ali SM, 1970. A catalogue of the Oriental Coccoidea. (Part IV.) (Insecta: Homoptera: Coccoidea). Indian Museum Bulletin, Calcutta, 5:71-150.

                                                Ali SM, 1972. Some Coccids from Goa. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 69(3):669-671

                                                Annecke DP; Moran VC, 1982. Insects and mites of cultivated plants in South Africa. Durban, South Africa: Butterworths.

                                                APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

                                                Bartlett BR, 1978. Pseudococcidae. In: Clausen CP, ed. Introduced Parasites and Predators of Arthropod Pests and Weeds: a World Review. Agriculture Handbook No. 480, 137-170.

                                                Bar-Zakay I; Peleg BA; Chen C, 1987. Spherical mealybug infesting citrus in Israel. Alon Hanotea, 41(8):855-860

                                                Bellis GA; Donaldson JF; Carver M; Hancock DL; Fletcher MJ, 2004. Records of insect pests on Christmas Island and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Indian Ocean. Australian Entomologist, 31(3):93-102.

                                                Ben-Dov Y, 1987. New or little-known scale insects (Coccoidea) in Israel. Hassadeh, 67(4):801-802

                                                Ben-Dov Y, 1994. A systematic catalogue of the mealybugs of the world (Insecta: Homoptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae and Putoidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. Andover, UK; Intercept Limited, 686 pp.

                                                Ben-Dov, Y., 1985. Further observations on scale insects (Homoptera: Coccoidea) of the Middle East. Phytoparasitica, 13(3-4), 185-192.

                                                CABI/EPPO, 2005. Nipaecoccus viridis. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No. 446. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

                                                Chacko MJ; Singh MBD, 1980. A note on the natural control of Nippcoccus viridis on coffee in India. Journal of coffee Research, 10(3):63-64

                                                CIE, 1983. Nipaecoccus viridis (Newst.) (Hem., Coccoidea). Distribution Maps of Insect Pests, No. 446. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

                                                Cilliers CJ; Bedford ECG, 1978. Citrus mealybugs. In: Bedford ECG, ed. Citrus Pests in the Republic of South Africa. Science Bulletin, Department of Agricultural Technical Services, Republic of South Africa, No. 391, 89-97.

                                                El-Haidari HS; Aziz FI; Wahab WA, 1974. Activity of predators and parasites of the mealybug, Nippcoccus vastator (Maskell) in Iraq. Yearbook of Plant Protection Research, Iraq Ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform, 1:Ar pp. 41-46; en p.

                                                EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

                                                Food and Agriculture Organization, 1972. Report to the Government of Saudi Arabia on research in plant protection based on the work of H.E. Martin, FAO Entomologist. Report to the Government of Saudi Arabia on research in plant protection based on the work of H.E. Martin, FAO Entomologist., v + 38 pp.

                                                Gagne RJ; Stein JD, 1982. Diadiplosis koebelei Koebele (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a rediscovered predator of scale insects. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Washington No. 10: 65-69.

                                                Ghose SK; Ghosh AB, 1990. Morphology of different instars of some mealybugs (Pseudococcidae, Homoptera). Environment and Ecology, 8(1A):137-142

                                                Ghosh AB; Ghose SK, 1989. Description of all instars of the mealybug Nipaecoccus viridis (Newstead) (Homoptera, Pseudococcidae). Environment and Ecology, 7:564-570.

                                                Ghosh AB; Ghosh SK, 1985. Effect of infestation of Nippcoccus vastator (Maskell) on host plants. Indian Agriculturist, 29(2):141-147

                                                Hattingh V; Cilliers CJ; Bedford ECG, 1998. Citrus mealybugs. In: Bedford ECG, Berg MA van den, Villiers EA de, eds. Citrus Pests in the Republic of South Africa. 2nd edition (revised). Agricultural Research Council, Republic of South Africa, No. 391, 112-120.

