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Nipaecoccus nipae
(spiked mealybug)

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Datasheet

Nipaecoccus nipae (spiked mealybug)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 25 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Nipaecoccus nipae
  • Preferred Common Name
  • spiked mealybug
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
N. nipae on Kentia palm from the Canary Isles. Adult females 3.5 mm long, flattish and oval, with distinctive dorsal and marginal white or yellow wax cones which create a satellite appearance. Male N. nipae produce small (ca 2 mm long) waxy filamentous cocoons or tests on the foliage, often in large numbers.
TitleAdult
CaptionN. nipae on Kentia palm from the Canary Isles. Adult females 3.5 mm long, flattish and oval, with distinctive dorsal and marginal white or yellow wax cones which create a satellite appearance. Male N. nipae produce small (ca 2 mm long) waxy filamentous cocoons or tests on the foliage, often in large numbers.
CopyrightCrown Copyright
N. nipae on Kentia palm from the Canary Isles. Adult females 3.5 mm long, flattish and oval, with distinctive dorsal and marginal white or yellow wax cones which create a satellite appearance. Male N. nipae produce small (ca 2 mm long) waxy filamentous cocoons or tests on the foliage, often in large numbers.
AdultN. nipae on Kentia palm from the Canary Isles. Adult females 3.5 mm long, flattish and oval, with distinctive dorsal and marginal white or yellow wax cones which create a satellite appearance. Male N. nipae produce small (ca 2 mm long) waxy filamentous cocoons or tests on the foliage, often in large numbers.Crown Copyright

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Nipaecoccus nipae (Maskell, 1893)

Preferred Common Name

  • spiked mealybug

Other Scientific Names

  • Ceroputo nipae (Maskell), Lindinger, 1904
  • Dactylopius dubia Maxwell-Lefroy, 1903
  • Dactylopius nipae Maskell, 1893
  • Dactylopius pseudonipae Cockerell, 1897
  • Nipaecoccus pseudonipae (Cockerell), Beardsley, 1960
  • Pseudococcus magnoliae Hambleton, 1935
  • Pseudococcus nipae (Maskell), Cockerell, 1902
  • Pseudococcus pseudonipae (Cockerell), Fernald, 1903
  • Ripersia nipae (Maskell), Gómez-Menor Ortega
  • Ripersia serrata Tinsley, 1900
  • Trechocorys nipae (Maskell), Kirkaldy, 1904

International Common Names

  • English: avocado mealybug; buff coconut mealybug; coconut mealybug; nipa mealybug; sugarapple mealybug
  • Spanish: chinche harinosa del cocotero; piojo harinoso (Mexico)
  • French: cochenille du cocotier

Local Common Names

  • Netherlands: Palmwolluis
  • South Africa: palm wolluis

EPPO code

  • NIPANI (Nipaecoccus nipae)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Coccoidea
  •                                 Family: Pseudococcidae
  •                                     Genus: Nipaecoccus
  •                                         Species: Nipaecoccus nipae

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page There are apparently two forms of Nipaecoccus nipae, one with white wax and the other with yellow wax, which have often been named N. nipae and N. pseudonipae, respectively (Zimmerman, 1948; Williams and Granara de Willink, 1992). Beardsley (1960) suggested morphological differences between the adult males of the two forms but no morphological characters have been found to distinguish the adult females. In life, the yellow and white forms are often found living together and for the purposes of this work they are regarded as the same species.

Description

Top of page In life, adult female N. nipae are 3.5 mm long, flattish and oval. They are salmon-pink to dark-red in colour, with distinctive dorsal and marginal white or yellow wax cones which create a satellite appearance. In most species of mealybug, the males, if present, are less conspicuous that the females, but male N. nipae are more numerous than females. Male N. nipae produce small (about 2 mm long) waxy filamentous cocoons or tests on the foliage, which are often present in large numbers. The male tests of N. nipae are more common and more conspicuous than those of many other mealybug species.

Authoritative identification of N. nipae involves detailed microscopic examination of slide-mounted, teneral, adult females by a competent taxonomist. For detailed morphological descriptions of the adult female, illustrations and keys to the species of Nipaecoccus that occur in North America see Ferris (1950) and McKenzie (1967), for those in Central and South America see Williams and Granara de Willink (1992) and for those in Australia see Williams (1985). Beardsley (1960) has described the morphology of the adult male.

