Nipaecoccus viridis (spherical mealybug)
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- Risk of Introduction
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Growth Stages
- List of Symptoms/Signs
- Biology and Ecology
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Detection and Inspection
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Nipaecoccus viridis (Newstead)
Preferred Common Name
- spherical mealybug
Other Scientific Names
- Dactylopius perniciosus Newstead & Willcocks, 1910
- Dactylopius vastator Maskell, 1895
- Dactylopius viridis Newstead, 1894
- Nipaecoccus vastator (Maskell) Ferris, 1950
- Pseudococcus albizziae (Maskell) Kirkaldy, 1902
- Pseudococcus filamentosus var. corymbatus Green, 1922
- Pseudococcus perniciosus (Newstead & Willcocks) Newstead, 1920
- Pseudococcus solitarius Brain, 1915
- Pseudococcus vastator (Maskell) Kirkaldy, 1902
- Pseudococcus viridis (Newstead) Fernald, 1903
- Trionymus sericeus James, 1936
International Common Names
- English: coffee mealybug; cotton mealybug; globular mealybug
- Spanish: chinches harinosos
Local Common Names
- Egypt: lebbeck mealybug
- Germany: Wollaus, Albizzia-
- Netherlands: Bolle wolluis
- South Africa: karoo thorn mealybug; karoodoringwitluis
- NIPAVA (Nipaecoccus vastator)
- NIPAVI (Nipaecoccus viridis)
- PSECAL (Pseudococcus albizziae)
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Arthropoda
- Subphylum: Uniramia
- Class: Insecta
- Order: Hemiptera
- Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
- Unknown: Coccoidea
- Family: Pseudococcidae
- Genus: Nipaecoccus
- Species: Nipaecoccus viridis
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page Nipaecoccus viridis was first described by Newstead (1894), as Dactylopius viridis, from material collected in India. For many years, the name Nipaecoccus vastator (Maskell) was commonly used for this mealybug. Ali (1970) synonymized vastator with viridis. Ben-Dov (1994) provides a complete, annotated list of the synonyms and names used for this species. Pseudococcus albizziae (Maskell) is a misidentification. There are many records of N. viridis under the name Pseudococcus filamentosus (Cockerell) but these are based on misidentifications (Williams and Watson, 1988).
DescriptionTop of page Egg
Eggs are dark purple and laid by the female in a yellowish to white ovisac formed by wax threads.
Male and female larval instars are described and illustrated by Ghosh and Ghose (1989). Keys to 1st-instar larvae, 2nd- and 3rd-instar female larvae and adult females are provided by Ghose and Ghosh (1990), who also discuss the morphologies of different instars of both sexes.
Ben-Dov (1994) lists numerous publications containing descriptions of the adult stage. The adult male and female stages have been re-described and illustrated several times, for example Williams and Watson (1988) for the adult female. Important characters in slide-mounted adult females are the conical to lanceolate setae on the dorsal abdominal segments being similar in size to the two cerarian setae on the anal lobes. There are numerous oral collar tubular ducts on the dorsum, and cerarii (at most eight pairs) are present on the abdomen only, each with two enlarged conical to lanceolate setae. A circulus is present, round to oval in shape, and the ostioles are represented by a poorly-developed posterior pair only.
Cilliers and Bedford (1978), Annecke and Moran (1982) and Hattingh et al. (1998) describe the appearance of live specimens of this mealybug, and provided illustrations. Adult females are about 4 mm long, the young ones covered in mealy white wax with short projecting filaments arranged around the margin. Ovipositing females become covered in abundant white waxy threads that form a smooth globular ovisac. The wax threads are very elastic and if the ovisac is grasped and pulled with the fingers, it can be drawn out for 150 mm or more. The body contents are purple and this can be observed when individuals are squashed.
Adult males have well-developed legs, antennae and genitalia, one pair of simple wings and no mouthparts. They are very short-lived.
DistributionTop of page Comprehensive distribution records may be found in CIE (1983), and Ben-Dov (1994). Map no. 446, published by CIE (1983), includes additions for Mauritius and Jamaica, cited as Pseudococcus filamentosus. The identity of these mealybugs has not always been certain. However, the Natural History Museum (London, UK) collection now contains specimens of N. viridis collected from Mauritius.
The distribution map includes several further records based on specimens of N. viridis from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK).
N. viridis occurs in many parts of the tropics, and is particularly widespread in Africa and the Oriental Region. N. viridis was first found in Israel in 1984 (Bar-Zakay et al., 1987).