                                                IPPC, 2010. First detection of the lebbeck mealybug, Nipaecoccus viridis, in the continental United States. IPPC Official Pest Report, No. USA-06/1. Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/

                                                Jarjes SJ; Al-Mallah NM; Abdulla SI, 1989. Insects and mites pests survey on rose-bay shrubs in Mosul region with some ecological and biological aspects of (Nipaecoccus viridis New.) and (Parlatoria crypta M) on rose-bay shrubs. Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 21(3):29

                                                Kumar S; Jayaraj S; Muthukrishnan TS, 1979. Natural enemies of Parthenium hysterophorus Linn. Journal of Entomological Research, 3(1):32-35

                                                Mani M; Krishnamoorthy A, 1990. Outbreak of mealybugs and record for their natural enemies on pomegranate. Journal of Biological Control, 4(1):61-62

                                                Mani M; Thontadarya TS, 1987. Record of mealybug species on grapevine in Karnataka. Current Science, India, 56(22):1192

                                                Mani, M., Krishnamoorthy, A., 2008. Biological suppression of the mealybugs Planococcus citri (Risso), Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell) and Nipaecoccus viridis (Newstead) on pummelo with Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant in India. Journal of Biological Control, 22(1), 169-172.

                                                Meyerdirk DE; Khasimuddin S; Bashir M, 1988. Importation, colonization and establishment of Anagyrus indicus (Hym : Encyrtidae) on Nippcoccus viridis (Hom.: Pseudococcidae) in Jordan. Entomophaga, 33(2):229-237

                                                NAPPO, 2010. Phytosanitary Alert System: First detection of lebbeck mealybug, Nipaecoccus viridis, in the continental United States. NAPPO. http://www.pestalert.org/viewNewsAlert.cfm?naid=83

                                                Nechols JR; Kikuchi RS, 1985. Host selection of the spherical mealybug (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) by Anagyrus indicus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae): influence of host stage on parasitoid oviposition, development, sex ratio, and survival. Environmental Entomology, 14(1):32-37

                                                Nechols JR; Seibert TF, 1985. Biological control of the spherical mealybug, Nippcoccus vastator (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae): assessment by ant exclusion. Environmental Entomology, 14(1):45-47

                                                Newstead R, 1894. Scale insects in Madras. Indian Museum Notes, 3:21-32.

                                                Noyes JS; Hayat M, 1994. Oriental mealybug parasitoids of the Anagyrini (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Wallingford, UK; CAB International, viii + 554 pp.

                                                Shafee SA, 1970. A new family of Chalcidoidea (Insecta: Hymenoptera). Records of the Zoological Survey of India, 68(1/4):21-31

                                                Shah AH; Patel CB; Patel VJ, 1981. Ber, a new host record of mealy bug, Nippcoccus vastator (Mask.) in Gujarat. Indian Journal of Entomology, 43(4):453-454

                                                Sharaf NS, 1996. Importance of life tables for determining proper timing and frequency of insecticide application in controlling the spherical mealybug, Nipaecoccus viridis (Newstead) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Dirasat. Agricultural Sciences, 23(2):103-110; 8 ref.

                                                Sharaf NS; Meyerdirk DE, 1987. A review on the biology, ecology and control of Nippcoccus viridis (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Miscellaneous Publications of the Entomological Society of America, No. 66:18pp.

                                                Sharma DR, 2011. New pest problems on fruit crops in Punjab. Journal of Insect Science (Ludhiana), 24(3):300-304.

                                                Shevale BS, 1994. Studies on control of pomegranate butterfly, Virachola isocrates Fabricius. Plant Protection Bulletin (Faridabad), 46(1):19-21; 11 ref.