Distribution

Top of page N. nipae is found in Europe, Asia, Africa, North, Central and South America and Oceania (Ben-Dov, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2005).

The collection at The Natural History Museum, London, UK contains numerous samples of Nipaecoccus from southern Asia, particularly India; all of them are N. viridis and not N. nipae. On the basis of the coverage by Williams (2004), and the absence of supporting specimens, the records of N. nipae from southern Asia are regarded as of questionable accuracy and are not included in the recent distribution map by CABI/EPPO (2005).

A tentative record for Australia (Williams, 1985), has not been included in CABI/EPPO (2005).

In northern and central Europe, including the UK, N. nipae is found in glasshouses, particularly in botanical gardens, and does not appear to occur in the open. It is therefore recorded as occasionally present in this region. In South Africa, N. nipae is mostly found in glasshouses, but is occasionally found in the open around Durban (CABI/EPPO, 2005).


Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentBen-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2005)
MadagascarPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
MoroccoPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
South AfricaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
ZimbabwePresentCABI and EPPO (2005)

Asia

BangladeshAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)APPPC (1987); CABI and EPPO (2005)
ChinaPresentBen-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2005)
-FujianPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-GuangxiPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-HainanPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
GeorgiaPresentBen-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2005)
IndiaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-BiharAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)CABI and EPPO (2005)
-KeralaPresentJosephrajkumar et al. (2012)
-Tamil NaduAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)CABI and EPPO (2005)
-West BengalAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)CABI and EPPO (2005)
IndonesiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-JavaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
PakistanAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)Ben-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2005)
PhilippinesPresentInvasiveCaasi-Lit et al. (2012); Tokihiro (2006)
South KoreaPresentBen-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2005)
ThailandAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)Waterhouse (1993); CABI and EPPO (2005)
TurkeyPresentBen-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2005)
VietnamAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)Waterhouse (1993); CABI and EPPO (2005)

Europe

AustriaPresent, Few occurrencesCABI and EPPO (2005)
BelgiumPresent, Few occurrencesCABI and EPPO (2005)
CzechoslovakiaPresentBen-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2005)
FrancePresent, Few occurrencesCABI and EPPO (2005)
HungaryPresent, Few occurrencesBen-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2005)
ItalyPresent, Few occurrencesCABI and EPPO (2005)
PolandPresent, Few occurrencesBen-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2005)
PortugalPresent, Few occurrencesBen-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2005)
-MadeiraPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
RussiaPresent, Few occurrencesCABI and EPPO (2005)
-Central RussiaPresent, Few occurrencesCABI and EPPO (2005)
-Russia (Europe)Present, Few occurrencesBen-Dov (1994)
SpainPresentBen-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2005)
-Canary IslandsPresentBen-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2005)
United KingdomPresent, Few occurrencesBen-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2005)

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresentBen-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2005)
BahamasPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
BarbadosPresentUK, CAB International (1966); Ben-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2005)
BelizePresentBen-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2005)
BermudaPresentBen-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2005)
British Virgin IslandsPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
Cayman IslandsPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
Costa RicaPresentBen-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2005)
CubaPresentBen-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2005)
DominicaPresentBen-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2005)
Dominican RepublicPresentBen-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2005)
El SalvadorPresentBen-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2005)
GrenadaPresentBen-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2005)
GuadeloupePresentBen-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2005)
GuatemalaPresentBen-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2005)
JamaicaPresentBen-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2005)
MexicoPresentCABI and EPPO (2005); Arriola Padilla et al. (2016); Villatoro-Moreno et al. (2016)
NicaraguaPresentBen-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2005)
PanamaPresentBen-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2005)
Puerto RicoPresentUK, CAB International (1966); Ben-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2005)
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentBen-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2005)
Saint LuciaPresentBen-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2005)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentBen-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2005)
Trinidad and TobagoPresent, WidespreadBen-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2005)
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentBen-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2005)
United StatesPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-CaliforniaPresentBen-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2005)
-FloridaPresentBen-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2005)
-HawaiiPresent, WidespreadBen-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2005)
-LouisianaPresentBen-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2005)

Oceania

Federated States of MicronesiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
FijiPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Hodgson and agowska (2011)
GuamPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
SamoaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)

South America

ArgentinaPresentBen-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2005)
BrazilPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-ParanaPresentBen-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2005)
-Rio de JaneiroPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-Sao PauloPresentBen-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2005)
ColombiaPresentBen-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2005)
EcuadorPresentBen-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2005)
GuyanaPresentBen-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2005)
PeruPresentBen-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2005)
SurinamePresentUK, CAB International (1966); Ben-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2005)
VenezuelaPresentBen-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2005)

Risk of Introduction

Top of page Immature and adult female N. nipae are readily carried on plants and plant produce and may be injurious when introduced to new geographical areas where they have no natural enemies. Injudicious chemical spraying techniques may reduce the natural enemies of N. nipae allowing them to proliferate.