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Afghanistan||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|Bangladesh||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|Cambodia||Present||Ben-Dov, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|China||Present||Ben-Dov, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|-Hong Kong||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|-Hunan||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|Christmas Island (Indian Ocean)||Present||Bellis et al., 2004|
|India||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|-Andhra Pradesh||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|-Bihar||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|-Delhi||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|-Goa||Present||Ali, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|-Gujarat||Present||Shah et al., 1981; CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|-Himachal Pradesh||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|-Indian Punjab||Present||Sharma, 2011|
|-Karnataka||Present||Shafee, 1970; Chacko and Singh, 1980; CIE, 1983; Mani and Thontadarya, 1987; Mani and Krishnamoorthy, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|-Kerala||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|-Madhya Pradesh||Present||Srivastava, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|-Maharashtra||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|-Odisha||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|-Tamil Nadu||Present||Kumar et al., 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|-Uttar Pradesh||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|-West Bengal||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|Indonesia||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|-Java||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|Iran||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2005; Abdul-Rassoul, 2014; EPPO, 2014|
|Iraq||Present||El-Haidari et al., 1974; Jarjes et al., 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014; Abdul-Rassoul, 2015|
|Israel||Present||Bar-Zakay et al., 1987; Ben-Dov, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|Japan||Present||Ben-Dov, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|-Ryukyu Archipelago||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|Jordan||Present||Ben-Dov, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|Malaysia||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|Nepal||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|Oman||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|Pakistan||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|Philippines||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|Saudi Arabia||Present||FAO, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|Sri Lanka||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|Taiwan||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|Thailand||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|Vietnam||Present||Ben-Dov, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|Algeria||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|Angola||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|Benin||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|Burkina Faso||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|Comoros||Present||Ben-Dov, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|Côte d'Ivoire||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|Egypt||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|Eritrea||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|Kenya||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|Madagascar||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|Malawi||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|Mali||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|Mauritius||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|Niger||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|Nigeria||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|Senegal||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|South Africa||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|Sudan||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|Tanzania||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|Togo||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|Uganda||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|Zimbabwe||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|Mexico||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|USA||Restricted distribution||CABI/EPPO, 2005; IPPC, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|-Florida||Present||Introduced||Stocks and Hodges, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|-Hawaii||Present||Gagne and Stein, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
Central America and Caribbean
|Bahamas||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|Australia||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|-Australian Northern Territory||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|-Queensland||Present||Ben-Dov, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|Guam||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|Kiribati||Present||Ben-Dov, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|New Caledonia||Present||Ben-Dov, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|Northern Mariana Islands||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|Papua New Guinea||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|Solomon Islands||Present||Ben-Dov, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
|Tuvalu||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2005; EPPO, 2014|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page N. viridis poses an important phytosanitary risk. Individuals often settle in cryptic places on plant material, such as under sepals of citrus fruits, and can easily be distributed on exported plants or plant products (Hattingh et al., 1998).
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page Ben-Dov (1994) listed all recorded host plants of N. viridis. It is a rather polyphagous species, feeding on plants in 18 families, many of which are trees, and including crops such as citrus and coffee. Apparently, bhant (Clerodendrum infortunatum) is the original wild food-plant of the pest in West Bengal, India (Ghosh and Ghosh, 1985).