                                                Srivastava OS, 1972. Soybean, a new host record of mealy bug, Nipaecoccus vastator (Mask.) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in India. Indian Journal of Entomology, 34(3):251-252

                                                Stocks IC; Hodges G, 2010. Pest Alert: Nipaecoccus viridis (Newstead), a new exotic mealybug in South Florida (Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) (DACS-P-01678). Florida, USA: Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry. http://www.doacs.state.fl.us/pi/pest_alerts/nipaecoccus-viridis-pest-alert.html

                                                Walton, V. M., Krüger, K., Saccaggi, D. L., Millar, I. M., 2009. A survey of scale insects (Sternorryncha: Coccoidea) occurring on table grapes in South Africa. Journal of Insect Science (Madison), 9, 47. doi: 10.1673/031.009.4701

                                                Williams DJ; Watson GW, 1988. Scale insects of the tropical South Pacific region. Part 2. Mealybugs (Pseudococcidae). Wallingford, Oxon, UK; CAB International, 260 pp.

                                                Williams, D. J., 2004. Mealybugs of Southern Asia. Malaysia: Natural History Museum/Southdene Sdn Bhd .1-896. https://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=US201300113934

                                                Distribution References

                                                Abdul-Rassoul M S, 2014. Host plants of the mealybug Nipaecoccus viridis (Newstead, 1894) (Homoptera, Pseudococcidae) in Iraq with detection of new hosts. Advances in Bio Research. 5 (4), 3-6. http://soeagra.com/abr/abrdec2014/2.pdf

                                                Abdul-Rassoul M S, 2015. Host plants of the mealybug Nipaecoccus viridis (Newstead, 1894) (Homoptera, pseudococcidae) in Iraq with detection of new hosts. Advances in Bio Research. 6 (2), 23-26. http://soeagra.com/abr/abrmarch2015/4.pdf

                                                Ali S M, 1972. Some Coccids from Goa. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. 69 (3), 669-671.

                                                Babu S R, 2016. Note on the occurrence of spherical mealybug, Nipaecoccus viridis (Newstead) and their parasitoids on soybean in southern Rajasthan. Current Biotica. 9 (4), 373-375. http://www.currentbiotica.com/CB/Journals9-Issue-IV/CB-9-4-Short-notes-1.pdf

                                                Bar-Zakay I, Peleg B A, Chen C, 1987. Spherical mealybug infesting citrus in Israel. Alon Hanotea. 41 (8), 855-860.

                                                Bellis G A, Donaldson J F, Carver M, Hancock D L, Fletcher M J, 2004. Records of insect pests on Christmas Island and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Indian Ocean. Australian Entomologist. 31 (3), 93-102.

                                                Ben-Dov Y, 1985. Further observations on scale insects (Homoptera: Coccoidea) of the Middle East. Phytoparasitica. 13 (3-4), 185-192.

                                                Ben-Dov Y, 1987. New or little-known scale insects (Coccoidea) in Israel. Hassadeh. 67 (4), 801-802.

                                                Ben-Dov Y, 1994. A systematic catalogue of the mealybugs of the world (Insecta: Homoptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae and Putoidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. In: A systematic catalogue of the mealybugs of the world (Insecta: Homoptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae and Putoidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. Andover, UK: Intercept Limited. 686 pp.

                                                Bharpoda T M, Koshiya D J, Korat D M, 2009. Seasonal occurrence of insect-pests on aonla (Emblica officinalis Geartn) and their natural enemies. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 22 (2), 314-318.

                                                CABI, EPPO, 2005. Nipaecoccus viridis. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 446. DOI:10.1079/DMPP/20066600446

                                                CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

                                                CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

                                                Chacko M J, Singh M B D, 1980. A note on the natural control of Nipaecoccus viridis on coffee in India. Journal of coffee Research. 10 (3), 63-64.

                                                Diepenbrock L M, Ahmed M Z, 2020. First report of Nipaecoccus viridis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) associated with citrus production in the United States. Journal of Integrated Pest Management. 11 (7), DOI:10.1093/jipm/pmaa004

                                                El-Haidari H S, Aziz F I, Wahab W A, 1974. Activity of predators and parasites of the mealybug, Nipaecoccus vastator (Maskell) in Iraq. Yearbook of Plant Protection Research, Iraq Ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform. Ar pp. 41-46; en p.