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page N. nipae is polyphagous and attacks 80 genera of plants belonging to 43 families (Ben-Dov, 1994). It is recorded feeding on a wide range of economically important plants, mostly fruit crops and ornamentals, including avocados, bananas, citrus, cocoa, coconuts, custard apples (Annona reticulata), edible figs, guavas, mangoes, oil palm, orchids, pawpaws, pineapples, seaside grapes and soursop (Annona muricata). N. nipae seems to prefer palms, such as species of Areca, Cocos, Kentia, Kentiopsis and Sabal. In temperate regions in Europe and North America, N. nipae often attacks ornamental palms grown under glass.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
AnnonaAnnonaceaeMain
Annona muricata (soursop)AnnonaceaeMain
Annona reticulata (bullock's heart)AnnonaceaeMain
Annona squamosa (sugar apple)AnnonaceaeMain
Anthurium andreanumAraceaeMain
ArecaArecaceaeMain
Arecaceae (plants of the palm family)ArecaceaeMain
Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit)MoraceaeMain
Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea)FabaceaeMain
Carica papaya (pawpaw)CaricaceaeMain
CitrusRutaceaeMain
Cocos nucifera (coconut)ArecaceaeMain
DracaenaAgavaceaeMain
Elaeis guineensis (African oil palm)ArecaceaeMain
Ficus carica (common fig)MoraceaeMain
Ficus elastica (rubber plant)MoraceaeMain
Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato)ConvolvulaceaeMain
Mangifera indica (mango)AnacardiaceaeMain
Manihot esculenta (cassava)EuphorbiaceaeMain
Manilkara zapota (sapodilla)SapotaceaeMain
Morus (mulberrytree)MoraceaeMain
Musa (banana)MusaceaeMain
Nephelium lappaceum (rambutan)SapindaceaeOther
Olea (olive)OleaceaeMain
Orchidaceae (orchids)OrchidaceaeMain
Persea americana (avocado)LauraceaeMain
Psidium guajava (guava)MyrtaceaeMain
Sabal (palmetto-palm)ArecaceaeMain
Solanum tuberosum (potato)SolanaceaeMain
StrelitziaStrelitziaceaeMain
TheobromaMalvaceaeMain
Theobroma cacao (cocoa)MalvaceaeMain
TillandsiaBromeliaceaeMain
Vitis (grape)VitaceaeMain
Zingiber (ginger)ZingiberaceaeMain

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

Top of page In most cases, the main damage caused by N. nipae is the depletion of plant sap, yellowing of the foliage, reduced vigour of the host, and the deposition on the foliage and fruit of honeydew which serves as a medium for the growth of black sooty moulds. The covering of sooty moulds reduces the photosynthetic area.

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / external feeding
Fruit / honeydew or sooty mould
Growing point / external feeding
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Stems / external feeding

Biology and Ecology

Top of page N. nipae is sexually reproductive but its biology and ecology are poorly known.

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Anagyrus dactylopii Parasite Nymphs
Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Predator Adults/Nymphs Bermuda; Puerto Rico; St Kitts Nevis Annona; Arecaceae; avocados; Cocos nucifera; Erythrina; guavas
Curinus caeruleus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Curinus coeruleus Predator Adults/Nymphs Hawaii avocados
Hyperaspis jucunda Predator Adults/Nymphs St Kitts Nevis Annona; avocados; Cocos nucifera
Hyperaspis silvestri Predator Adults/Nymphs
Hyperaspis silvestrii Predator Adults/Nymphs Hawaii avocados
Mallada basalis Predator
Pseudaphycus utilis Parasite Nymphs Bermuda; Hawaii; Puerto Rico; St Kitts Nevis Annona; Arecaceae; avocados; Cocos nucifera; Erythrina; guavas
Pseudiastata nebulosa Predator Adults/Nymphs Hawaii avocados
Scymnus binaevatus Predator Adults/Nymphs Bermuda Annona; Arecaceae; avocados; guavas
Zarhopalus clavatus Parasite Nymphs

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page Bartlett (1978) has given an account of the introduced parasites and predators used to control N. nipae in Hawaii. The parasitoid Pseudaphycus utilis is one of the most important natural enemies of N. nipae. Within about a year of the introduction of P. utilis to Hawaii, N. nipae had almost disappeared from Oahu and was soon almost eradicated from the Hawaiian Islands (Bartlett, 1978).