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
|Acacia karroo (sweet thorn)||Fabaceae||Wild host|
|Albizia lebbeck (Indian siris)||Fabaceae||Unknown|
|Alcea rosea (Hollyhock)||Malvaceae||Unknown|
|Alhagi maurorum (camelthorn)||Fabaceae||Other|
|Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit)||Moraceae||Unknown|
|Asparagus officinalis (asparagus)||Liliaceae||Unknown|
|Cestrum nocturnum (night jessamine)||Solanaceae||Other|
|Citrus aurantiifolia (lime)||Rutaceae||Unknown|
|Citrus aurantium (sour orange)||Rutaceae||Unknown|
|Citrus limon (lemon)||Rutaceae||Unknown|
|Citrus maxima (pummelo)||Rutaceae||Unknown|
|Citrus sinensis (navel orange)||Rutaceae||Unknown|
|Citrus x paradisi (grapefruit)||Rutaceae||Unknown|
|Clerodendrum infortunatum||Lamiaceae||Wild host|
|Coffea arabica (arabica coffee)||Rubiaceae||Unknown|
|Corchorus capsularis (white jute)||Tiliaceae||Unknown|
|Eriobotrya japonica (loquat)||Rosaceae||Unknown|
|Euphorbia hirta (garden spurge)||Euphorbiaceae||Unknown|
|Ficus carica (common fig)||Moraceae||Unknown|
|Gardenia jasminoides (cape jasmine)||Rubiaceae||Other|
|Glycine max (soyabean)||Fabaceae||Unknown|
|Gossypium hirsutum (Bourbon cotton)||Malvaceae||Unknown|
|Grevillea robusta (silky oak)||Proteaceae||Unknown|
|Hibiscus manihot (Hibiscus root)||Malvaceae||Unknown|
|Jacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda)||Bignoniaceae||Unknown|
|Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena)||Fabaceae||Unknown|
|Mangifera indica (mango)||Anacardiaceae||Unknown|
|Morus alba (mora)||Moraceae||Other|
|Morus nigra (black mulberry)||Moraceae||Unknown|
|Nerium oleander (oleander)||Apocynaceae||Unknown|
|Parthenium hysterophorus (parthenium weed)||Asteraceae||Unknown|
|Persea americana (avocado)||Lauraceae||Main|
|Phyllanthus niruri (seed-under-the-leaf)||Euphorbiaceae||Unknown|
|Psidium guajava (guava)||Myrtaceae||Unknown|
|Punica granatum (pomegranate)||Punicaceae||Unknown|
|Solanum tuberosum (potato)||Solanaceae||Unknown|
|Spathodea campanulata (African tulip tree)||Bignoniaceae||Unknown|
|Tamarindus indica (Indian tamarind)||Fabaceae||Unknown|
|Vitis vinifera (grapevine)||Vitaceae||Unknown|
|Ziziphus mauritiana (jujube)||Rhamnaceae||Unknown|
|Ziziphus spina-christi (Christ's thorn jujube)||Rhamnaceae||Unknown|
Growth StagesTop of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage
SymptomsTop of page Cilliers and Bedford (1978) and Hattingh et al. (1998) described and illustrated the effect of this mealybug on citrus in South Africa. Feeding on young twigs causes bulbous outgrowths, and heavy infestations may severely stunt the growth of young trees. Occasionally, this mealybug becomes so abundant on citrus that the branches and leaves become covered with white cottony threads (Annecke and Moran, 1982). Also, the leaves and other parts of the tree become shining wet with honeydew. Citrus fruits infested with N. viridis may develop lumpy outgrowths or raised shoulders near the stem end. Such swellings are already present on fruit from the size of a pea, and they enlarge with the growth of the fruit. Frequently, fruits turn yellow and then partly black around the stem end, finally dropping off the tree. Late infestations on large green fruits result in congregations of young mealybugs in clumps over the face of the fruit. Each colony produces a raised spot which turns yellow. When maturing fruit is infested, such feeding areas become excessively yellow.
Ghosh and Ghosh (1985) reported that the artificial infestation of cotton, citrus, jute, jack fruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) and bhant (Clerodendrum infortunatum) with N. viridis resulted, in general, in arrestment of linear growth of the stems and petioles and great reduction and crumpling of the leaves. Histological changes in infested laminae included abnormal dimensions in different cells and an increase in the size and density of stomata.
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Fruit / abnormal shape|
|Fruit / external feeding|
|Fruit / honeydew or sooty mould|
|Fruit / premature drop|
|Fruit / reduced size|
|Growing point / distortion|
|Growing point / external feeding|
|Inflorescence / honeydew or sooty mould|
|Leaves / abnormal forms|
|Leaves / external feeding|
|Leaves / fungal growth|
|Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould|
|Stems / external feeding|
|Stems / honeydew or sooty mould|
|Stems / stunting or rosetting|
|Whole plant / distortion; rosetting|
Biology and EcologyTop of page In a review by Sharaf and Meyerdirk (1987), the biology, ecology, geographic distribution and natural enemies of N. viridis are described.
In Iraq, populations of N. viridis reached peaks in May and October (Jarjes et al., 1989). There were significant positive correlations between population density and temperature, and negative correlations with relative humidity. Females of N. viridis each laid 90-138 eggs, and the egg and nymphal stages lasted 10-13 and 31-43 days, respectively. Overwintering took place as eggs, nymphs and adults.
In citrus orchards at Rustenburg, South Africa, there are three generations of N. viridis per year (Cilliers and Bedford, 1978). The September-October generation of mature females lays eggs that hatch during October-November. The crawlers migrate and settle mainly in protected areas, under the sepals of the fruitlets when they are pea-sized or larger. This second generation matures in November and lays eggs which hatch during December. The third generation of females matures in about March-April.
Natural enemiesTop of page
|Natural enemy||Type||Life stages||Specificity||References||Biological control in||Biological control on|
|Anagyrus dactylopii||Parasite||Nymphs||Guam; Saipan||Leucaena|
|Leptomastix phenacocci||Parasite||Egypt||shade trees|
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page Noyes and Hayat (1994) provide information on encyrtid parasitoids. Sharaf and Meyerdirk (1987) describe the natural enemies and biological control of N. viridis. Bartlett (1978) also discusses biological control.