                                                EPPO, 2021. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

                                                Gagne RJ, Stein JD, 1982. Diadiplosis koebelei Koebele (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a rediscovered predator of scale insects. In: Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Washington, 10 65-69.

                                                IPPC, 2010. First detection of the lebbeck mealybug, Nipaecoccus viridis, in the continental United States. In: IPPC Official Pest Report, Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/

                                                Jarjes S J, Al-Mallah N M, Abdulla S I, 1989. Insects and mites pests survey on rose-bay shrubs in Mosul region with some ecological and biological aspects of (Nipaecoccus viridis New.) and (Parlatoria crypta M) on rose-bay shrubs. Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture. 21 (3), 29.

                                                Kumar S, Jayaraj S, Muthukrishnan T S, 1979. Natural enemies of Parthenium hysterophorus Linn. Journal of Entomological Research. 3 (1), 32-35.

                                                Mani M, Krishnamoorthy A, 1990. Outbreak of mealybugs and record for their natural enemies on pomegranate. Journal of Biological Control. 4 (1), 61-62.

                                                Mani M, Krishnamoorthy A, 2008. Biological suppression of the mealybugs Planococcus citri (Risso), Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell) and Nipaecoccus viridis (Newstead) on pummelo with Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant in India. Journal of Biological Control. 22 (1), 169-172.

                                                Mani M, Thontadarya T S, 1987. Record of mealybug species on grapevine in Karnataka. Current Science, India. 56 (22), 1192.

                                                Moghaddam M, 2006. The mealybugs of southern Iran (Hem.: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae). Journal of Entomological Society of Iran. 26 (1), En1-En11.

                                                Nechols J R, 2002. Biological control of the spherical mealybug on Guam and in the Northern Marianas Islands: a classic example of fortuitous biological control. In: Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Biological Control of Arthropods, Honolulu, Hawaii, 14-18 January 2002. [ed. by Van Driesche R G]. Washington, USA: United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 324-329.

                                                Shafee S A, 1970. A new family of Chalcidoidea (Insecta: Hymenoptera). Records of the Zoological Survey of India. 68 (1/4), 21-31.

                                                Shah A H, Patel C B, Patel V J, 1981. Ber, a new host record of mealy bug, Nipaecoccus vastator (Mask.) in Gujarat. Indian Journal of Entomology. 43 (4), 453-454.

                                                Sharma D R, 2011. New pest problems on fruit crops in Punjab. Journal of Insect Science (Ludhiana). 24 (3), 300-304.

                                                Srivastava O S, 1972. Soybean, a new host record of mealy bug, Nipaecoccus vastator (Mask.) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in India. Indian Journal of Entomology. 34 (3), 251-252.

                                                Stocks I C, Hodges G, 2010. Pest Alert: Nipaecoccus viridis (Newstead), a new exotic mealybug in South Florida (Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae). In: Pest Alert: Nipaecoccus viridis (Newstead), a new exotic mealybug in South Florida (Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae), Florida, USA: Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry. http://www.doacs.state.fl.us/pi/pest_alerts/nipaecoccus-viridis-pest-alert.html

                                                Suh SooJung, Bombay K, 2015. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) found on dracaena and ficus plants (Asparagales: Asparagaceae, Rosales: Moraceae) from southeastern Asia. Insecta Mundi. 1-10. http://centerforsystematicentomology.org/default.asp?action=insectamundi&id=insecta_new&year=2015

                                                UK, CAB International, 1983. Nipaecoccus viridis. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 446. DOI:10.1079/DMPP20056600446

                                                Walton V M, Krüger K, Saccaggi D L, Millar I M, 2009. A survey of scale insects (Sternorryncha: Coccoidea) occurring on table grapes in South Africa. Journal of Insect Science (Madison). 47. http://www.insectscience.org/9.47/ DOI:10.1673/031.009.4701

                                                Williams D J, 2004. Mealybugs of Southern Asia., Malaysia: Natural History Museum/Southdene Sdn Bhd. 1-896. https://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=US201300113934

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