Impact

Top of page N. nipae is generally of little economic importance, but it has become a pest of avocados and guavas in Hawaii, Bermuda and Puerto Rico (see Ben-Dov, 1994 for further references). Ant-attended infestations of N. nipae have been recorded causing damage to coconut plantations in Guyana, together with the coconut scale Aspidiotus destructor (Raj, 1977). N. nipae is also a pest of ornamental palms. The damage caused by N. nipae may result in ornamental plants, fruit, cut flowers and foliage losing their market value.

Detection and Inspection

Top of page Heavy infestations of N. nipae are conspicuous because of the presence of distinct waxy adult females, numerous waxy male tests and sooty mould growing on the honeydew. They usually occur on the undersides of the foliage.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page N. nipae should be distinguished from N. aurilanatus, a pest usually found on Araucariaceae, which has spread to many tropical and subtropical regions. N. aurilanatus is easily distinguished because it has numerous ventral multilocular pores on all abdominal segments, no dorsal cephalic cluster of conical setae above the base of each antenna, and is a pest of conifers.

N. nipae, in contrast, has fewer ventral multilocular pores and they are confined to the last four abdominal segments. It also has a distinct dorsal cephalic cluster of conical setae above the base of each antenna and is rarely, if ever, found on a coniferous host.

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Chemical Control

In Hawaii, the efficacy of a series of methods were evaluated as post-harvest treatments to eliminate N. nipae, along with other mealybugs, scale insects and aphids, from tropical cut flowers and foliage before shipment. A series of insecticidal dips were tested and the most effective was found to be a combination dip for at least 5 minutes in an insecticidal soap composed of potassium salts of fatty acids with fluvalinate (Hansen et al., 1992a). Vapour heat treatment was found to kill mealybug adults and nymphs after 1 hour at 46.6°C; and nymphs were killed after 2 hours at 45.2°C (Hansen et al., 1992b). Hydrogen cyanide fumigation treatment was found to kill N. nipae nymphs on palms (Hansen et al., 1991).

Infestations of N. nipae were eliminated in coconut plantations by chemically controlling Azteca ants which maintained and protected the mealybug colonies (Raj, 1977).

Biological Control

Bartlett (1978) records successful biological control of N. nipae in Hawaii by Pseudaphycus utilis. In Puerto Rico some improvement was reported following the introduction of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri, but good control was later obtained with the establishment of P. utilis (Bartlett, 1978).

References

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APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Arriola Padilla VJ, Estrada Martínez E, Romero Nápoles J, González Hernández H, Pérez Miranda R, 2016. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) on ornamental plants in greenhouses from the central zone of the Morelos state, Mexico. (Insectos escama (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) en plantas ornamentales en viveros de la zona centro del estado de Morelos, México.) Interciencia, 41(8):552-560. http://www.interciencia.org/v41_08/indexe.html

Bartlett BR, 1978. Pseudococcidae. In: Clausen CP, ed. Introduced Parasites and Predators of Arthropod Pests and Weeds: a World Review. Agriculture Handbook No. 480, 137-170.

Beardsley JW, 1960. A preliminary study of the males of some Hawaiian mealybugs (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society, 17:199-243.

Ben-Dov Y, 1994. A systematic catalogue of the mealybugs of the world (Insecta: Homoptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae and Putoidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. Andover, UK; Intercept Limited, 686 pp.

Caasi-Lit MT, Lit IL Jr, Larona AR, 2012. Expansion of local geographic and host ranges of Nipaecoccus nipae (Maskell) (Pseudococcidae, Hemiptera) in the Philippines with new records of predators and attending ants. Philippine Journal of Crop Science, 37(1):47-56.

CABI/EPPO, 2005. Nipaecoccus nipae. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No. 220. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

CIE, 1966. Distribution Maps of Pests, Series A, No. 220. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Ferris GF, 1950. Atlas of the Scale Insects of North America. Series V. The Pseudococeidae (Part I). Stanford Univ. Pr., California; London, G. Cumberlege, Oxford Univ. Pr., vii+ 278 pp.