Alamella flava and Anagyrus near A. gunturiensis [A. mirzai] have been reared from N. viridis collected on coffee at Karnataka, India (Chacko and Singh, 1980). Euryischomyia alami [E. washingtoni] has also been reported from Karnataka, India (Shafee, 1970).
The gregarious encyrtid parasitoid Anagyrus agraensis oviposits in nymphs in all three immature instars and in adult females of N. viridis (Nechols and Kikuchi, 1985).
In Iraq, peaks of activity by predators and parasites of N. viridis occurred between 15 May and 15 June for Exochomus nigripennis, Dicrodiplosis sp., Anagyrus pseudococci and Marietta picta (a hyperparasitoid), and in September-October for Nephus bipunctatus, Chrysopa sp., Dicrodiplosis sp., A. pseudococci and M. picta (El-Haidari et al., 1974).
In the laboratory in Iraq, the predator Chrysopa mutata [Chrysoperla mutata], fed on N. viridis (Abid et al., 1985).
Additional information on natural enemies can be found in Williams and Watson (1988), including the predators Cryptolaemus sp. and Diadiplosis sp. Other reported predators include Cryptolaemus montrouzieri, Exochomus flavipes, Gitonides perspicax [Domomyza perspicax], Leucopis alticeps and Sympherobius sp. (Cilliers and Bedford, 1978) and Diadiplosis koebelei (Gagne and Stein, 1982).
However, there is no evidence that these predators are significant control agents in the field.
ImpactTop of page Mani and Thontadarya (1987) reported that N. viridis caused up to 5% damage in two vineyards in Bangalore, India. In Hawaii, N. viridis was long considered the most destructive mealybug species (Bartlett, 1978).
Losses in citrus orchards are due firstly to fruit drop caused by large infestations of mealybugs. In South Africa, half or more of the navel crop can be lost in this way (Cilliers and Bedford, 1978). Secondly, fruits with lumpy outgrowths or raised shoulders near the stem end, caused by N. viridis feeding, have to be culled in the packhouse (Hattingh et al. 1998).
Detection and InspectionTop of page Citrus fruits have to be inspected by looking under the sepals for hidden individual mealybugs or light infestations, as the mealybugs favour such cryptic feeding sites. Both ends of navel oranges must be examined as mealybugs tend to settle in the navel cavity, as well as under the sepals (Cilliers and Bedford, 1978).
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page Many mealybugs are very similar to each other in overall appearance, and are thus difficult to identify. In South Africa, N. viridis can be distinguished from other mealybugs on citrus by means of the key provided by Hattingh et al. (1998). Diagnostic features are the purple body contents of all stages and the eggs; and the globular, finely woven, smooth-surfaced ovisac, the threads of which can be drawn out extensively. The appearance in life can give an initial impression of a margarodid (for example, Icerya sp.) rather than a mealybug.
Prevention and ControlTop of page Introduction
Control measures in Israel are described by Bar-Zakay et al. (1987).
Studies in India showed that bagging of pomegranate fruits was effective as a physical measure for controlling the lycaenid Virachola isocrates [Deudorix isocrates], but could not be recommended as it resulted in increased infestation of the fruits by N. viridis (Shevale, 1994).
In Egypt, life table studies indicate that N. viridis should be controlled on lemon trees by means of insecticide application(s) during the first half of July, instead of the traditional control operations in spring, summer and autumn (Sharaf, 1996). Chemical control methods are also described by Sharaf and Meyerdirk (1987).
Studies by Meyerdirk et al. (1988) showed that Anagyrus agraensis, which was released into the Jordan River Valley from Guam, greatly reduced infestations of N. viridis in areas where A. agraensis was abundant. Bartlett (1978) also discusses biological control of N. viridis.
Nechols and Seibert (1985) found that survivorship of N. viridis in northern Guam was significantly higher on Leucaena leucocephala tended by the ant Technomyrmex albipes than when T. albipes was excluded. The presence of T. albipes decreased the percentage of N. viridis parasitized by the encyrtid Anagyrus agraensis and the mortality attributable to host killing by A. agraensis and predation by other arthropods.
In South Africa, this mealybug is considered to be well controlled by natural enemies. Outbreaks generally result from chemical disruption of such natural enemies (Hattingh et al. 1998).
ReferencesTop of page
Abdul-Rassoul MS, 2014. Host plants of the mealybug Nipaecoccus viridis (Newstead, 1894) (Homoptera, Pseudococcidae) in Iraq with detection of new hosts. Advances in Bio Research, 5(4):3-6. http://soeagra.com/abr/abrdec2014/2.pdf
Abdul-Rassoul MS, 2015. Host plants of the mealybug Nipaecoccus viridis (Newstead, 1894) (Homoptera, pseudococcidae) in Iraq with detection of new hosts. Advances in Bio Research, 6(2):23-26. http://soeagra.com/abr/abrmarch2015/4.pdf
Abid MK; Al-Rubep JK; Hussien AK, 1985. Biological studies on the predator Chrysopa mutata McLachlan (Chrysopidae Neuroptera) in Iraq. Journal of Agriculture and Water Resources Research, 4(1):153-160
Ali SM, 1970. A catalogue of the Oriental Coccoidea. (Part IV.) (Insecta: Homoptera: Coccoidea). Indian Museum Bulletin, Calcutta, 5:71-150.
APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).
Bartlett BR, 1978. Pseudococcidae. In: Clausen CP, ed. Introduced Parasites and Predators of Arthropod Pests and Weeds: a World Review. Agriculture Handbook No. 480, 137-170.
Ben-Dov Y, 1994. A systematic catalogue of the mealybugs of the world (Insecta: Homoptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae and Putoidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. Andover, UK; Intercept Limited, 686 pp.
Cilliers CJ; Bedford ECG, 1978. Citrus mealybugs. In: Bedford ECG, ed. Citrus Pests in the Republic of South Africa. Science Bulletin, Department of Agricultural Technical Services, Republic of South Africa, No. 391, 89-97.
El-Haidari HS; Aziz FI; Wahab WA, 1974. Activity of predators and parasites of the mealybug, Nippcoccus vastator (Maskell) in Iraq. Yearbook of Plant Protection Research, Iraq Ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform, 1:Ar pp. 41-46; en p.
EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm
Food and Agriculture Organization, 1972. Report to the Government of Saudi Arabia on research in plant protection based on the work of H.E. Martin, FAO Entomologist. Report to the Government of Saudi Arabia on research in plant protection based on the work of H.E. Martin, FAO Entomologist., v + 38 pp.
Gagne RJ; Stein JD, 1982. Diadiplosis koebelei Koebele (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a rediscovered predator of scale insects. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Washington No. 10: 65-69.
Ghosh AB; Ghose SK, 1989. Description of all instars of the mealybug Nipaecoccus viridis (Newstead) (Homoptera, Pseudococcidae). Environment and Ecology, 7:564-570.
Hattingh V; Cilliers CJ; Bedford ECG, 1998. Citrus mealybugs. In: Bedford ECG, Berg MA van den, Villiers EA de, eds. Citrus Pests in the Republic of South Africa. 2nd edition (revised). Agricultural Research Council, Republic of South Africa, No. 391, 112-120.
Jarjes SJ; Al-Mallah NM; Abdulla SI, 1989. Insects and mites pests survey on rose-bay shrubs in Mosul region with some ecological and biological aspects of (Nipaecoccus viridis New.) and (Parlatoria crypta M) on rose-bay shrubs. Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 21(3):29
Meyerdirk DE; Khasimuddin S; Bashir M, 1988. Importation, colonization and establishment of Anagyrus indicus (Hym : Encyrtidae) on Nippcoccus viridis (Hom.: Pseudococcidae) in Jordan. Entomophaga, 33(2):229-237
Nechols JR; Kikuchi RS, 1985. Host selection of the spherical mealybug (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) by Anagyrus indicus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae): influence of host stage on parasitoid oviposition, development, sex ratio, and survival. Environmental Entomology, 14(1):32-37
Newstead R, 1894. Scale insects in Madras. Indian Museum Notes, 3:21-32.
Sharaf NS, 1996. Importance of life tables for determining proper timing and frequency of insecticide application in controlling the spherical mealybug, Nipaecoccus viridis (Newstead) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Dirasat. Agricultural Sciences, 23(2):103-110; 8 ref.
Sharaf NS; Meyerdirk DE, 1987. A review on the biology, ecology and control of Nippcoccus viridis (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Miscellaneous Publications of the Entomological Society of America, No. 66:18pp.
Stocks IC; Hodges G, 2010. Pest Alert: Nipaecoccus viridis (Newstead), a new exotic mealybug in South Florida (Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) (DACS-P-01678). Florida, USA: Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry. http://www.doacs.state.fl.us/pi/pest_alerts/nipaecoccus-viridis-pest-alert.html
Distribution MapsTop of page
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