Hansen JD, Hara AH, Chan HT Jr, Tenbrink VL, 1991. Efficacy of hydrogen cyanide fumigation as a treatment for pests of Hawaiian cut flowers and foliage after harvest. Journal of Economic Entomology, 84(2):532-536

Hansen JD, Hara AH, Tenbrink VL, 1992. Insecticidal dips for disinfesting commercial tropical cut flowers and foliage. Tropical Pest Management, 38(3):245-249

Hansen JD, Hara AH, Tenbrink VL, 1992. Vapor heat: a potential treatment to disinfest tropical cut flowers and foliage. HortScience, 27(2):139-143

Hodgson CJ, Lagowska B, 2011. New scale insect (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) records from Fiji: three new species, records of several new invasive species and an updated checklist of Coccoidea. Zootaxa, 2766:29. http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/

Josephrajkumar A, Rajan P, Chandrika Mohan, Thomas RJ, 2012. New distributional record of buff coconut mealybug (Nipaecoccus nipae) in Kerala, India. Phytoparasitica, 40(5):533-535. http://www.springerlink.com/content/d4p41486h4920373/

McKenzie HL, 1967. Mealybugs of California, with taxonomy, biology, and control of North American species (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae). viii+526 pp.

Rai BK, 1977. Damage to coconut palms by Azteca sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and insecticidal control with bait, in Guyana. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 67(1):175-183

Schotman CYL, 1989. Plant pests of quarantine importance to the Caribbean. RLAC-PROVEG, No. 21:80 pp.

Tokihiro G, 2006. List of mealybugs (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) intercepted at Japanese plant quarantine mainly from areas without a record of distribution. Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service, Japan, No.42:59-61. http://www.pps.go.jp/

Villatoro-Moreno, H., Cisneros, J., Gómez, J., Infante, F., Castillo, A., 2016. Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) associated with rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) in Chiapas, Mexico., Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 89(4):289-296 http://www.bioone.org/loi/kent

Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp.

Williams DJ, 1985. Australian mealybugs. London, UK; British Museum (Natural History), 431 pp.

Williams DJ, 2004. Mealybugs of Southern Asia. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Southdene SDN, 442-445.

Williams DJ, Granara de Willink MC, 1992. Mealybugs of Central and South America. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Distribution References

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. In: Technical Document No. 135, Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Arriola Padilla V J, Estrada Martínez E, Romero Nápoles J, González Hernández H, Pérez Miranda R, 2016. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) on ornamental plants in greenhouses from the central zone of the Morelos state, Mexico. (Insectos escama (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) en plantas ornamentales en viveros de la zona centro del estado de Morelos, México.). Interciencia. 41 (8), 552-560. http://www.interciencia.org/v41_08/indexe.html

Ben-Dov Y, 1994. A systematic catalogue of the mealybugs of the world (Insecta: Homoptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae and Putoidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. In: A systematic catalogue of the mealybugs of the world (Insecta: Homoptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae and Putoidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. Andover, UK: Intercept Limited. 686 pp.

Caasi-Lit M T, Lit I L Jr, Larona A R, 2012. Expansion of local geographic and host ranges of Nipaecoccus nipae (Maskell) (Pseudococcidae, Hemiptera) in the Philippines with new records of predators and attending ants. Philippine Journal of Crop Science. 37 (1), 47-56.

CABI, EPPO, 2005. Nipaecoccus nipae. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 220.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Josephrajkumar A, Rajan P, Chandrika Mohan, Thomas R J, 2012. New distributional record of buff coconut mealybug (Nipaecoccus nipae) in Kerala, India. Phytoparasitica. 40 (5), 533-535. http://www.springerlink.com/content/d4p41486h4920373/

Tokihiro G, 2006. List of mealybugs (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) intercepted at Japanese plant quarantine mainly from areas without a record of distribution. Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service, Japan. 59-61. http://www.pps.go.jp/

UK, CAB International, 1966. Nipaecoccus nipae. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 220.

Villatoro-Moreno H, Cisneros J, Gómez J, Infante F, Castillo A, 2016. Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) associated with rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) in Chiapas, Mexico. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society. 89 (4), 289-296. http://www.bioone.org/loi/kent DOI:10.2317/0022-8567-89.4.289

Waterhouse D F, 1993. The major arthropod pests and weeds of agriculture in Southeast Asia. Canberra, Australia: ACIAR. v + 141 pp.

Distribution Maps

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